Warm Up - BiologyMrsLA

Warm Up
1. Complete the “K” section of the KWL chart
about what you already know about cells. Think
about what you’ve heard on the news and in
other classes. You may write down what you
know in bulleted notes.
2. In the next blank page of your notebooks, write
at the top KWL chart. You will be asked to cut
and paste this chart into your notebook
What you already know
What you want to learn
What you have learned
• Warm-up
• Objective: Students will be able to identify the
differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
• Notes on introduction to cells
• Read Article
• Complete Chart
• Draw a Prokaryotic Cell
• Exit Ticket
• Complete “W” section and turn in KWL chart
• You do not need to write down what is on each
slide word for word
• I have underlined and put in bold the information
that I expect you to write in your notebooks
• I encourage you to find ways to shorten words or
abbreviate. Examples:
– “Something”
– “The cell is the most basic unit of life”
cell = basic unit of life
I. Cell theory
a. A theory is a well tested hypothesis that can
explain a broad range of observations
b. The cell theory applies to all living things
c. The cell theory has three main Principles
Principle # 1
All organisms are made of one or more
– Some organisms are made up of just one cell
– Others are multicellular or made up of many
Principle # 2
The cell is the most basic unit of life.
Principle # 3
All cells are produced by preexisting
II. All Cells
A. Tend to be microscopic
B. Have a few key STRUCTUREs:
i. are enclosed
by a membrane.
ii. are filled with
iii. Contain genetic
cell membrane
(colored SEM; magnification 8800x)
III. Two types of Cells
Both types of cells contain the root word “karyose” which
refers to the nucleus
a. Prokaryotes
– “Pro” means before
– “Pro” + “karyose” = before a nucleus
b. Eukaryotes
– “eu” means true
– “Eu” + “karyose” = having a true nucleus
Read the article
• Answer the questions in your notebook as
you read.
Copy the following chart
IV. Prokaryotic Cells
A. Are the most basic cells
B. Unicellular = made of one cell
C. Contain simple STRUCTUREs
– Cell membrane
– cytoplasm
– genetic material (DNA) just floats around
in the cell
– Organelles, like ribosomes, that do not
have membranes
D. Example: Bacteria
V. Eukaryotic Cells
A. Contain the same simple STRUCTUREs
of Prokaryotes
B. Contain a nucleus which holds the
genetic material
C. Have multiple organelles with
D. Can be Unicellular or Multicellular
E. Example: Plant or Animal cells
Draw a Prokaryotic Cell
Label each of the parts below
When you’re done….
• Start to fill in the
“W” section of
your KWL chart.
• You should write
questions about
things you want to
learn in complete
Exit Ticket
Directions: Take out a half sheet of paper and write your
name, date and period at the top.
1. What does the word “prokaryote” mean?
2. What are the two main things that
prokaryotes do NOT have?
3. What are the three principles of the cell
Warm up
Write the questions and answers in your notebooks!
1. Which type of cell contains a nucleus and
2. What do ALL cells have in common?
(Name 3 things)
3. Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic
4. Do we need cells to be alive?
• Warm up & Collect Reading Guides
• Objective: SWBAT create a foldable that
contains the structures and functions of
each organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell.
• Foldable
• Draw prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and
label all their parts
• Exit Ticket
What are organelles?
Organelles are specialized STRUCTURES
that perform important jobs within
eukaryotic cells
Our body contains organs. Each organ has a
specific role to play, which impacts the body as
a whole. An organelle is like an organ for the
For each organelle (cell organ) I will give you
– The STRUCTURE is a short description of what the
organelle looks like, where it is found, and how we
can recognize it.
– The FUNCTION is what the organelle does…it’s
A. STRUCTURE: jellylike substance inside
cells that contains molecules and/or
B. FUNCTION: It supports the cell… kind of like
bubble wrap or packing peanuts protect a
I. Nucleus
a. STRUCTURE: large organelle in the center of
the cell that stores most of the genetic
- The “brain” or control center of the cell.
-Stores genetic material (DNA) that code for proteins
- Controls most cell processes
-Involved in DNA replication during cellular division
II. Cellular membrane
A. STRUCTURE: thin, flexible layer of lipid
that forms a boundary between a cell
and the surrounding environment.
1. Controls what goes in and out of the cell
2. Provides protection
Cellular membrane
III. Ribosome
A. STRUCTURE: small organelles made of
RNA and proteins that are found on
endoplasmic reticulum or in the
B. Function: Makes proteins by linking
together amino acids.
IV. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
A. Structure: interconnected system of
folded membrane attached to the
nucleus. Can be rough or smooth.
B. Function:
- site of ribosomes (only rough ER)
- site of production of proteins and
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
V. Golgi Apparatus:
A. Structure: Closely layered stacks of
folded membrane NOT attached to the
B. Function: process, sort and deliver
proteins to other organelles or
outside of the cell.
- Sometimes modify and package proteins
Golgi Apparatus
VI. Mitochondria:
A. Structure: bean-shaped organelle with
cristae (folds) on the inside and a
double membrane.
B. Function: supply energy to the cell in
the form of ATP by breaking down
VII. Lysosomes
A. Structure: small membrane-bound
organelles that are filled with
B. Function: Break down…
i. Molecules for the cell to use
ii. Damaged or worn-out cell parts
iii. Invading bacteria or viruses
VIII. Vacuoles
A. Structure: fluid-filled sac that is large
in plant cells and small in animal cells
B. Function: Used to store materials like
water, food and enzymes as well as
provide support for plant structures.
IX. Cell Wall
A. Structure: A rigid layer that surrounds
the cell membrane in plant cells.
B. Function: To provide support,
protection, and shape for the cell
The cell walls can attach to one another to
support the organism
ii. Cell walls are made of different materials
depending on the organism
Example: Cellulose
Cell Wall
X. Chloroplast
A. STRUCTURE: have a double membrane
and stacks of disc-like shapes containing
B. FUNCTION: Use energy from sunlight to
make food for the cell through the process
of photosynthesis.
i. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color
ii. Like mitochondria because it provides
Exit Ticket
Which organelle makes proteins
and is located in the cytoplasm or
on the surface of the ER?
a. nucleus
b. golgi apparatus
c. ribosome
2. Which STRUCTURE packages and
transports proteins to other
organelles or outside of the cell?
a. Golgi apparatus
b. lysosome
c. endoplasmic reticulum
3. Which STRUCTURE in the picture
4. What is the function of
to the right stores the genetic
lysosomes in the cell? Answer in
complete sentences.
• What is an example of a monosaccharide
• Which structure in a cell breaks down the
carbohydrate from number 1 into a form of
energy the cell can use?
• Name three organelles whose function
deal with proteins (Ex. Transports
• Warm-up & Collect Reading Guide 3.2
• Objective: SWBAT compare and contrast
plant cells and animal cells AND determine
whether viruses are living using evidence.
• White Board Practice
• Compare and Contrast Plant and Animal Cells
• Viruses – Video clip
White Board Directions
• Use the color marker that you receive
• Only write answers to the questions on the white
– If I see you writing notes or doodling, I will take the
white board away and you will have to turn in the
answers on a sheet of paper.
• Please close the marker caps when you are not
using them
Can you identify the organelles?
I’m a real “powerhouse”
That’s plain to see
I break down food
To release energy
What am I? ______________________
I’m strong and rigid
Getting through me is tough
I’m found only in plants
But I guess that’s enough
What am I? ______________________
I’m the brain of the cell
Or so they say
I regulate cell activities
From day to day
What am I? ____________________
Found only in plant cells,
I’m green as can be
I make food for the plant
Using the sun’s energy
What am I? ______________________
I’m a series of tubes
Found throughout the cell
I transport proteins
And other things as well
What am I? ___________________
I’m full of holes
Flexible and thin
I control what gets out
And what comes in
What am I? _________________
Proteins are made here
Even though I’m quite small
You can find me in the cytoplasm
Or attached to E.R.’s wall
What am I? ______________________
I’ve been called a “storage tank”
By those with little taste
I’m a sac filled with water
Food, enzymes, or waste
What am I? ______________________
Since I contain many enzymes,
I can digest an injured cell;
And can break down a large molecule
Into a smaller one as well
What am I? ______________________
I’m a maze of membranes
Proteins are packaged and transported here
Then they are exported
To organelles and cells that are near
What am I? ______________________
Eukaryotic Cells
• Review:
– Contain a nucleus
– Have a cell membrane
– Contain membrane-bound organelles
• Plant and Animal Cells are both types
of Eukaryotic Cells
Copy the following chart in your notebook
Plant cells
Animal cells
• Both plant and animal cells have:
– Cell membrane
– Cytoplasm
– Nucleus
– Membrane-bound organelles like
mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes
• Plant Cells
– Have cell walls that give them a rigid
• Cell wall surrounds the cell membrane
• This is one reason why plants cannot move freely
– Typically rectangular in shape
– Contain chloroplasts and large vacuoles
• Chloroplasts: use sunlight, carbon dioxide and
water to make energy in the form of glucose
• Large Vacuoles: to store water and other nutrients
and support parts of the plant
Cell wall
Large vacuole
• Animal Cells
– Do NOT have a cell wall because they need
to be able to move around freely
– Do NOT have a chloroplast because they do
no go through photosynthesis
– Contain small vacuoles
• They do not need the additional support from a
large water supply
Fill in the chart
Cell Wall
Cell Membrane
Label Cells Worksheet
• Structure
– Made up of genetic information in the form
of DNA or RNA
– Contain a protein coat called a capsid
Where do viruses fit in?
• First, we have to figure out whether or not viruses
are even alive
• 7 Characteristics of all living things:
– Made up of one or
more cells
– Able to grow
– Able to respond or
adapt to the
– Able to evolve as a
– Able to reproduce
– Able to maintain
– Able to obtain and use
What can viruses do that all living things
must be able to do?
What can they NOT do?
• Viruses need a host cell
in order to make more
Life Cycle of a Virus
• Infection: virus attaches to cell and
injects DNA or RNA
• Replication: DNA of viruses is
copied by the cell
• Assembly: newly made viruses are
put together
• Lysis: when a cell ruptures, or breaks
apart, causing cell death
• http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2009/10/23/11
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?
• Virus enters the body through one of our passageways
• Proteins on virus must match up with proteins on surface
of a cell in order to trick the cell into allowing it inside
• Genetic information of virus is encoded into cell’s genetic
• Host cell makes a copy of the virus during protein
• Newly made viruses burst through the cell membrane,
causing cell death
Virus Cycle
Draw a Prokaryotic Cell
Label each of the parts below
Exit Ticket
Directions: Take out a half sheet of paper and write your name, date
and period at the top.
1. What are 3 differences between plant and
animal cells?
2. What happens after viruses are
assembled in a cell ?
3. Do you think that viruses are living or
nonliving? Explain your answer with
evidence and complete sentences.
1. What is one characteristic of living things
that a virus CANNOT do?
2. Write down two questions that you have
about the material before taking the quiz.
These questions could be to explain the
function of an organelle or what you need
to know about plant cells.
White Board Practice
Start Reading Guide
Planet Earth
– Pay attention so that you can learn some of
the ecology concepts that you will need for
the CST
White Board Directions
• Use the color marker that you receive
• Only write answers to the questions on the
– If I see you writing notes or doodling, I will take the
white board away and you will have to turn in the
answers on a sheet of paper.
• Please close the marker caps when you are not
using them
Plant and animals cells are
examples of type of cell?
Name the organelle: I
package and ship proteins to
organelles and other cells.
Name one reason why viruses
are NOT considered alive?
What is the
labeled C?
What is the
labeled A?
What is the
labeled I ?
What is the
labeled F ?
Based on its
shape, what
type of cell is
___________ are specialized
structures in cells that have
important jobs.
Where are proteins made in a
Which organelle serves as the
cleaning crew for the cell?
What does the mitochondrion
What are three things that
ONLY plant cells have?
The cell membrane is mostly
made up of which
Nucleic Acids
Which organelle is small in
animal cells and large in plant
Bacteria is an example of
what type of cell?
What does a eukaryotic cell
have that prokaryotic cells and
viruses do NOT?
What is the gooey substance
that all the organelles float in?
Planet Earth questions
• Every part of planet Earth is touched by the ____________.
• In which month does the sun hit the Arctic? _____________.
• The mother Polar Bear goes ________ months without food?
• Caribou herds can travel up to __________ miles during their
• What produces so much Oxygen that it changes the atmosphere?
High elevation ____________
• The world’s rarest cat is the _________ Leopard, found in Russia.
• The rainforest covers only ___% of the Earth but contains more than
____ of its plants and animals.
1. Why do animal cells not have a
chloroplast? Answer in complete
2. Why do you think plant cells have a
square-like shape?
Comparing Cells Lab
• Agenda
– Go over parts of a microscope
– Fill in Microscope handout
– Model how to make a wet mount slide and lab
– Complete Lab and Lab handout
– Discuss results
Making a Wet Mount Slide
1. Get a clean __________ and ______________ from
your teacher.
2. Be careful with ____________________ because it
can stain your clothing or irritate your skin.
3. Place _____ drops of water in the middle of the slide. If
there is too much water, the coverslip will not hold the
cells in place.
4. Place one _______ of the coverslip just outside the
water on the slide.
5. Slowly _____________ the coverslip on top of the
Making a Wet Mount Slide
6. Pick up the slide with ________ _________. Place the
slide on the ___________ and view it first with the
________ objective. Once you see a general image of
the cells, you can rotate the _______________ to view
the slide with different objectives.
7. When you’re done viewing one slide, carefully take it off
the _________ with ________ __________.
8. After viewing all of the slides, clean off both the
________________ and _________ with water and
________ them down with paper towels.

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