Hive实战

Report
Hive实战
数据平台及产品部
少杰
Agenda
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简介
Hive QL
Hive扩展
SQL vs HQL
简介
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分布式计算
MapReduce编程模型
Hadoop
Hive
简介
• Hive系统结构
简介
• 数据流(in taobao)
– 数据源:weblog/db/…
– 数据同步:jdbcdump
– 报表计算/预处理/ETL:Hive
– 数据入库:dbloader
Hive QL
• 数据类型
– Primitive
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int / bigint / smallint / tinyint
boolean
double / float
string
Array
Map
Struct
No precision / length config
No date / datetime type
Hive QL
• DDL – create table
– CREATE [EXTERNAL] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name
[(col_name data_type, ...)]
[PARTITIONED BY (col_name data_type, ...)]
[ [ROW FORMAT row_format] [STORED AS file_format] | [ WITH
SERDEPROPERTIES (...) ] ]
[LOCATION hdfs_path]
Hive QL
• DDL – create table example
CREATE TABLE page_view(
viewTime INT,
userid BIGINT,
page_url STRING,
referrer_url STRING,
ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User‘
)
COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\001'
STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;
Hive QL
• DML – load data
– LOAD DATA [LOCAL] INPATH 'filepath' [OVERWRITE] INTO TABLE tablename
[PARTITION (partcol1=val1, partcol2=val2 ...)]
Hive QL
• DML – insert
– INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE tablename1 [PARTITION (partcol1=val1,
partcol2=val2 ...)] select_statement1 FROM from_statement
– FROM from_statement INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE tablename1 [PARTITION
(partcol1=val1, partcol2=val2 ...)] select_statement1 [INSERT OVERWRITE
TABLE tablename2 [PARTITION ...] select_statement2] ...
– INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE tablename PARTITION (partcol1[=val1],
partcol2[=val2] ...) select_statement FROM from_statement
– (HDFS)不支持UPDATE!
Hive QL
• DML/DDL – add partition
– ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PARTITION (partcol1=val1, partcol2=val2 ...)
[LOCATION 'filepath' ]
Hive QL
• Query - select
– SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT] select_expr, select_expr, ...
FROM table_reference
[WHERE where_condition]
[GROUP BY col_list]
[ CLUSTER BY col_list | [DISTRIBUTE BY col_list] [SORT BY col_list] ]
[LIMIT number]
– 不支持exist in子查询
Hive QL
• Query - join
– join_table: table_reference JOIN table_factor [join_condition] |
table_reference {LEFT|RIGHT|FULL} [OUTER] JOIN table_reference
join_condition
– table_reference: table_factor | join_table
– table_factor: tbl_name [alias] | table_subquery alias | ( table_references )
– join_condition: ON equality_expression ( AND equality_expression )*
equality_expression: expression = expression
– 等值Join
– 合并Join的原则
– NULL值处理
Hive QL
• Query - subqueries
– SELECT ... FROM (subquery) name ...
– select_statement UNION ALL select_statement UNION ALL select_statement ...
Hive扩展
• UDFs
– 类别
• UDF - 1:1
• UDAF – N:1
• (UDTF)
– Implement UDF
• extends UDF / GenericUDF
• implement evaluate() function
– Implement UDAF
• extends UDAF / GenericUDAF
• implement
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iterate
merge
terminatePartial
terminate
Hive扩展
• Transform
– FROM (
FROM src
MAP expression (',' expression)*
USING 'my_map_script'
( AS colName (',' colName)* )?
( clusterBy? | distributeBy? sortBy? ) src_alias
)
REDUCE
expression (',' expression)*
USING 'my_reduce_script'
( AS colName (',' colName)* )?
Hive vs SQL
• 语义
– 无关系约束(第一范式?)
– 不支持exist in子查询
– 只支持等值Join
• 数据类型
Hive优化器
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Partition Pruning (ppr)分区裁减where(pt=‘’)
Predicate Push down (ppd)
Column Pruning (cp)
Mapjoin transformer
Hive优化
• 数据偏斜
– MapJoin缺点:1内存2小表数*MAP数是否太大
– Group by (distinct) skew
• 内存优化
– 驱动表:优化内存,将大表作为驱动表即a join b
b为驱动表
• I/O优化
– Map aggregation
• MR任务合并
– multi-insert节省两次m/r的扫描
– multi-groupby
– multi-distinct

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