Speed Development

Report
Speed Development
Steve Blocker
Introduction
Why Important?
What is speed?
Limiting Factors
How to improve
– Technique
– Training methods
– Periodization
Importance of Speed
Improving all around performance
Possible difference maker
Taking performance to higher level
What is Speed?
Terminology
Speed: ability to
achieve high
velocity or stride
length x stride
frequency
Speed Endurance:
Metabolic capacity
to maintain
performance
(Conditioning)
– Ability to repeatedly
accelerate (6+s
bouts)
Terminology
Speed Strength: ability to apply
force rapidly- Rate of Force
Development (RFD)
Special Endurance: sport-specific
exercise-relief patterns
Drive Phase: initial acceleration
phase approximately 30-50m
– May be shorter for non-track sprinters
Terminology cont’d
Max Velocity Phase: occurs as the
athlete achieves maximal velocity or
“top end” speed
Occurs at approximately 40-50m for
elite sprinters
– Occurs earlier in non-track athletes (2530m)
Mero, Komi & Gregor, 1992
Factors That Affect
Speed
Technical vs. Physiological
Technique & Physiology
Different phases of
sprinting
– acceleration & max
velocity
Strength
– Maximalrelative/absolute
– Reactive-stretchshortening cycle
(SSC)
– Rate of Force
Development (RFD)
Importance of Technique
Maximize efficiency of movement
Minimize flight time
Minimize ground contact time
Results in optimal stride length and
stride frequency
Faccioni
Acceleration-General Concepts
Explode from start
position
Accelerating as
rapidly as possible
Stride length
emphasized
An emphasized
horizontal
displacement
Common Problems-Acceleration
Phase
Athlete stands up
too early
First stride is too
long/short
“Skating” action in
initial steps
Acceleration Technique
Acceleration Phase
– Maximize arm/knee
drive
– Emphasize
horizontal
displacement
– Tucked chin with
eyes focused up
– Forward lean
– References
Acceleration Drills
Push-Up Starts
Resisted Sprints
Hill Running
Sprints to 10/20/30/40m from a 3-pt
start
Maximal Velocity-General
Concepts
Occurs at
approximately 4050m in elite
sprinters
Attempt to
maintain maximal
velocity as long as
possible
Stride Frequency
emphasized
Common Problems-Max Velocity
Phase
Over striding
– Breaking forces
Rotational movement
– Arms cross mid-line of body
Heel Strike
Lordosis
– Arched back
Max-Velocity Technique
Emphasize “rotary” running action
Keep relaxed
Maximize stride frequency
“Chin to Pocket” (Shoulder ROM)
Physiological Aspects
STRENGTH
– Maximal
absolute/relative
– Reactive strengthSSC
– RFD
Physiological Aspects
Accelerate quickly
Reach a high velocity
Greater level of force production
(strength)
Apply force as fast as possible (RFD)
Max Strength
Get Strong!!!
– Maximize force
output
– Elite sprinters can
minimize ground
time w/out reducing
stride lengthrequires leg
strength
– Mero, Komi & Gregor 1992
Reactive Strength
Plyometric Training
– Improves reactive strength
– Improves rate of force
development
Bounding/Box Jumping
Reactive Strength/Max Velocity
Workout Design
Train for speed/agility early in
session/week
Least amount of fatigue
– Greater risk of injury
– Poor kinematics/technique
Plisk, 2000.
Periodization
4-8 week mesocycles
– USAW Level I
– Base, Volume, Unload, Peak
1-3 days/week
Volume depends on:
– Sport
– Position
– Time of training year
Training Session
Begin with a dynamic warm-up
Slow & general exercises
Dynamic & specific
– Opportunity to teach technique
Speed Training Methods
Varied pace sprints ins & outs
Bounding & plyometrics
Fliers-sprints from on the fly
Push up sprints-acceleration phase
Sprints from 3-pt start position
Workout Plan
Day1
Day2
Day3
Day4
Speed
maxspeed
Anaerobic
capacity
Speed
Anaerobic Speed
capacity
acceleration
(moderate)
Or recovery
Day5
Day6 Day7
Active
Recovery
Off
Sample Workout
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Day 5
Day 6
Day
7
Dynamic
Warm up
3x40m
alternate leg
bounding
3x3x30m
“fliers”
2min/4min
rest
Dynamic
Warm up
6 hurdle
jumps
4-5 sets of 10
tuck
jumps+30m
sprint+10
squat
jumps+60 m
fly.
4min rest
Dynamic
Warm up
1x3x10m
push-up
sprints
3x3x20m
push up
sprints
Dynamic
Warm up
Hill
Runs
3x5x6080m or
tempo track
workout
Emphasize
running
technique
Dynamic
Warm up
3x40m
alternate
leg bounds
1x3x10m
push up
sprints
1x3x20m
push up
sprints
Hard Track
Workout
Short Hills
3x3x3050m hills
@ 75%
effort
Emphasize
technique
OFF
Conclusions
Keep it simple
Specific
Progressive
Scientific
Do Research
References
Plisk, Steven S. Speed, Agility, and Speed-Endurance
Development. In Essentials of Strength Training and
Conditioning. T.R. Baechle & R.W. Earle. National Strength and
Conditioning Association. 2000. Champagne, Ill 2000.
Cissik, John M. Means and methods of speed training: part
II. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal.
27(1). 18-25. 2005.
Chu, D. and Korchemny, R. 1989. Sprinting stride actions:
Analysis and evaluation. National Strength and Conditioning
Journal. 11. 81-85.
References cont’d
Dinitiman, G.B. Effects of various training programs on running
Speed. Res. Quart. 35. pp 456-463.
Komi, P.V. 1992. Strength and Power Development in Sport.
Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Korneljuk, A.O. 1982. Scientific basis of sprint speed
Development. Track and Field Quart. Rev. Summer. Pp6-9.
Mann, R. 1985. The elite athlete project- sprints and hurdles.
Track Tech. 84. Pp 2672-2675.

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