Human Body Systems

Report
Human Body Systems
Can you….
• name all of the body systems?
• tell what each system does?
Body System Rap
I can …
• identify the subsystems that make up the
human body.
• identify the parts and label the functions of
the human body’s 8 systems.
• explain how systems of the human body are
interrelated and regulate the body’s internal
environment.
How is the body organized?
Lesson 1
Cells Working Together
• Body is made up of cells
– 75 trillion cells
– Different body parts are made up of different cells
• Cells depend on each other to keep the body
running smoothly
– Body processes can only happen within a particular
temperature range (98.6) so the cells work together to
make sure the body stays in that range.
Levels of Organization
• Each type of cell performs certain activities or
functions
• Cells are organized by the activities they do
– Cells that contract = muscle tissue
– Cells that carry messages = nerve tissue
• Two or more tissues working together = organ
• Each organ in the body is part of an organ
system
Wrapping it up
Create a flow chart that shows how the body is
organized.
• Include cells, tissues, organs, and organ
systems.
• Explain / define each component.
What systems help move body
parts?
Lesson 2
I can …
• identify the subsystems that make up the
human body.
• identify the parts and label the functions of
the human body’s 8 systems.
• explain how systems of the human body are
interrelated and regulate the body’s internal
environment.
Skeletal System
Skeletal System
• Bones are made of living tissue
and nonliving minerals
• Bones have several functions:
– Support body
– Give you height
– Protect organs
– Form new blood cells
– Store minerals
Skeletal System
• Adult body has 206 bones
– 22 in skull
– 33 in spine
– 27 in hand
– 26 in foot
• Babies bones are made of cartilage
which are then replaced by hard bone
Wrapping it up
Why do bones have several parts that vary in
density?
Muscular System
Muscular System
• More than 600 muscles in your body
• Make up 40-50% of your body weight
• Muscles and the tissues that attach them to
bones = muscular system
Muscular System
• Three types:
– Cardiac muscle (heart) – able to contract
repeatedly without getting tired
– Smooth muscle (digestive system and blood
vessels) – involuntary; control movements inside
your body
– Skeletal muscle (biceps, quads) – voluntary
muscles that move your limbs
Keeping Muscles and Bones Healthy
• Muscles can get injured
• Ways to stay healthy:
– Eat healthy foods
– Plenty of sleep
– Exercise (warm up first and stretch after)
Wrapping it up
Why is it important to have voluntary and
involuntary muscles?
How do systems control the
body?
Lesson 3
I can …
• identify the subsystems that make up the
human body.
• identify the parts and label the functions of
the human body’s 8 systems.
• explain how systems of the human body are
interrelated and regulate the body’s internal
environment.
Nervous System
Nervous System
• Parts:
–
–
–
–
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Sense organs
• Continually collects information from inside and
outside your body
• Functions:
– Helps you speak, think, taste, hear, see
Nervous System
• How it works:
– Nerve cells (neurons) pass
messages throughout the
body along the spinal cord
– Dendrites get messages
from other neurons and
give them to the cell body
– Axon moves messages
away from that neuron to
other nerve cells
– Brain gets message and
tells body how to react
Nervous System
• Motor nerves: carry
signals from the brain
to the body
• Sensory nerves: carry
information from the
body to the brain
Reflexes
• A response that
happens automatically
without the brain
“thinking” about it
• Protect the body from
dangerous situations
Reflexes
• Ways to protect your
nervous system:
– Avoid alcohol
– Avoid drugs
– Wear protective gear
when playing sports
– Wear seat belts in the
car
– Never dive into a shallow
pool
Wrapping it up
Tell how a reflex action differs from other
actions directed by the brain. Explain why this
process is important in protecting the body.
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
• Helps balance what goes on in the body
• Controls body growth and blood sugar levels
• Made up of glands:
– Gland – organ that makes chemicals
• Glands release chemicals (hormones) into the
blood to help control the body’s functions
Wrapping it up
One of the endocrine glands often is called the
“master gland.” Which gland do you think that
is”? Why?
How do systems transport
materials?
Lesson 4
I can …
• identify the subsystems that make up the
human body.
• identify the parts and label the functions of
the human body’s 8 systems.
• explain how systems of the human body are
interrelated and regulate the body’s internal
environment.
Digestive System
Digestive System
• Takes the food that you eat and changes it into a form cells can use
• Parts:
–
–
–
–
–
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
• Helper Parts:
- Liver
- Gallbladder
- Pancreas
• Types:
– Mechanical digestion – tearing, crushing, and mashing food (ex. Biting
and chewing food)
– Chemical digestion – chemicals (enzymes) break food down into
nutrients to give us energy
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
• Parts:
– Heart
– Blood
– blood vessels
• Main job: move
nutrients and other
materials throughout
your body through
blood vessels to your
cells
Circulatory System
• Heart is the size of your
fist
• Beats 70 times every
minute
Circulatory System
• How it works:
– Blood moves away from
the heart through
arteries (thick muscular
tubes) and back to the
heart through veins
(large blood vessels)
– Capillaries are the
smallest blood vessel in
your body – allow
material to pass through
their walls to other cells
Circulatory System
• Plasma – part of blood
that is liquid
– Mostly made of water, but
has nutrients and waste
products
– Contains red blood cells,
white blood cells, and
platelets
• Red blood cells – carry
oxygen
• White blood cells- attack
germs
• Platelets – pieces of cells
formed in bone marrow
that help blood clot to stop
bleeding
Wrapping it up
Why does blood leave the heart in arteries and
return in veins? Why not in the same structure?
Respiratory System
Respiratory System
• Parts:
– Lungs
– Nose
– Trachea
– Bronchial tubes
• Job: take oxygen from the air and get rid of
CO2 from your body
Respiratory System
• How it works:
– Cells use oxygen to release energy from nutrients
= produces carbon dioxide
– CO2 is a waste that must be removed from your
cells
– Blood carries oxygen to your cells and takes away
the CO2
Wrapping it up
Why is it harder to breathe when you have a
cold? Explain.
How do systems keep the body
healthy?
Lesson 5
I can …
• identify the subsystems that make up the
human body.
• identify the parts and label the functions of
the human body’s 8 systems.
• explain how systems of the human body are
interrelated and regulate the body’s internal
environment.
Immune System
• Pathogens – organisms that make you sick
– Found everywhere
Immune System
• How to fight pathogens:
– Prevent them from coming into the body
• Skin
• Tears
• Mucus in nose, mouth, and throat
– Kill them once in your body
• Saliva and stomach juices
• Extra blood flows to the pathogen so white blood cells can
fight it
• Antibodies – chemicals that kill certain pathogens if they
come into your body again
– Body reflexes
• Sneezing
• Coughing
Wrapping it up
How would life be different if we didn’t have an
immune system? Explain.
Systems Working Together
• Body systems are involved in everything we do
and ALWAYS work together
• Important to take care of your body
– Start at young age
– Most adult health problems start when younger
Mr. Immunity
Wrapping it up
Why is it important to develop a healthy lifestyle
at a young age?
Body System Rap

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