Subject: Geography For Class: IX & XI PRESENTED BY: ASHUTOSH KARASHARMA MISHRA Address: (Personal) At: Srikrisna Nagar Po: Loisingha Dist: Bolangir Orissa-767020 Address: (Official) At: JNV, Koraput Po: OMP Line Dist: Koraput Orissa Phone No: 9437146288 E-mail: [email protected] [email protected] ► Familiarize students with the terms, key concepts and basic principles associated with the climate of India. ► Provide them idea about the mechanism of Indian monsoon. ► Study the climate of India through the understanding and analysis of local climate. ► Explore the causative factor of the spatial variations in the climate of the country. ► Understand and analyze the variation of climatic phenomenon in the cycle of seasons. ► Make students aware of the change in climate (global warming) at local level to understand it at national and global level. Watch Out Weather News……………. Hot weather season Cold Weather Season Four Videos Embedded: Monsoon season Tropical Cyclone Please right click over the dark square to choose Play or Stop one after another. CONTENTS OF THE LESSON Part-I Climatic Diversity of India Part-II Factors Affecting Climate of India Part-III Rhythm of Seasons Part-IV Distribution of Rainfall Part-V Change of Climate Please click on the box to navigate to the pages Why does weather change spatially & temporally? Let us examine… Drass -450C in December night Tawang 190C in June 550C temperature in June Thar desert Diurnal range of temperature 300C Jaisalmer receives 9cm rainfall Tiruvanantapuram & Chennai 200C in December night Cherrapunji & Mawsynram have 1080cm rain Kerala Diurnal range of temperature 80C MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA MORE DIVERSITIES………………….. Churu in Rajasthan records a temperature of 50°C or more on a June day. Snow fall over the Himalayas. Most parts of India receives rainfall during June to September. Tura of Meghalaya receives rainfall in a single day is equal to the total rainfall of Ten years in Jaisalmer of Rajastan. It is 19°C in Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh) on the same day. Only rainfall over rest of India. Tamilnadu coast remains dry during these months. Very low rainfall in North west Himalayas and western Rajastan which is equal to 10cm per year. MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA ► Lets divide the class into five groups namely A, B, C, D and E. ► Collect the data of temperature and rainfall of different cities of India from web site www.allrainfallreports.com . ► Collect the rainfall and temperature data of your town and compare it with the data of other cities of India. ► Make a comparative study of temperature and rainfall data of different districts of Orissa. (SourceClimatological survey of Orissa 1987-2003 & District statistical handbooks) ► Write about the climate of your district and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com . ► Make a power point presentation of all the activities you have done. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAN CLIMATE RELATED TO LOCATION & RELIEF •Latitude RELATED TO AIR PRESSURE & WIND Surface pressure & wind •Altitude •Relief •Distance from Sea •The Himalayan Mt. •Distribution of Land & water Upper air circulation Western cyclones FAQ LATITUDE FAQ High range of Temp High Temp Low range EQUATORIAL REGION THE HIMALAYAS- CLIMATIC BARRIER DISTRIBUTION OF LAND & WATER FAQ HIGH PRESSURE IN WINTER ARABIAN SEA INDIAN OCEAN BAY OF BENGAL DISTANCE FROM SEA SIMLA DELHI KOLKOTA MUMBAI CHENNAI Coastal areas have equable climate where as Interior parts have extreme climate. ALTITUDE FAQ Temperature decreased from low to high altitude HIGH ALTITUDE AGRA 160C in Jan DARJILING 40C in January LOW ALTITUDE RELIEF FAQ Receives high rainfall Receives low rainfall SURFACE WIND POLAR HIGH SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE NORTH-EAST TRADE WIND SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE INTER TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE SOUTH-EAST TRADE WIND SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE POLAR HIGH JET STREAM IN WINTER TIBET JET STREAM IN SUMMER WESTERN DISTURBANCE EL-NINO EFFECTS FAQ 1990 Delay in Monsoon Equatorial Warm Current El-Nino Homboldt Cold Current SOUTHERN OSCILLATION Tahiti Darwin Prepare a ppt. answering the following: ► Collect the data on the effect of El-nino over different parts of world and prepare a presentation and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com. ► Explain the factors affecting the climate of your region in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com page. ► Invite your friends to your www.think.com or www.epal.com site to explain about the climate of their region. ► Explain how jet stream affect the climate of India in word/pdf file and upload it to the suitable web page. ► Compare how relief affect the climate of your region. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE RHYTHM OF SEASONS HOT WEATHER COLD WEATHER RETREATING MONSOON SOUTH WEST MONSOON Let us discuss each of them individually COLD WEATHER SEASON ► It extends from December to February. ► Vertical sun rays shift towards southern hemisphere. ► North India experiences intense cold where as this season is not well defined in south India. ► Light wind blow makes this season pleasant in south India. ► Occasional tropical cyclone visit eastern coast in this season. Tropical Cyclone Rhythm of Seasons TEMPERATURE- JANUARY 100C` 150C 200C 200C 250C 200C 200C 250C Rhythm of Seasons PRESSURE- JANUARY HIGH PRESSURE 1014 Rhythm of Seasons WIND DIRECTION- WINTER Bay of Bengal Rhythm of Seasons WINTER RAINFALL RAINFALL DUE TO WESTERN DISTURBANCES RAINFALL DUE TO NORTH EAST WIND Rhythm of Seasons HOT WEATHER SEASON ► It extends from March to May. ► Vertical sun rays shift towards Northern hemisphere. ► Temperature rises gradually from south to north. ► Highest Temperature experiences in Karnataka in March, Madhya Pradesh in April and Rajastan in May. May 480C April 380C March 300C Rhythm of Seasons TEMPERATURE- JULY 250C 300C Rhythm of Seasons PRESSURE- JULY Rhythm of Seasons STORMS IN HOT WEATHER SEASON FAQ BARDOLI CHHEERHA LOO KALBAISAKHI MANGO SHOWER BLOSSOM SHOWER Rhythm of Seasons SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON ► It extends from June to September. ► Intense heating in north west India creates low pressure region. ► Low pressure attract the wind from the surrounding region. ► After having rains for a few days sometime monsoon fails to occur for one or more weeks is known as break in the monsoon. HIGH LOW TEMPERATURE PRESSURE Rhythm of Seasons MONSOON WIND Arabian sea Branch Bay of Bengal Branch INTER TROPICAL EQUATOR CONVERGENCE ZONE Rhythm of Seasons ONSET OF SW MONSOON Rhythm of Seasons RETREATING MONSOON SEASON ► It extends from October to November ► Vertical sun rays start shifting towards Northern hemisphere. ► Low pressure region shift from northern parts of India towards south. ► Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive. This is commonly known as the ‘October heat’ LOW PRESSURE Rhythm of Seasons WITHDRAWAL OF MONSOON Rhythm of Seasons Prepare a ppt. answering the following: ► Explain the seasonal difference of climate of your region in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com. ► Search friends from different parts of India and seek their comments and compare the seasonal difference in climate of different parts of India by using www.think.com. ► Prepare an analysis of yearly temperature and rainfall data by using different graphs and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com. ► Collect photographs of monsoon and upload to www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL > 200cm 100-200cm 50-100 cm < 50cm VARIABILITY OF RAINFALL ► The variability of rainfall is computed with the help of the following formula: C.V.= Standard Deviation/ Mean * 100 ► Variability of less than 25% exist in Western coasts, Western Ghats, northeastern peninsula, eastern plain of the Ganga, northern India, Uttaranchal, SW J & K & HP. ► Variability of more then 50% found in Western Rajastan, J & K and interior parts of Deccan. ► Region with high rainfall has less variability. Prepare a power point presentation answering the following: ►Why there is variation of rainfall in different parts of India? Explain in a word/pdf file and upload. ►Calculate the variability of rainfall of your region. ►Compare the variability of rainfall with the total rainfall of your region. ►Measure the rainfall in your school and record it in a spread sheet for analysis. ►Read out the rainfall and temperature data of your school daily in the morning assembly. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WORMING FLOOD FOREST FIRE SPREAD OF TROPICAL DISEASES INCREASE IN GREEN HOUSE GASES SEA LEVEL RISE RISE IN TEMPERATURE TSUNAMI & EARTHQUAKE EXCESSIVE SUN STROKE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY SINKING COAST SOME INTERESTING FACTS ► Temperature increased by 0.60C in 20th century. ► Eleven out of twelve hottest years are within 1995 to 2006. ► Annual rate of increase of CO2 is 1.9ppm after 1995. ► Concentration of methane increased from 700ppb in 1750 to 1745ppb at present and Nitrous Oxide from 270ppb to 314ppb where as CFC increased from zero to 533ppb. ► Rising of temperature to 30C will lead to melting of all ice on earth surface and sea level rise upto 15 feet. ► Existence of large cities like Venis, Bankok, Sanghai, Kolkota and Dhaka will be in danger. FAQ CLIMATE CHANGE & INDIA ► India has long coast line and rise of sea level will submerge large area. ► A population of 7.1 million living in coastal areas will be affected. ► Production of crops like wheat, rice etc will decrease. ► The natural disasters like cyclone, floods and drought will increase in frequency as well as intensity. KOLKOTA MUMBAI CHENNAI WHAT CAN BE DONE??? ►Switch off the light, fan, TV and other energy using gadgets when they are not in use. ►Do not use those equipments that pollute or consume more energy. ►create public awareness. ►use renewable energy resources like solar, wind, biomass etc. ►International conferences like Earth Summit, 1992, Kyoto protocol, Copenhegen summit, 2009 are some steps to bring consensus for crusade against Climate Change. ► Ask elders of your family or village about their perception of change in climate and explain it in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com . ► Give an analysis of change in temperature of your region by collecting data of fifteen years from climatological survey of orissa. ► Explain what you can do to reduce the impact of climate change. ► Ask your friends through www.think.com about their contribution to reduce the impact of climate change. ► Prepare a power point presentation explaining all above. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1. Name the factors affecting climate of India . Answer 2. What is meant by El-nino? Answer 3. Why the south western part of peninsular India receives high rainfall? Answer 4. Name the important green house gases. Answer 5. How altitude affects climate? Answer 6. How distance from sea affect climate? Answer 7. What is meant by mango shower? Answer 8. What is meant by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone? Answer EVALUATION RUBRIC Sl No. Evaluation points Excellent Very Good Good 1 Participation of all members of the group All the members have participated (5 Marks) Some Members have participated. (3 Marks) Few members have participated. (2 Marks) 2 Efficient use of technology in selflearning Technology used for presentation, collection of information and understanding. (5 Marks) Technology used for presentation and collection of information. (3 Marks) Technology used for presentation only. (2 Marks) 3 Collection of new information Information collected are new, relevant and latest. (5 Marks) Information collected are new and relevant. (3 Marks) Information collected are new only. (2 Marks) Presentation of Topic in the classroom Presentation of topic was clear, able to clarify doubts and with proper flow of topic. (5 Marks) Presentation of topic was clear and able to clarify doubts. (3 Marks) Presentation of topic was clear only. (2 Marks) Development of Innovative Thinking Innovation in presentation, collection of new information and use of technology. (5 Marks) Innovation in presentation and collection of new information. (3 Marks) Innovation in presentation only. (2 Marks) Total 25 15 10 4 5 Mark Obtained Evaluate the classroom presentation of other groups and assign marks. CITATION ► Abraham, K.R.; Dash, S.K. and Mohanty, U.C., 1996: Simulation of monsoon circulation and cyclones with different types of orography; Mausam, 47, 235-248. ► Ashok K., S. Lizuka, S.A Rao, N. H. Saji and W. Lee, 2009 : Processes and boreal summer impacts of the 2004 El Nino Modoki: An AGCM study. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L04703, doi:10.1029/2008GL036313, 1-5. ► Bannerji, S. K., 1950 : Methods of forecasting monsoon and winter rainfall in India. Ind. J. Met. and Geophys., 4, 343-346. ► Bhalme, H.N. and Jadhav, S.K., 1984: The southern oscillation and its relation to the monsoon rainfall. J.Climatol., 4, 509-520. ► Krishnakumar V. and K. -M. Lau, 1997 : Symmetric Instability of Monsoon Flows. Tellus 49 A, 228-245. ► Physical Geography of India, NCERT, class-IX ► Economic & Commercial Geography of India, C.B. Memoria. ► Regional Geography of India, R.L. Singh. ► www.imd.gov.in ► http://tinyurl.com/q4a6mg ► http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4755025.cms ► http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ost/climate/STIP ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Heartiest Thanks to Mr. S. K. Tripathy, Principal JNV, Koraput Mr. R. P. Maharana, TGTEnglish, JNV, Koraput Project Learning, Microsoft, for providing me training.