Goals of Step Up! It is very important that we all feel free to have an open, honest, and non-judgmental discussion about the material presented. • • • • Raise awareness of helping behaviors Increase motivation to help Develop skills and confidence when responding to problems or concerns Ensure the safety and well-being of yourself and others What are the 3 BIGGEST issues you see? • • • • • Hazing Discrimination Anger Issues Sexual Assault Academic Misconduct • • • • • Alcohol Depression Disordered Eating Gambling Relationship Violence The five decision making steps • • • • • Notice the Event Interpret it as a problem Assume Personal Responsibility Know How to Help Step-Up! What Variables Affect Helping • Individual - A person’s knowledge, skill set, confidence, sense of social responsibility etc. • Situational - Severity of need; are there other people around? What are the costs of helping? • Victim - Do you know the person? Do you think they deserve help? Will they accept help? Journalist pulling child away from gunfire after earthquake in Haiti. Factors that affect helping • Ambiguity • Is it a problem? Is it not? Err on the side of caution and INVESTIGATE! • Conformity • Informational Influence – Following the lead of someone who appears to have more information than you. • Pluralistic Ignorance – Following the lead of the non-concerned majority. • Normative Influence – Following the group to fit in or be liked. • Groupthink – When members try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, or evaluating ideas. • May cause groups to make hasty irrational decisions where individual doubts are set aside due to a desire to avoid being seen as foolish or to avoid embarrassing or angering other members of the group. • Spiral of Silence – The belief that one’s thoughts are in the minority, making voicing one’s opinion less likely. • Silence contributes to the problem Step 2: INTERPRET IT AS A PROBLEM • Ask yourself… • Does it go against your morals? • Does this problem go against the norm in a negative way? • Is this problem hurting you or the other people? Step 3: Assume Responsibility • Bystander Effect: People are more likely to intervene when they are alone than when they are part of a group • This occurs because of responsibility diffusion • Responsibility assumed and number of people present is an inverse relationship • There are many documented occurrences where bystander effect has resulted in loss of life • Example • Other reasons people don’t act: • Others more qualified or skilled • Afraid of peer judgment • Simply do not feel responsible Strategies • If something seems ambiguous, look into it! See what others think. • Err on the side of caution and investigate. • Be mindful of group pressure and be prepared to react to it. • Break through Pluralistic Ignorance and the Spiral of Silence. Take a stand! • If you are a victim, let others know you need help – Be specific if possible (i.e., “You in the red shirt, please help.”) Step 4: Know How to Help • Often people want to help, but might not know what to do (knowledge) or how to do it (skills). • Help can come in two forms: • Direct: I.e. Intervening on someone’s behalf, getting involved. • Indirect: I.e. Calling an ambulance or the police • NEVER put yourself in harm’s way. Intervene in the safest way possible. • Be prepared – Try to imagine different scenarios and how you would respond. Make a plan or rules with friends before going out. Step 5: Implement Step UP! • Challenges: • Costs involved • Minimizing cost/Maximizing reward • Costs of intervening vs. Costs of not intervening. • Strategies: • Carefully consider the situation before taking action. • BE THE FIRST! • Create shared and agreed upon standards of behavior and expectations within any group or organization. Perspective Taking • What would you want someone to do for you or a loved one in the same situation? • Imagine how the other person thinks and feels • Imagine being in the same situation • Imagine you are the other person • Traits that are highly related to High Perspective Taking: • Patience, reasonableness, and sensitivity. • Traits negatively related to High Perspective Taking: • Aggressiveness , sarcasm. Obedience to Authority: Milgram Experiment • One more challenge to helping is when people do things because a perceived authority figure told them to. • “All evil starts with 15 volts.”- Philip Zimbardo. All Problems start off as minor incidents and gradually escalate – people will keep pushing the limits because it is accepted by the larger group. Action for prevention must be immediate to prevent escalation. • The colligate problem of hazing is a form of Obedience to Authority. The S.E.E. Model • Safe Responding • Never put yourself in harm’s way. Talk to someone, make a phone call (911 if necessary) and/or engage others. • Early Intervention • “All evil starts with 15 volts” – Intervene early before the problem escalates. • Effective Helping • Know what to do and how to do it. Remember the Law of Delivery: Who (person/s), What (content), When (timing), Where (location/privacy), Why (reasons), and How (tone). Emergency Helping • Stay calm • Gather information • Consider your options – direct/indirect helping • Provide support but do not become enmeshed • Know your limits- walk away if the situation is unsafe Non-Emergency Helping • Consider the frequency, duration and severity of the problem • Define the problem and the barriers • Determine the goal; develop a game plan • Set boundaries - don’t enable • Maintain respect • Consider options; know referrals Intervention Styles • • • • Turtle - Doesn’t want to get involved Teddy Bear - Just wants to be liked Shark - Wants to save the day Fox - Gives thought and perspective to intervention • Owl - Most creative, experienced and successful problem solver; highest in social and emotional intelligence Friends Helping Friends • I care • I see • I feel • I want • I will Top 5 Reasons We Intervene • It is the right thing to do • I would want someone to help me in the same situation • Someone needs help • We should look out for one another • So the situation doesn’t escalate Implement Step UP! • • • • • Notice the event Interpret it as a problem Assume personal responsibility Know how you can be helpful Step up! Scenario A group of friends are having a party. Two of your close friends have confided in you that they don’t drink and aren’t huge “partiers” but since they want to make more friends they want to go. You are there, everyone seems to be having a good time and someone suggests a drinking game. People start to gather around a table as the leader begins to explain the rules of the game. Your close friends, who confided in you earlier, initially decline to join but the others begin hassling them. You can see that they are uncomfortable. They look at you. What do you do? Questions • For those who drink, what determines how much, or if, you will drink? Do you drink more when you are really happy or really sad. Do you think it will make a good time better? • Does your peer group have rules about alcohol? What about personal rules? Do you personally make the choice to not drink during certain times? Why or why not? • Do rules or codes of conduct curb behavior? What does? • For those who drink, do you feel anxiety around those who don’t drink and vice versa? • Discuss the pull between choices you sometimes have to make around alcohol? • How can drinking games get out of control (competitive nature)? What are some things you could do to diminish this? Considerations • • • • • • One drink: 12 oz. beer = 4 oz. of table wine = 1 oz. 100% proof liquor Cancels out gains from workout Causes dehydration and slows body’s healing process Prevents muscle recovery Depletes energy Hampers memory, retention and ability to learn new information • Drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages can affect brain and body activities for up to 3 days • 2 consecutive nights of drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages can affect brain and body activities for up to 5 days • Constricts metabolism and endurance • Requires increased conditioning to maintain weight • Inhibits absorption of nutrients Other Considerations • A person drinking alcohol can have side effects for others • • • • Study/sleep time disrupted by other students’ alcohol use Violence from alcohol related physical and sexual assaults Campus environment negatively affected by vandalism Insults/arguments and threats instigated by intoxicated students • BAC is affected by the pace of drinking, quantity consumed, food in stomach, altitude, fatigue, gender, medications, mood and body mass • Binge drinking is particularly unsafe. The normal “buzz” is not felt - it goes straight to extreme symptoms Considerations for Women • Women have different health concerns around the consumption of alcohol than do men. Women should drink less than men (given the same weight) due to a number of factors including: • Different rates of metabolism • Lower levels of the enzyme dehydrogenase (breaks down alcohol in the stomach) • Higher percentage of body fat and less body water • Alcohol absorption rates are affected by changes in estrogen levels related to the menstrual cycle • Health problems related to drinking develop more quickly for women than men, including alcoholism • Women who drink more than one alcoholic beverage per day increase their risk for breast cancer Did You Know? • Alcohol leaves the system at .015%/hour. • If your BAC is .20 at 1 AM it will not return to normal until 3 PM the next afternoon. Think of how that may affect you for a test, practice or a game. • Body treats alcohol as fat! • The normal reaction to alcohol has to phases. • First phase: Occurs while the BAC is low (mild “buzz”). • Second phase: “Point of diminishing returns” (effects become negative; fatigue, physical impairment, etc.). Happens above .06 for non-tolerant drinkers. More is not always better. • Every person’s predisposition to alcoholism/ addiction is different • Student-athletes reported that 85% of the time a negative situation from drinking too much could have been avoided if someone had intervened. Action Steps **UNDER NO CIRCUMSTACES SHOULD YOU LET INDIVIDUALS DRIVE WHILE IMPAIRED** • 1. Plan ahead - Set limits before going out • 2. Encourage friends to stop drinking (or take their drink away, if necessary) before they’ve had too much • 3. Stay with friends to be sure they’re okay • 4. Remove friends from drinking situation if necessary • 5. Consume non-alcoholic beverages first • 6. Alternate between alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks • 7. Sip, don’t gulp! • 8. Consume food before and during alcohol consumption • 9. Don’t drink while taking medication • 10. Avoid taking Aspirin if drinking. (DO NOT take Tylenol or other Acetaminophen medication for a hangover; liver damage may result) • 11. If necessary, discuss problematic behavior with friends when sober Step 5: Implement Step UP! • • • • • Notice the event Interpret it as a problem Assume personal responsibility Know how you can be helpful Step up!