Warm Up 1. Complete the “K” section of the KWL chart about what you already know about cells. Think about what you’ve heard on the news and in other classes. You may write down what you know in bulleted notes. 2. In the next blank page of your notebooks, write at the top KWL chart. You will be asked to cut and paste this chart into your notebook tomorrow. K W L What you already know What you want to learn What you have learned Agenda • Warm-up • Objective: Students will be able to identify the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Notes on introduction to cells • Read Article • Complete Chart • Draw a Prokaryotic Cell • Exit Ticket • Complete “W” section and turn in KWL chart Directions • You do not need to write down what is on each slide word for word • I have underlined and put in bold the information that I expect you to write in your notebooks • I encourage you to find ways to shorten words or abbreviate. Examples: – “Something” s.t. – “The cell is the most basic unit of life” cell = basic unit of life I. Cell theory a. A theory is a well tested hypothesis that can explain a broad range of observations b. The cell theory applies to all living things c. The cell theory has three main Principles Principle # 1 All organisms are made of one or more cells. – Some organisms are made up of just one cell – Others are multicellular or made up of many cells Principle # 2 The cell is the most basic unit of life. Principle # 3 All cells are produced by preexisting cells. II. All Cells A. Tend to be microscopic B. Have a few key STRUCTUREs: i. are enclosed by a membrane. ii. are filled with cytoplasm. iii. Contain genetic material cell membrane cytoplasm Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) III. Two types of Cells Both types of cells contain the root word “karyose” which refers to the nucleus a. Prokaryotes – “Pro” means before – “Pro” + “karyose” = before a nucleus b. Eukaryotes – “eu” means true – “Eu” + “karyose” = having a true nucleus Read the article • Answer the questions in your notebook as you read. Copy the following chart Prokaryotes Similarities Eukaryotes IV. Prokaryotic Cells A. Are the most basic cells B. Unicellular = made of one cell C. Contain simple STRUCTUREs – Cell membrane – cytoplasm – genetic material (DNA) just floats around in the cell – Organelles, like ribosomes, that do not have membranes D. Example: Bacteria V. Eukaryotic Cells A. Contain the same simple STRUCTUREs of Prokaryotes B. Contain a nucleus which holds the genetic material C. Have multiple organelles with membranes D. Can be Unicellular or Multicellular E. Example: Plant or Animal cells Draw a Prokaryotic Cell Label each of the parts below When you’re done…. • Start to fill in the “W” section of your KWL chart. • You should write questions about things you want to learn in complete sentences. Exit Ticket Directions: Take out a half sheet of paper and write your name, date and period at the top. 1. What does the word “prokaryote” mean? 2. What are the two main things that prokaryotes do NOT have? 3. What are the three principles of the cell theory? Warm up Write the questions and answers in your notebooks! 1. Which type of cell contains a nucleus and organelles? 2. What do ALL cells have in common? (Name 3 things) 3. Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells? 4. Do we need cells to be alive? Agenda • Warm up & Collect Reading Guides • Objective: SWBAT create a foldable that contains the structures and functions of each organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell. • Foldable • Draw prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and label all their parts • Exit Ticket Foldable What are organelles? Organelles are specialized STRUCTURES that perform important jobs within eukaryotic cells Our body contains organs. Each organ has a specific role to play, which impacts the body as a whole. An organelle is like an organ for the cell. For each organelle (cell organ) I will give you its STRUCTURE and its FUNCTION. – The STRUCTURE is a short description of what the organelle looks like, where it is found, and how we can recognize it. – The FUNCTION is what the organelle does…it’s purpose. Cytoplasm A. STRUCTURE: jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and/or organelles B. FUNCTION: It supports the cell… kind of like bubble wrap or packing peanuts protect a package. Cytoplasm I. Nucleus a. STRUCTURE: large organelle in the center of the cell that stores most of the genetic information. - The “brain” or control center of the cell. b. FUNCTION: -Stores genetic material (DNA) that code for proteins - Controls most cell processes -Involved in DNA replication during cellular division Nucleus II. Cellular membrane A. STRUCTURE: thin, flexible layer of lipid that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment. B. FUNCTION: 1. Controls what goes in and out of the cell 2. Provides protection Cellular membrane III. Ribosome A. STRUCTURE: small organelles made of RNA and proteins that are found on endoplasmic reticulum or in the cytoplasm. B. Function: Makes proteins by linking together amino acids. Ribosome IV. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): A. Structure: interconnected system of folded membrane attached to the nucleus. Can be rough or smooth. B. Function: - site of ribosomes (only rough ER) - site of production of proteins and lipids Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): V. Golgi Apparatus: A. Structure: Closely layered stacks of folded membrane NOT attached to the nucleus B. Function: process, sort and deliver proteins to other organelles or outside of the cell. - Sometimes modify and package proteins Golgi Apparatus VI. Mitochondria: A. Structure: bean-shaped organelle with cristae (folds) on the inside and a double membrane. B. Function: supply energy to the cell in the form of ATP by breaking down sugars. Mitochondria: VII. Lysosomes A. Structure: small membrane-bound organelles that are filled with enzymes. B. Function: Break down… i. Molecules for the cell to use ii. Damaged or worn-out cell parts iii. Invading bacteria or viruses Lysosomes VIII. Vacuoles A. Structure: fluid-filled sac that is large in plant cells and small in animal cells B. Function: Used to store materials like water, food and enzymes as well as provide support for plant structures. Vacuoles IX. Cell Wall A. Structure: A rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells. B. Function: To provide support, protection, and shape for the cell i. The cell walls can attach to one another to support the organism ii. Cell walls are made of different materials depending on the organism i. Example: Cellulose Cell Wall X. Chloroplast A. STRUCTURE: have a double membrane and stacks of disc-like shapes containing chlorophyll. B. FUNCTION: Use energy from sunlight to make food for the cell through the process of photosynthesis. i. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color ii. Like mitochondria because it provides energy Chloroplast Exit Ticket 1. Which organelle makes proteins and is located in the cytoplasm or on the surface of the ER? a. nucleus b. golgi apparatus c. ribosome 2. Which STRUCTURE packages and transports proteins to other organelles or outside of the cell? a. Golgi apparatus b. lysosome c. endoplasmic reticulum 3. Which STRUCTURE in the picture 4. What is the function of to the right stores the genetic lysosomes in the cell? Answer in information? complete sentences. Warm-up • What is an example of a monosaccharide carbohydrate? • Which structure in a cell breaks down the carbohydrate from number 1 into a form of energy the cell can use? • Name three organelles whose function deal with proteins (Ex. Transports proteins) Agenda • Warm-up & Collect Reading Guide 3.2 • Objective: SWBAT compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells AND determine whether viruses are living using evidence. • White Board Practice • Compare and Contrast Plant and Animal Cells • Viruses – Video clip White Board Directions • Use the color marker that you receive • Only write answers to the questions on the white boards – If I see you writing notes or doodling, I will take the white board away and you will have to turn in the answers on a sheet of paper. • Please close the marker caps when you are not using them Can you identify the organelles? I’m a real “powerhouse” That’s plain to see I break down food To release energy What am I? ______________________ I’m strong and rigid Getting through me is tough I’m found only in plants But I guess that’s enough What am I? ______________________ I’m the brain of the cell Or so they say I regulate cell activities From day to day What am I? ____________________ Found only in plant cells, I’m green as can be I make food for the plant Using the sun’s energy What am I? ______________________ I’m a series of tubes Found throughout the cell I transport proteins And other things as well What am I? ___________________ I’m full of holes Flexible and thin I control what gets out And what comes in What am I? _________________ Proteins are made here Even though I’m quite small You can find me in the cytoplasm Or attached to E.R.’s wall What am I? ______________________ I’ve been called a “storage tank” By those with little taste I’m a sac filled with water Food, enzymes, or waste What am I? ______________________ Since I contain many enzymes, I can digest an injured cell; And can break down a large molecule Into a smaller one as well What am I? ______________________ I’m a maze of membranes Proteins are packaged and transported here Then they are exported To organelles and cells that are near What am I? ______________________ Eukaryotic Cells • Review: – Contain a nucleus – Have a cell membrane – Contain membrane-bound organelles • Plant and Animal Cells are both types of Eukaryotic Cells Copy the following chart in your notebook Plant cells Similarities Animal cells Similarities • Both plant and animal cells have: – Cell membrane – Cytoplasm – Nucleus – Membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane ANIMAL PLANT Differences • Plant Cells – Have cell walls that give them a rigid structure • Cell wall surrounds the cell membrane • This is one reason why plants cannot move freely – Typically rectangular in shape – Contain chloroplasts and large vacuoles • Chloroplasts: use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make energy in the form of glucose • Large Vacuoles: to store water and other nutrients and support parts of the plant Cell wall Chloroplast Large vacuole PLANT CELL Differences • Animal Cells – Do NOT have a cell wall because they need to be able to move around freely – Do NOT have a chloroplast because they do no go through photosynthesis – Contain small vacuoles • They do not need the additional support from a large water supply ANIMAL CELL Fill in the chart Organelles Vacuole Plant Animal Yes No Yes Yes Cell Wall Cell Membrane Shape Label Cells Worksheet • Structure Viruses – Made up of genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA – Contain a protein coat called a capsid Where do viruses fit in? • First, we have to figure out whether or not viruses are even alive • 7 Characteristics of all living things: – Made up of one or more cells – Able to grow – Able to respond or adapt to the environment – Able to evolve as a species – Able to reproduce – Able to maintain homeostasis – Able to obtain and use energy Viruses • What can viruses do that all living things must be able to do? • What can they NOT do? Viruses • Viruses need a host cell in order to make more viruses. Life Cycle of a Virus • Infection: virus attaches to cell and injects DNA or RNA • Replication: DNA of viruses is copied by the cell • Assembly: newly made viruses are put together • Lysis: when a cell ruptures, or breaks apart, causing cell death Video • http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2009/10/23/11 4075029/flu-attack-how-a-virus-invades-yourbody • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm? guidAssetId=8819B0AE-8366-4E0F-938F1B9FC9D57EA7&blnFromSearch=1&productco de=US Review • Virus enters the body through one of our passageways • Proteins on virus must match up with proteins on surface of a cell in order to trick the cell into allowing it inside • Genetic information of virus is encoded into cell’s genetic material • Host cell makes a copy of the virus during protein synthesis • Newly made viruses burst through the cell membrane, causing cell death Virus Cycle Draw a Prokaryotic Cell Label each of the parts below Exit Ticket Directions: Take out a half sheet of paper and write your name, date and period at the top. 1. What are 3 differences between plant and animal cells? 2. What happens after viruses are assembled in a cell ? 3. Do you think that viruses are living or nonliving? Explain your answer with evidence and complete sentences. Warm-Up 1. What is one characteristic of living things that a virus CANNOT do? 2. Write down two questions that you have about the material before taking the quiz. These questions could be to explain the function of an organelle or what you need to know about plant cells. Agenda • • • • White Board Practice Quiz Start Reading Guide Planet Earth – Pay attention so that you can learn some of the ecology concepts that you will need for the CST White Board Directions • Use the color marker that you receive • Only write answers to the questions on the board – If I see you writing notes or doodling, I will take the white board away and you will have to turn in the answers on a sheet of paper. • Please close the marker caps when you are not using them Plant and animals cells are examples of type of cell? Name the organelle: I package and ship proteins to organelles and other cells. Name one reason why viruses are NOT considered alive? What is the organelle labeled C? What is the organelle labeled A? What is the organelle labeled I ? What is the organelle labeled F ? Based on its shape, what type of cell is this? ___________ are specialized structures in cells that have important jobs. Where are proteins made in a cell? Which organelle serves as the cleaning crew for the cell? What does the mitochondrion do? What are three things that ONLY plant cells have? The cell membrane is mostly made up of which biomolecule? a. b. c. d. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Which organelle is small in animal cells and large in plant cells? Bacteria is an example of what type of cell? What does a eukaryotic cell have that prokaryotic cells and viruses do NOT? What is the gooey substance that all the organelles float in? Planet Earth questions • Every part of planet Earth is touched by the ____________. • In which month does the sun hit the Arctic? _____________. • The mother Polar Bear goes ________ months without food? __________ • Caribou herds can travel up to __________ miles during their journey. • What produces so much Oxygen that it changes the atmosphere? High elevation ____________ • The world’s rarest cat is the _________ Leopard, found in Russia. • The rainforest covers only ___% of the Earth but contains more than ____ of its plants and animals. Warm-up 1. Why do animal cells not have a chloroplast? Answer in complete sentences. 2. Why do you think plant cells have a square-like shape? Comparing Cells Lab • Agenda – Go over parts of a microscope – Fill in Microscope handout – Model how to make a wet mount slide and lab directions – Complete Lab and Lab handout – Discuss results Making a Wet Mount Slide 1. Get a clean __________ and ______________ from your teacher. 2. Be careful with ____________________ because it can stain your clothing or irritate your skin. 3. Place _____ drops of water in the middle of the slide. If there is too much water, the coverslip will not hold the cells in place. 4. Place one _______ of the coverslip just outside the water on the slide. 5. Slowly _____________ the coverslip on top of the water. Making a Wet Mount Slide 6. Pick up the slide with ________ _________. Place the slide on the ___________ and view it first with the ________ objective. Once you see a general image of the cells, you can rotate the _______________ to view the slide with different objectives. 7. When you’re done viewing one slide, carefully take it off the _________ with ________ __________. 8. After viewing all of the slides, clean off both the ________________ and _________ with water and ________ them down with paper towels.