Musculoskeletal Kinesiology

Report
Spine and Thorax
Kinesiology Flash Cards
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Directions
• The first slide asks a question.
• The second slide answers the question.
• Use these slides like flash cards to test
your core knowledge.
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Question
• Arrange these erector spinae muscles
from lateral to medial
• Iliocostalis
• Spinalis
• Longissimus
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Answer
• From lateral to medial, the erector spinae
muscles are
• Iliocostalis
• Longissimus
• Spinalis
Mnemonic Device: I Like Standing.
Remembering that spinalis is closest to the
spine is also helpful.
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Question
• What is the action of the erector spinae
muscles?
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Answer
• Extension of the spinal column.
– It also prevents flexion of the spine.
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Question
• What is the antagonist of the erector
spinae muscles?
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Action
• Rectus abdominis
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Question
•
Which abdominal muscle has an action
of contralateral rotation when unilaterally
contracting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Internal abdominal oblique
External abdominal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis
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Answer
a. Internal abdominal oblique
b. External abdominal oblique
c. Transversus abdominis
d. Rectus abdominis
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Question
•
Which abdominal muscle has an action
of ipsilateral rotation when unilaterally
contracting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Internal abdominal oblique
External abdominal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis
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Answer
a. Internal abdominal oblique
b. External abdominal oblique
c. Transversus abdominis
d. Rectus abdominis
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Question
The groove formed by the spinous and
transverse processes in the thoracic and
lumbar region of the spine is called
______.
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Answer
The lamina groove
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Question
The superior portion of the sternum, which
articulates with the clavicles and the first
and second ribs, is called the ______.
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Answer
Manubrium
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Question
The inferior portion of the sternum that
serves as an attachment site for the
abdominal aponeurosis is called ______.
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Answer
The xiphoid process
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Question
Which group of muscles runs from the
sacrum to the occiput along the posterior
aspect of the vertebral column?
a. Quads
b. Hamstrings
c. Abdominals
d. Erector spinae
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Answer
a. Quads
b. Hamstrings
c. Abdominals
d. Erector
spinae
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Question
Of the three muscles that make up the
erector spinae group, which lies closest to
the spine?
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Answer
Spinalis
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Question
Explain the general actions of the erector
spinae group.
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Answer
• Bilaterally:
– Extends the vertebral column
• Unilaterally
– Laterally flexes the vertebral column to the
same side
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Question
The transversospinalis group is composed
of which three muscles?
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Answer
• Multifidi
• Rotatores
• Semispinalis
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Question
Explain the general actions of the multifidi
and rotatores.
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Answer
1. Extend the vertebral column
2. Rotate the vertebral column to the
opposite side.
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Question
What is the action of the semispinalis?
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Answer
Extend the vertebral column and head.
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Question
The fibers of splenius capitis and splenius
cervicis do not run parallel to the spine like
the other back muscles. Which direction
do the fibers run?
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Answer
Obliquely
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Question
The splenius capitis is deep to the
rhomboids and trapezius, but is superficial
between which two muscles?
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Answer
Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid.
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Question
Define the actions of splenius capitis and
splenius cervicis.
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Answer
• Unilaterally
– Rotate the head to the same side
– Laterally flex the head and neck
• Bilaterally
– Extend the head and neck
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Question
These eight small muscles are the deepest
in the posterior neck. They help to stabilize
the axis and atlas and rock or tilt the head.
What are they?
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Answer
The suboccipitals
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Question
The individual names of the suboccipitals
are ______.
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Answer
•
•
•
•
Rectus capitis posterior major
Rectus capitis posterior minor
Oblique capitis superior
Oblique capitis inferior
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Question
Quadratus lumborum is the deepest muscle
of the:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Thigh
Abdomen
Low back
Forearm
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Answer
a. Thigh
b. Abdomen
c. Low back
d. Forearm
While it seems like the QL is the deepest muscle of the
low back, it is actually considered the deepest muscle
of the abdomen.
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Question
The actions of the quadratus lumborum are
______.
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Answer
• Unilaterally
– Elevates the hip
– Laterally flexes the vertebral column
– Assists in extension of the vertebral column
• Bilaterally
– Fixes the last rib during respiration
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Question
The origin of the quadratus lumborum is:
a. Posterior iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament
b. Last rib, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
1-4
c. Last rib, spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae 1-4
d. Posterior iliac crest and the last rib
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Answer
a. Posterior iliac crest, iliolumbar
ligament
b. Last rib, transverse processes of lumbar
vertebrae 1-4
c. Last rib, spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae
1-4
d. Posterior iliac crest and the last rib
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Question
The term abdominals refers to what four
muscles?
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Answer
•
•
•
•
Rectus abdominis
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transverse abdominis
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Question
Which of the four abdominal muscles have
fibers that run straight up and down?
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Answer
Rectus abdominis
The word rectus means straight in Latin.
Anytime a muscle has the name rectus, it
indicates that the muscle fibers run
vertically.
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Question
Which muscle is the primary muscle of
respiration?
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Answer
The diaphragm
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Question
What is the action of the diaphragm?
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Answer
• Draws down the central tendon of the
diaphragm
• Increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
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Question
• The small, slender muscles between the
ribs are named ______.
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Answer
The intercostals
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Question
The actions of the intercostals are ______.
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Answer
• External Intercostals
– Draw the ventral area of the ribs upward to
increase the space of the thoracic cavity
• Internal Intercostals
– Draw the ventral part of the ribs downward to
decrease the space of the thoracic cavity
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Question
Define the term ligamentum nuchae.
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Answer
The ligamentum nuchae is the connective
tissue that runs from the external occipital
protuberance to the spinous process of C7 in the neck. It stabilizes the head and
neck and serves as an attachment site for
muscles like the trapezius.
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Question
Define the term thoracolumbar aponeurosis.
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Answer
The thoracolumbar aponeurosis is a broad,
flat tendon that stretches across the thorax
and lumbar regions.
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