WORLD WAR II Warm-Up: Pick up WWII Packet + Assignment Page • Schedule ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Warm-Up Finish Cinderella Man Essay Discuss Outline of WWII unit Section 1 reading + questions • Assignment Section 1 Questions • Closure How did the world begin to go down the road to another world war? League of Nations Section: • “We are only a small race; but…I know, as you know, that if mankind lets its armies and gas destroy my country and people, civilization will be destroyed as well…why do not all do something to drive off this common danger…this agony, this death…soon to be spread fatally to your homes…we shall die.” -Princess Tashai (of Abyssinia) Great Depression Section: Unemployment Year 1,320,000 1929 3,000,000 1930 5,102,000 1932 Votes for Nazis Year 810,000 1928 6,409,000 1930 13,779,000 1932 Warm-Up: On board, find specified group + questions • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ Causes of WWII (pgs. 1-5) group work ▫ Whole class review of WWII causes • Assignment: Section 1 Questions • Closure If Hitler never existed, WWII would never have happened? Warm-Up: Answer question on page 6 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ OSS Operatives: Italy, Germany, USSR & Japan In groups create report for President FDR ▫ Whole class review of dictators • Assignment: NONE • Closure What are the circumstances for the rise of dictators? Warm-Up: Answer questions on page 25-26 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT Road to Armageddon + Appeasement ▫ Primary Source Analysis Quotes, Maps, Political Cartoons Austria Munich Nazi-Soviet Pact • Assignment: NONE • Closure What events led to the outbreak of WWII? The Road to Armageddon • In the 1930s, dictators in Europe/Japan seized territory and threatened all who opposed them • Little was done to stop them • Italy, Germany, Japan all wanted more land ▫ 1936, Hitler & Mussolini formed alliance – Rome-Berlin Axis Japan joined 1940 (Rome-BerlinTokyo Axis) Appeasement Reasons • Great Depression kept them too occupied w/ their own problems • If had to fight Hitler & Mussolini, needed Stalin’s help—didn’t trust him ▫ Communist country (threat to democracy + capitalism) • The huge cost of WWI (money & lives) made many feel that war was pointless • Western leaders mistakenly believed Hitler did NOT want war • Disarmament policies after WWI left Britain and France militarily behind Germany Warm-Up: Answer question on page 31 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT WWII Begins, West Success, Allies Refuse Surrender & Operation Barbarossa ▫ Apocalypse WWII (clips which highlight strategy, battles) • Assignment: NONE • Closure How did the world change from 1939-1941? List 5-6 things. WWII Begins • Germany invaded Poland September 1, 1939 (helped by Nazi-Soviet Pact) ▫ 2 days later, Britain & France declared war on Germany WWII • German army surprised world by destroying Poland in less than a month ▫ Using new warfare – blitzkrieg (lightning war) Used speed & surprise w/ tanks, troops, planes Success in the West • April 1940, Hitler conquered Denmark & Norway and planned the blitz of the west ▫ Plans changed due to plane crash in Belgium Plane carried battle strategies Still France/Britain did nothing • Tactical Change Instead of attacking northern France, Germans sent bulk of forces through Ardennes Forest—rocky terrain + bad for tanks ▫ France never thought Germany would send tanks here ▫ Worked too well—tanks rolling fast and outran own troops ▫ Hitler gets nervous (afraid for troops) tells tanks to pause ▫ Gives Allied forces ability to escape at Dunkirk to England (Miracle at Dunkirk) • After Dunkirk, France surrendered in under 4 weeks ▫ Germany gets 3/5 France ▫ Southern France (Vichy) remain under French control BUT collaborate with Germans • In London, French freedom-fighter, Charles de Gaulle push for continued resistance Allies Refuse to Surrender • Now only Britain stood in Hitler’s way ▫ To invade Britain, Hitler needs to destroy Royal Air Force (RAF) ▫ Summer & Fall 1940 RAF fought German Air Force— Luftwaffe—in Battle of Britain Despite constant bombing, Britain refused to give in 1941, Congress approve LendLease Act—US would lend/lease resources + equipment to Allies Operation Barbarossa • By 1941, Hitler controlled most of Europe (except Britain + Soviet Union) • Hitler worried that Stalin was going to invade Nazi Germany (even with treaty) ▫ Hitler’s main goal—elimination of the Soviet Union (clip 1430-1625) • June 22, 1941 Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa—invasion of Soviet Union ▫ By Fall, German troops deep into Soviet territory ▫ Clip (1430-1625—why scorched earth policy?) ▫ As Soviets fall back, they follow Stalin’s orders called scorchedearth policy—burn everything left behind ▫ In August, Hitler had major decision to make: Take Moscow—capital city + transportation center + armament Focus North (Leningrad—armaments) + South (wheat + oil) Center Army—most successful + largest enemy defenses Need food + oil for armed forces • What decision would you make? Take Moscow or Leningrad/South? Explain why. • (Clip 3047-3230) ▫ By December, tired troops, snow + Russian resistance stop German advance (18 miles from Moscow) (Clip 42-49) ▫ Germany’s inability to defeat Soviet Union in 1941 German armies no longer invincible = hope Warm-Up: Pearl Harbor Comparison pgs. 32-33 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT Pearl Harbor + Home-front ▫ Assignment Page 2 • Assignment: Assignment Page 2 • Closure How did the US, domestically, change in 1941? European War turns into World War • 1940 Japan joined Axis Alliance (Germany + Italy) • Even with Lend-Lease Act, US follow isolationist policy ▫ Neutrality Acts—limit the sale of weapons to warring countries • 1941 Hideki Tojo took over and made Japan more warlike ▫ Took over Southeast Asian islands (oil) ▫ In response, US stop selling Japan equipment + oil ▫ US Navy in Hawaii—Pearl Harbor— stands in the way of further Japanese conquest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sv1niwxQgoY • Dec 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes attacked Pearl Harbor ▫ ‘Day which will live in infamy’ ▫ Not hugely successful for Japanese no aircraft carriers + submarines sunk • US declares war on Japan Germany declares war on US • By end of 1941 ▫ Axis (Germany, Italy, Japan) vs. Allies (Britain, US, French resistance, USSR) Home-Front: War Support • During WWII, govt. set up War Production Board (WPB) to organize production of military equipment & supplies ▫ US produce 60% Allied ammo ▫ By 1945 300,000 planes + 75,000 ships • Factories needed many workers to produce these supplies • These jobs helped end Great Depression • As armed forces needed more goods, Americans at home lost goods ▫ For example, American car companies did not make any cars 1942-1945 ▫ Meat, tires, shoes, gasoline, sugar were also short in supply ▫ So govt. used system of rationing – families get fixed amount of certain goods (so enough for all Americans) • War was expensive ▫ To help pay, govt. raised income taxes & sold war bonds – loans govt. promised to repay w/ interest Americans bought enough to raise billions for war Opportunities & Tensions for Minorities • War created jobs for minorities ▫ More than million African Americans worked in war industry Many moved to North & West for these jobs Racism increased in these areas, however WHY?? • A. Philip Randolph – black labor leader – worked to gain blacks equal rights He threatened to lead march through Washington, D.C. To stop them, FDR issued Executive Order 8802 – outlawed discrimination in defense industries • Native Americans + Hispanics worked in war factories This included Mexican workers called braceros (farm laborers) • Minorities (Hispanics + Blacks + Native Americans) also served in armed forces ▫ About million blacks served in military segregated One unit – Tuskegee Airmen – black pilots who served w/ honor in North Africa & Europe Women Opportunities • With so many men fighting overseas, women needed to fill jobs ▫ 1945, 19 million women worked in US Worked in munitions factories, shipyards, & offices Most of country supported “Rosie the Riveter” – image of strong woman at work • Over 300,000 women served in armed forces ▫ Many were mechanics, drivers, clerks and nurses Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 35 • Schedule ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Warm-Up Los Angeles Times Quote PPT Internment, Korematsu v. US Kenji Pictorial Analysis • Assignment: Assignment Page 2 • Closure During war time, can there ever be justification for limiting basic rights? Why or why not? Internment of Japanese-Americans • During war, Americans treated German & Italian Americans badly • But after Pearl Harbor, JapaneseAmericans were treated worse • The attack on Pearl Harbor shocked the American public, resulting in widespread hysteria and paranoia. ▫ Anti-Japanese feelings swept across America after Pearl Harbor • FDR signed Executive Order 9066 –– allowed removal of Japanese & Japanese-Americans from west coast ▫ More than 110,000 Japanese-Americans were rounded up http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BJjo0BCbGo&feature=related The Camps: Name State Opened Max. Pop Manzana r Californi a March 1942 10,046 Tule Lake Californi a May 1942 18,789 Poston Arizona May 1942 17,814 Gila River Arizona July 1942 13,348 Granada Colorado August 1942 7,318 Heart Mountai n Wyoming August 1942 10,767 Minidoka Idaho August 1942 9,397 Topaz Utah Septemb er 1942 8,130 Rohwer Arkansas Septemb er 1942 8,475 Jerome Arkansas October 8,497 Korematsu v. US 1944 • Of all the Japanese removed, about 2/3 were Nisei– Japanese-Americans born in US • Fred Korematsu refused to leave home – arrested • 1944, Korematsu appealed to Supreme Court – argued Executive Order 9066 was unconstitutional ▫ Supreme Court disagreed = war time Warm-Up: Note-Packet pgs 39-40 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up Work in small groups and complete review questions Class review • Assignment: Study for Quiz (Sections 1 + 2) • Closure How did WWII get started? How did WWII impact the US? Warm-Up: QUIZ • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up When finished, complete Assignment page 4 • Assignment: Assignment Page 4 • Closure How did WWII get started? How did WWII impact the US? Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 41 • Schedule ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Warm-Up PPT Turn of the Tide battles Apocalypse WWII clips Section 3 Assignment Packet • Assignment: Page 3 • Closure How did Germany’s war position change by 1944? A Turn of the Tide: Africa • Allies started to plan to invade Europe ▫ But Churchill (Prime Minister of Britain) thought Allies were unprepared for that attack ▫ He convinced Allies to kick Germans out of North Africa first ▫ Then Allies could invade Europe through Italy • Since 1940, Britain had been fighting Axis for control of North Africa (Egypt) ▫ British wanted Egypt b/c gave them access to Suez Canal – shortest route to Asia & Middle East oil ▫ British in Africa faced tough opponent – General Erwin Rommel (“The Desert Fox”) and his Afrika Korps ▫ June 1942, Afrika Korps pushed British to El Alamein (200 miles from Suez) If successful Germany could obtain oil from the Middle East and join up with other German troops in Southern Russia • British stopped Germans at El Alamein & forced them to retreat • Allied troops under General Dwight D. Eisenhower landed in N. Africa November 1942 ▫ Allies eventually pushed Rommel back & forced surrender (Rommel ran out of gas) A Turn of the Tide: Italy • Allies invasion of Sicily (island in Mediterranean Sea) July 1943 made possible due to successes in North Africa • From Sicily, invade Southern Italy • By this time, Italians had turned on Mussolini (imprisoned him) • Although Mussolini escaped (Hitler freed him), new Italian govt. surrendered Sept. 1943 • Hitler had to send troops to protect Allies from invaded Germany— troops badly needed in Russia A Turn of the Tide: Soviet Union • For 3 years, Hitler armies won battle after battle • However, the German war on Soviet Union ended in disaster (clips 1735-2230 + 2800-3030) • Sept. 1942, Germans attacked Stalingrad – important industrial city ▫ Soviet army fiercely defended city ▫ As winter came, German commander asked to retreat – Hitler refused • Soviet troops counterattacked during winter ▫ Trapped Germans & cut off their food & supplies • Feb. 1943, German troops surrendered ▫ Both sides had suffered huge casualties • Germany’s defeat in Stalingrad was turning point of WWII ▫ From then on, Soviet troops pushed Germans back toward Germany A Turn of the Tide: D-Day • Hitler soon had problems in west as well • June 1944, Allies’ plan to invade France began – Operation Overlord ▫ Invasion commanded by Eisenhower ▫ Midnight, June 6, Allied paratroopers landed behind German lines in Normandy ▫ Early morning, 150,000 American troops landed on beaches of Normandy This assault became known as D-Day (largest land-sea operation in military history) ▫ Although Germans were surprised, over 10,000 Allied casualties ▫ But the Allies won control of beaches Begin advance towards Germany http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFQIuF590B4 Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 43 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT Collapse of Germany ▫ The Path to Genocide Nuremberg Laws Kristallnacht St. Louis Voyage • Assignment: NONE • Closure How did Germany put itself on the path to Genocide? Planning the Postwar World • Feb. 1945, Allies met at Yalta Conference – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin ▫ They made plans for end of war & future of Europe Stalin promised to fight Japan after Germany surrendered Also agreed to start postwar international peacekeeping organization (UN) They also talked about what types of govt. would run Europe after war • April 1945, just after winning 4th term as president, FDR died ▫ Vice-President Harry S. Truman took over the war effort Germany Surrenders!! • April 1945, Russians reached Berlin ▫ Inside his bunker, Adolf Hitler knew war was over ▫ April 30, 1945, Hitler & Eva Braun committed suicide (after wedding) rather than face defeat & capture ▫ Many high-ranking Nazis also committed suicide (Josef Goebbels, Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler) ▫ Days later, Soviets controlled Berlin • May 7, 1945, Germans gave Allies their unconditional surrender • May 8, 1945—VE-DAY (Victory in Europe)—war in Europe was over! After Germany surrenders, Allied forces found a terrible scene in Germany…. Not just for adults… • Aryan superiority was preached from a young age ▫ Hitler Youth = train in Nazi doctine Why would someone teach these things to children? Now, for a few examples…. Coloring Book Page • The caption at the bottom of the page asks “Do you know him?” In the upper lefthand corner is the der Sturmer logo featuring a Star of David superimposed over a caricature of a Jewish face. The caption under the star states that “without a solution to the Jewish question, there will be no salvation for mankind.” But the Germans — they stand foursquare. Look, children, and the two compare, The German and the Jew. Take a good look at the two In the picture drawn for you. A joke — you think it is only that? Easy to guess which is which, I say: The German stands up, the Jew gives way. The German is a proud young man, Able to work and able to fight. Because he is a fine big chap, For danger does not care a rap, The Jew has always hated him! Here is the Jew, as all can see, Biggest ruffian in our country; He thinks himself the greatest beau And yet is the ugliest, you know! The Father of the Jews is the Devil At the creation of the world The Lord God conceived the races: Red Indians, Negroes, and Chinese, And Jew, too, the rotten crew. And we were also on the scene: We Germans midst this motley medleyHe gave them all a piece of earth To work with the sweat of their brow. But the Jew went on strike at once! For the devil rode him from the first. Cheating, not working, was his aim; For lying, he got first prize In less than no time from the Father of Lies. Pharaoh saw this folk, and said: “I’ll torment the lazy blighters, These people shall make bricks for me.” The Jew did this all wailing and whining, Never was there such cursing and swearing, With bent backs and over-big slippers. Even today we see them shambling With lip hanging down and great red noses And looking daggers, flashing hate. They owe Pharaoh thanks, Who trounced them soundly for their pranks. The Jews soon had enough of that! The Devil brought them to Germany. Like thieves they stole into our land Hoping to get the upper hand. Excerpt from a Booklet Given to 14 Year Old Germans in School • You now know how to select your spouse, and understand the meaning of the following principles from the Reich Office for People’s Health: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Remember that you are a German. Do not fail to marry if you are genetically healthy. Keep your body pure. Keep your mind and soul clean. As a German, take a spouse only of the same or of Nordic blood. In choosing a spouse, ask about his or her ancestry. Health is the prerequisite for outward beauty. Marry only out of love. Do not seek a plaything, but rather a companion for marriage. You should want as many children as possible. • http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/media_oi. php?ModuleId=10007695&MediaId=2713 • http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/media_oi. php?ModuleId=10007695&MediaId=2711 • http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/media_oi. php?ModuleId=10007701&MediaId=1135 • 2. “Why didn't they all leave?” • When a student asks this question, frequently they are wondering about German Jews before the start of 1939. After this is clarified, discuss what is involved in leaving one's homeland as well as what sacrifices must be made. Remind students that German Jews were in most cases patriotic citizens. Over 10,000 died fighting for Germany in World War I, and countless others were wounded and received medals for their valor and service. Jews, whether in the lower, middle, or upper classes, had lived in Germany for centuries and were well assimilated in the early twentieth century. It is important to share with students that the oppressive measures targeting Jews in the pre-war period were passed and enforced gradually. Also, these types of pre-war measures and laws had been experienced throughout the history of the Jewish people in earlier periods and in other countries as well. No one at the time could foresee or predict killing squads and killing centers. Student may assume that German Jews knew what was coming and therefore should have fled immediately. It is also helpful to pose a question to the students, considering the gradual nature of the process and the unknown events ahead. “What event or action (without the '20-20 hindsight' that we have) should have convinced the Jews to flee?” Once the difficult decision is made to try to leave the country, a prospective emigrant must find a country willing to admit them and their family. This was very difficult, considering world immigration policies, as demonstrated by the results of the Evian Conference of 1938. If a safe haven could be found, what was needed to get there? Please open the two documents and consider how to illustrate this difficult dilemma (trying to leave Germany). The answer to this seemingly simple question becomes very complicated! Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 46 • Schedule ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Warm-Up PPT Holocaust Night by Elie Wiesel Band of Brothers • Assignment: NONE • Closure Describe the experiences of concentration camp life. The Holocaust • Hitler viewed Aryans as the “master race,” destined to rule the world. • To make his empire (the Third Reich) “pure,” Hitler planned to eliminate Jews ▫ But unsure @ first how to do it— “Jewish Question” • 1941, Hitler decided on “Final Solution” to this question – exterminate Jews in Europe ▫ This act of genocide—systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group—now known as the Holocaust ▫ Man responsible – Heinrich Himmler (leader of the SS—military arm of Nazi Party) ▫ Built 15,000 camps • Types of camps ▫ concentration camps-where prisoners were forced to perform slave labor ▫ extermination camps-where Jews and others were sent for execution • What groups of people were sent to these camps? ▫ Jews, Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Homosexuals, POW’s, Handicapped, Catholics & Socially Undesirables (homeless) ▫ These groups rounded up by SS and sent to camps Upon Arrival • When they arrived at camps: ▫ stripped of clothing and possessions ▫ heads shaved ▫ disinfected (for lice) & showers ▫ striped uniforms ▫ identification number (tattooed “117564”) ▫ Extermination camps were different • Selection – off train and get in right line to work or left to gas chamber • All done to dehumanize prisoners, so easier for guards to imprison them Typical Day ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Taken from barracks (300-800 people lived) Slept in bunk beds (3 or 4 in each bed) Started at or before dawn (roll call) Breakfast—small piece of stale bread and a bowl of “soup” or “coffee” once daily Worked 10-14 hours in mines, factories, or building roads All this while guards beat & taunted them, doctors tortured them Electrified barbwire, watchtowers, spotlights If anyone resisted or tried to escape, whole camp punished Horrors Revealed • Most notorious camp—Auschwitz (concentration & extermination together) ▫ Most people sent to death camps were killed ▫ At first, Nazis buried victims in huge graves ▫ Eventually, they cremated bodies in huge ovens (crematoria) • Exact number of dead unknown: ▫ Approximately 6 million Jews, 15 million people overall http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Sbs9CXueDk 300505 Einsatzgruppen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHcJtU9dr6I Band of Brothers Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 48 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ Boy in the Striped Pajamas Movie Clips + Questions • Assignment: NONE • Closure Describe the experiences of concentration camp life. Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 49 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT War in the Pacific ▫ HBO The Pacific • Assignment: NONE • Closure How was the war in the Pacific different from the theatres of war in Europe/Africa? List 3-4 things. War in the Pacific • Japan’s empire threatened American possessions in Pacific • When US entered war, had to fight on multiple fronts (Europe, Africa, Pacific) • By December 1941, Japan controlled Hong Kong, Thailand, Guam, Wake Island • Invaded US controlled Philippines 1941 ▫ American troops (led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur) held Japanese off for months ▫ US feared Japan would then hit Australia ▫ FDR ordered MacArthur to move to Australia ▫ After MacArthur left, Japan attacked Bataan ▫ US troops surrendered & forced on Bataan Death March ▫ 70,000 prisoners forced to march 60 miles (many died on way) Turn of the Pacific Theater of War • The US stopped the Japanese advance in a variety of ways: ▫ Spring 1942 Allies started bombing Japanese cities (especially Tokyo) ▫ US (with navy and air force) blocked Japan’s path to Australia ▫ Battle of Midway —US & Japanese navies fought US destroyed 4 Japanese carriers & 250 planes Japan destroyed 1 carrier & 150 planes Midway set stage for US forces to free areas from Japan’s control (turning point) Island Hopping Americans invaded islands not heavily defended by Japan use as bases to attack other islands (get closer to mainland Japan) Pacific Progress • 1942—Won first land victory at Guadalcanal ▫ Navajo Indians played big part in this victory ▫ To keep Japan from breaking American codes, US used Navajo language to carry messages (Code Talkers) • 1944-1945—reconquered Philippines and severely crippled Japanese navy • Led by General MacArthur • Now, Japan started to use new weapon more – kamikaze – suicide pilots crash into ships • US need bases closer to Japanese mainland ▫ Successfully invade Iwo Jima & Okinawa Bloody contest (18,000 US marines + 120,000 Japanese) • Fighting style of Japanese began to affect strategy: land-invasion v. atomic bomb Atomic Weapons end the War • Summer 1945, Japan continue losing battle • US military fear tremendous loses— 200,0001,000,000 casualties • 1942, US set up Manhattan Project – secret program to build atomic bomb ▫ American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer made bomb July 16, 1945, 1st atomic bomb successfully tested in New Mexico President Harry Truman (FDR’s former VP) warned Japan if they didn’t surrender, they faced destruction Japan refused • August 6, 1945, B-29 bomber—Enola Gay— dropped bomb on Hiroshima (industrial center with large civilian population) ▫ Bomb flattened 42 sq. miles, killed 80,000 instantly ▫ 1000s more soon died from radiation After-Effects of the Atomic Bomb • Japanese refused to surrender ▫ August 9, 1945, US dropped another bomb, this time on Nagasaki (killed 40,000) ▫ Same day, Soviet Union declared war on Japan & invaded Manchuria ▫ Late August, Allies received formal unconditional surrender of Japan ▫ September 2, 1945, WWII was over! Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 50 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ PPT Legacy of WWII ▫ Assignment Packet pg. 5 • Assignment: Page 5 • Closure What was the legacy of WWII (2-3 things)? How did the US/World change (3-4 things)? Legacy of WWII: Devastation • WWII was most destructive war in world history • Cities all over world destroyed & millions dead • Over 55 million people died because of WWII ▫ Soviet Union—10 million soldiers, 10 million civilians ▫ Germany—4.5 million soldiers, 2 million civilians ▫ United States—400,000 soldiers, 0 civilians • War created millions of refugees: ▫ Orphans, POWs, concentration camp survivors, & civilians ▫ 21 million refugees tried to rebuild lives after war Economic Winners & Losers • Many of world’s economies ruined after war ▫ Only US – where no major battles fought – ended war w/ strong economy Boom in industry pulled US out of Depression After war, economy kept growing ▫ US occupied Japan several years after war Helped Japan’s economy recover • 1948, Congress approved George C. Marshall’s plan to improve European economies ▫ Marshall Plan – US gave $13 billion to help Europe Legacy of WWII: Attempts at World Peace • After war, leaders tried to ensure such terrible war would never happen again • July 1945, Allies held Potsdam Conference to plan war’s end ▫ Decided to put German war criminals on trial at Nuremberg Trials Allies tried 24 top Nazi officials for crimes against peace, war crimes, & crimes against humanity 12 sentenced to death (11 hanged, 1 suicide), 3 sentence to life in prison, 4 sentences to 10-20 years in prison & 3 were acquitted Other lesser Nazi leaders tried & hanged throughout Europe as well • WWII demonstrated weakness of League of Nations ▫ Weak b/c US refused to join – did not want to get involved in world affairs • Toward end of WWII, FDR warned Americans not to turn backs on world again ▫ April 1945, 50 nations created new international peace organization – United Nations Change in US & the World • The war radically changed world ▫ Economies ruined, millions dead, social change ▫ In addition, war helped spread communism – which US would fight in coming years • Millions of veterans returned home, competing for jobs & education ▫ Govt. passed G.I. Bill of Rights – paid for soldiers’ schooling & gave them living allowance • Returning soldiers also needed housing ▫ Unfortunately, many forced to live in crowded slums or country shacks • America had changed during war ▫ Hundreds of thousands of blacks left South for Northern cities • Here, they lived in ghettos & faced prejudice • Tension increased b/t countries after war ▫ UN created nation of Israel 1948 (in response to Holocaust) Became homeland for Jews in Palestine Many Arabs not happy Israeli-Palestinian fighting continues to this day ▫ US worried about rise of Soviet Union Soviets left WWII as a great power After war, Stalin forced occupied countries to live under Communist govts. Stalin also tried to spread Communism throughout world US would try to stop him ▫ Finally, end of WWII started atomic age Atomic bombs increase tensions between US & Soviet Union Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 52 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ Nazi War Criminals & Experiments • Assignment: Page 5 • Closure Should people be responsible for their actions during wartime? Josef Mengele Irma Grese Ilse Koch Klaus Barbie Aribert Heim Warm-Up: Note-Packet pg. 58 • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up Read the two-sided argument ▫ Debate Topics The Atomic Bomb Internment—can it happen again? Should it? Continue to prosecute Nazi criminals • Assignment: Page 5 • Closure Was dropping the bomb justified? Michael Seifert • Former Nazi prison guard • Known as ‘The Beast of Bolzano’ and was convicted in 2000 for the murder and torture of at least 11 people at a prison transit camp in Italy ▫ Witnesses claimed he starved prisoners, raped women, gouged prisoner’s eyes out. • Seifert acknowledged being a guard at Bolzano during WWII but denied murder/torture • Extradited from Canada to serve a life sentence in Italy (he’d been living in Canada since 1951) • Died in hospital after falling in prison Warm-Up: Grab DBQ from cart • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ WWII DBQ How did WWII get started? What was better—appeasement or collective security? • Assignment: Study for Test • Closure See DBQ Questions Warm-Up: Grab Review packet from front cart • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ Small group review of WWII topics ▫ Class discussion • Assignment: Study for Test • Closure What do we know about WWII? Warm-Up: Grab scantron from front cart • Schedule ▫ Warm-Up ▫ WWII TEST (whole period) • Assignment: NONE • Closure What do we know about WWII?