Mkpado M, Akintayo C.O, and Aganga A.A.
Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria
Globalization-history, indicators, meaning,
advantages and disadvantages
Global leadership-definition, global mind set, global
Developing countries and developed countries
Intellectual property: A strategy for development
Some issues in international development
Appropriate technology for regional development
Major contributing factors of Korea’s development
Korea culture for business practices
History of globalization
• Yoo (2012) stated that the earliest known
term referring to globalization was used by C.
T. Russell in 1897 as ‘corporate giants’.
• The 19th century brought globalization
experiences because of influence and
presence of colonial masters.
• This first era of globalization was short lived
• Why?
• the gold standard crisis and the great
depression in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
What is globalization?
• Globalization is the process by which
nations/economies around the world become
increasingly integrated.
• Social/cultural view: globalization can refer to
the circulation of ideas, languages, or popular
culture among nations; via learning.
• Economic globalization refers to a process by
which economics, societies, and cultures have
become integrated through a global network of
communication, transportation, trade and
financial relations (Yoo, 2012).
Some institution facilitating
• United Nations, (international organizationUNESCO, UNICEF, UNECA, UN-IRA etc)
• World Bank,
• IMF,
• WTO-using GATT, regional organizationsECOWAS, AU, etc
What are the indicators /measures of
The four main economic flows that characterise globalization are
-goods and services
degree of openness
tariff measures
multivariate approach
A Swiss think tank ("Konjunkturforschungsstelle"-KOF) used a multivariate
approach to measure globalization in 2011,
• Results?
• More globalized : Singapore, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Canada and
• Less globalized: Indonesia, India, and Iran were the least globalized
among the countries listed.
Some Advantages of globalization
• It increases free trade between nations (Steger,
Manfred (2002),
• increases liquidity of capital allowing investors in
developed nations to invest in developing nations
• corporations have greater flexibility to operate
across borders (Yoo,2012)
• increase in the flow of information across the
globe ,
• Increase in the movement of people among
Some Disadvantages of Globalization
• Competition:-large scale firm vs. small scale
• Increased unemployment in less developed
• Contamination /destroying of local cultures
• International organization like WTO infringing
on national and individual sovereignty.
What is global leadership? And what are
Challenges to global leaders?
• What is global Leadership?
• It's about managing an integrated enterprise across
borders where you encounter different cultural, legal,
regulatory and economic systems (Stephen 2012)
• Ability to unleash human potential and leverage the
richness that lies in cultural diversity (Rosinski, 2003)
Challenges to global leaders
• How to influence individuals, groups, and organizations
inside and outside their own organization
• Coordinating diverse cultural/political/institutional
system to help achieve their organization’s global
ambitions (Yoo, 2012).
• A most for global leaders is open your mind to
everything; close it to nothing (Yoo, 2012)
• Global leaders must have the global mind set
• It’s the ability to understand the similarities
and differences among cultures and their
reasons as well as the ability to effectively sell
your own ideas without raising issues.
• Global leaders do not accept ethnocentrism
What are the features of global mind
• The ability to influence individuals,
organizations, groups, and systems that are
unlike the leader’s.
• The ability to understand and respect other
peoples cultures rather than judging them
• The ability to explore the complexity of other
cultures without being intimidated
• Being comfortable with being uncomfortable
in an uncomfortable environment is a must
(Yoo, 2012).
Global mind set and effective global
leadership requires
Intellectual capital,
psychological capital
and social capital
• G8
• G 20
• G28
Developing countries and developed countries
• According to Yoo (2012) Many common features exist
between the two! But their magnitude differs eg.
• Industries
• Urban centres
• Rural settlements
• Criteria for determining developed and developing
• GDP-Gross domestic product- poverty level
• Less then $1.00, less than $1.25
• Life Expectancy-mortality rate,
Developing countries and developed countries
Literacy Rate
Highest education level of the majority
Healthcare System
Level of industrialization-subsistence farming,
commercial farms small scale firms, large scale
firms, heavy chemical industries.
• ATTITUDE- developed countries always do the
right thing.
Intellectual property : A strategy for development
• Intellectual property is the exclusive right given to
one who invested something, producing or
marketing goods or service to recognize his/her
efforts and time to earn benefits from the innovation
(Erick, 2012)
• Intellectual property flues innovation
• Types of intellectually property
• Copyright- for text books, novels, drama etc
• Patent- engineering innovations-machines, drugs
• Trademark- marketing, running a company
Intellectual property
• Countries without intellectual property laws will likely
have low innovation and inventions (Erick, 2012)
• Strong intellectual property law is required to safeguard
companies establishing factories in a countries
• All technological innovation to be generated by FUOYE
will need to be registered to get the patent and maximize
the accruing benefits
• FUOYE can sell the patent to a company if she can not
commercialize it.
• As done by IBM
Some issues in international development
Globalization and its associated competition
Models of development:
State–led Approach
Industrialization as a means of catching up with
economic achievement of the North (Pong, 2012)
• Structuralist approach- identify underlying structures
in the international economy
• Morden approach-identify domestic factors as the
constraints to development
• Integrated approach
Some issues in international development
• Market–led approach: neo-liberal
development policies emphasis the
importance of market principles
• Trade libralization
• Structural adjustment based on market
principles (Pong, 2012)
• (major limitation is market failures-John
Maynard Keynes)
Some issues in international development
Post –Washington consensus:
Economic growth is not enough
Poverty reduction is essential for development
National governments of developing countries
must own development strategies
• Civil society participation is essential
• Good governance is very important
Some issues in international development
• UN Millennium development goals
• UN MDGs –the 8 Goals
• Many developing countries failed to attain the
• The post 2015 MDGs Agenda – Rio+20
Appropriate technology for regional development
• Less developed countries can start form
simple technology (Chang, 2012) eg
• Pot-in pot cooler
• More efficient stoves
• Q-Drum
• Life straw for water purification
• Fuel from fields
• Building capacity for science, technology and
innovation (STI)
Major contributing factors of Korea’s development
Strong political will visionary leadership
Late president Park
Infrastructure building strategy (Choi, 2012)
Seoul-Busan road
Restricted importation and production for export
Industrialization- HCI
Flexibility in adoption of economic principles
Continuity of national development plan
Communal sprit- eg the citizens contributed their gold for
payment of their loan from IMF 3 years before due date;
clearing oil pollution in sea (Choi, 2012).
• Development of human capital
Korea culture for business practices
Language-Korea some speak English
Body language (Yoo, 2012)
Vertical social structure
Personal ties eg kingship
Business cards
Gift giving
Signing of contracts
Modesty and humility
Don’t use no 4 and red colour
use the person’s title and surname
• The vice chancellor- FUOYE

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