MERV Rating

Report
Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality
What’s all the fuss about “indoor” air pollution? I always thought “outdoor” air
pollution was the main problem?
What Causes Indoor Air Quality Problems?
Interesting Facts
Air pollution is the single
greatest environmental threat
to human health!
• If too little outdoor air enters a
building without dilution, pollutants
POOR
can accumulate to levels that can pose
VENTILATION health and discomfort problems.
POLLUTANT
SOURCES
Word Health Organization
Indoor air pollution is estimated to
cause approximately 2 million
premature deaths per year mostly in
developing countries. Almost half of
these deaths are due to respiratory
conditions in children under 5 years
of age.
• Building materials and furnishings;
biological products for household
cleaning, personal care, or hobbies;
central heating and cooling systems;
pesticides; oil, gas, kerosene, wood
combustion sources and people (CO2).
MERV Rating
Urban outdoor air pollution is
estimated to cause 1.3 million
deaths worldwide per year.
Many construction materials offgas
for five or more years following
manufacture.
MERV RATING 1-4 NOT GOOD
FOR filtering the air because
they will not stop particles
smaller than 10 microns.
1-4
MERV Rating
Used to rate the ability
of an air conditioning
filter to remove dust
from the air as it passes.
5-8
MERV RATING 5-8 better
choice are commonly found
in commercial buildings.
Collects particles as small as 3
microns.
9-12
USGBC LEED Rating System
13-16
.3
1-3
3
10
Microns
WHAT DOES MERV STAND FOR?
Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value
MERV RATING 9-12 Stops
particles in the 1 to 3 micron
range. Clean or replace them
when recommended because
they will have a negative
affect on the air flow.
MERV RATING 13-20 Will stop
particles as small as .3
microns. These filters are
used in hospitals and other
super clean environments.
Intent:
Provide additional outdoor air
ventilation to improve indoor air
quality for improved occupant
comfort, will-being and productivity.
Interesting Facts
There are 25,400
microns in one
inch.
A "micron" is an
abbreviated term
for "micrometer“
A unit of length
equal to one
millionth of a
meter
 Symbol: μ, mu
For more information:
American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers
www.ashrae
(800) 527-4723
MERV FILTER 1-4 will
not stop particle
smaller than 10
microns.
Construction IAQ Management Plan
During Construction
1 POINT
VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)
MERV RATING CHART
12
11
10
9
All Combustion smoke
Carbon Dust
Virus (unattached)
<0.3 pm particle size
Welding Fumes
Auto Emissions
Milled Flour
Lead Dust
Humidifier Dust
Legionella
1.0-3.0pm Particle Size
Carpet Fibers
Textile Fibers
Spray Paint Dust
Sanding Dust
Dust Mites, Pollen
>10.0 pm Particle Size
4
3
2
1
General Surgery
Hospital Inpatient Care
Smoking Lunges
Bag Filter- Nonsupported microfine fiberglass
or synthetic media, 12-36 in. Deep,6-12
pockets.
Box Filters-Rigid -Syle Cartridge 6 to 12” deep
may use lofted or paper media
 Are a large group of carbon based chemicals that easily evaporate
Most people can smell high levels of some VOCs
Some VOCs have no odor
Superior Commercial Buildings
Pudding Mix
Cement Dust
Dusting Aids
Fabric Protector
Hair Spray
Mold Spores
3.0-10.0 pm Particle Size
8
7
6
5
MERV
10 Micron
99%
15-20
1 Micron 0.3 Micron
98%
78%
HOSPITAL INPATIENT
MERV 15 OR BETTER
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
(IEQ)
A green building should provide its
occupants with superior indoor air
quality to support their health,
comfort and well-being.
Increased Ventilation
1 POINT
MERV Rating 9-12
stops particles in
the 1-3 micron
range.
16-20
15
14
13
In homes where biomass fuels and
coal are used for cooking and
heating, particulate levels may be
10–50 times higher than the
standard guideline values.
Superior Residential
Better Commercial Buildings
Bag Filter- Nonsupported microfine fiberglass
or synthetic media, 12-36 in. Deep,6-12
pockets.
Box Filters-Rigid Syle Cartridge 6 to 12” deep
may use lofted or paper media
For more information:
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors’ National Association
(SMACNA)
www.smacna.org
(703) 803-2980
Hospital Laboratories
Commercial Buildings
Better Residential
Industrial Workplace
Paint Booth Inlet
Minimal Filtration
Residential
Window A/C Units
Pleated Filters- Disposable, extended surface
area, thick with cotton-polyester blend media,
cardboard frame
Cartridge Filter-Graded density viscous coated
cube or pocket filters, synthetic media.
Throwaway- Disposable fiberglass or synthetic
panel filter.
Construction IAQ Management Plan
Before Occupancy
1 Point
Throwaway- Disposable fiberglass or synthetic
panel filter.
Requirements:
Develop and implement an Indoor Air
Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for
the preoccupancy phase .
Washable- Aluminum Mesh
Electrostatic- Self charging woven panel filter.
Washable- Aluminum Mesh
MERV
13
1 Micron
89%
10 Micron
99%
0.3 Micron
49%
RECOMMENDED BY LEED
COMMERCIAL BUILDING
MERV 13 OR BETTER
MERV
10
1 Micron
30%
10 Micron
99%
MERV 10 Micron
98%
8
MERV 10 Micron
85-90%
6
0.3 Micron
19%
1 Micron 0.3 Micron
12%
2%
1 Micron 0.3 Micron
0
0
NOT RECOMMENDED
NOT RECOMMENDED
COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL,
SUPERIOR HOMES
Intent:
Reduce indoor air quality problems
resulting from the construction
and/or renovation process in order to
help sustain the comfort and wellbeing of construction workers and
buildings occupants
green building resource center
Indoor Chemical & Pollutant
Source Control
1 Point
Requirements:
Design to minimize and control
pollutant entry into buildings and
later cross-contamination of regularly
occupied areas.
Poster Design By Dianne Polo
Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality
Indoor Air Pollutants Sources
How Our Time Is Spent
Interesting Facts
Other indoor VOC sources that are
known for their hazard to health
benzene
carbon monoxide
formaldehyde
naphthalene
nitrogen dioxide
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(especially benzo[a]pyrene)
trichloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene
Radon is not a VOC but it’s extremely
dangerous
WHO (World Health Organization)
Air quality guidelines (AQGs) are
designed to offer global guidance on
reducing the health impacts of air
pollution.
Where Do VOCs Come from?
Many products we have in our homes release or “off-gas” VOCs. Some examples of sources of VOCs are :
WHO Guidelines For Indoor Air
Quality World Health Organization
For each VOC substance, the WHO
Guidelines chapter covers a general
description, the sources and
pathways of exposure, the indoor–
outdoor relationship, kinetics and
metabolism, the health effects, a
health risk evaluation, the guidelines,
a summary box and references.
FORMALDEHYDE
It’s A Colorless Gas
Pungent odor
It’s A VOC
It’s A Normal Metabolic
Product Of Living Cells
Probable Carcinogen
Lung & eye irritant
Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
800 ppb
100 ppb
50 ppb
http://www.who.int/en/
The typical threshold for
developing acute
symptoms.
Some individuals
demonstrate health
effects.
Most people can detect
levels of formaldehyde.
LEED
CERTIFIED WOOD
1 POINT
Intent:
Encourage environmentally
responsible forest management.
How We Measure Contaminant Concentrations?
(What does parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) mean?)
Forest Stewardship Council’s
Principles and Criteria
www.fscus.org
(877) 372-5646
LOW-EMITTING MATERIAL
1 POINT
Formaldehyde is found in
Cosmetics
Molding Plastic
Insulation
Foam Mattress
Plywood
Fumigant
Wood Smoke
Automobile
Exhaust
Emissions From
Incinerators
South Coast Air Quality Management
District (SCAQMD)
Cell Phone
Particle Board
Dinnerware
Power Plants
Requirements:
All adhesives and sealants used on
the interior of the building shall
comply with the requirements of the
reference standards: Adhesives,
Sealants and Sealant Primers:
Disinfectants
Cigarette Smoke
•Exhaust fumes from vehicles
•Emissions from manufacturing facilities (i.e. factories)
•Power generation (i.e. smoke stacks of coal fired power plants)
•Residential use of coal and wood for cooking and heating.
This pollution takes the form of Particulates and VOC’s (gases).
Filters with high MERV ratings will capture many of the particulates
(generally more dangerous), but not the gases.
Ground level ozone (03) is unstable and ultimately breaks down to
O2 oxygen in a short time, especially if it gets inside.
LEVELS OF FORMALDEHYDE IN A “BAD AIR DAY”
World Health Organization (Minnesota Dept Health)
Indoor Air Quality
median formaldehyde level
12.6 ppb
.012 ppm
maximum formaldehyde
120 ppb
0.120 ppm
Outdoor Air Quality
FYI- FEMA Trailer Case
Greenguard Limits
Avg formaldehyde level
77ppb= .077ppm
Surface Materials
25 ppb= .025 ppm
base formaldehyde level
Building Materials
50 ppb=.05 ppm
2.9 ppb
.0029 ppm
High formaldehyde level
590 ppb=.59 ppm
green building resource center
www.aqmd.gov/rules/reg/reg11/r116
8.pdf
(909) 396-2000
The South Coast Air Quality
Management District is a
governmental organization in
Southern California with the mission
to maintain healthful air quality for its
residents.
Green Guard Standard
Green Guard is an independent
nonprofit organization that certifies
products, materials, ,and chemicals
emissions. GGTM.P066 Standard that
sets VOC limits for Formaldehyde=
0.05 ppm
maximum formaldehyde
11.5 ppb
.011 ppm
www.greenguard.com
Poster Design By Dianne Polo
Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality
Stratosphere
Good Ozone
Deaths from urban air pollution
Interesting Facts
Troposphere
Bad Ozone
While levels of many pollutants have
been decreasing in recent years.
What is Ozone?
For every 75 deaths per year due to air
pollution in the U.S. health scientists
have estimated that there are
Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the
Earth’s upper atmosphere and at ground
level. Ozone can be “good” and “bad” for your health and the environment,
depending on its location in the atmosphere.
What is Happening to the “Good” Ozone Layer?
Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere and reflects UV rays. But this “good” ozone is
gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances.
These substances are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides,
and aerosol propellants and when broken down by the intensity of the sun’s UV rays release
chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy the “good” ozone.
What causes air pollution deaths?
What Causes “Bad” Ozone?
Ground-level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical
reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the
presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle
exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and
VOC. At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant.
http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/gooduphigh/ozone.pdf
Air pollution from smoke and various chemicals kills 3 million people a year.
In the United States alone about 3 million tons of toxic chemicals are
released into the environment -- contributing to cancer, birth defects,
immune system defects and many other serious health problems.
The Air Quality Index (AQI) is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you
how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a
concern for you.
Today’s AQI Forecast
Saturday, August 27, 2011
 505 hospital admissions for asthma
and other respiratory diseases
3,500 respiratory emergency doctor
visits
 180,000 asthma attacks
 930,000 restricted activity
 2,000,000 acute respiratory symptom
Low-Emitting Materials
Painting and Coating
1 Point
Requirements:
Paints, coating, and primers applied
to interior wall and ceilings; Anticorrosive and anti-rust paints applied
to interior ferrous metal substrates
Do not exceed the VOC content limits
established in Green Seal Standard .
Low-Emitting Materials
Carpet Systems
1 Point
Requirements:
All carpet and cushion installed shall
meet the testing and product
requirements of The Carpet and Rug
Institute’s green Label Plus Program.
VOC Concentrations in the air
Analysis of chemical concentration in residences,
daycare centers and school buildings indicate
that VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are the
most prevalent pollutants, with significantly
higher levels in indoor air than in the
outdoor atmosphere.
Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label
Plus Testing Program
All carpet adhesive shall meet the
requirements for EQ Credit 4.1: VOC
limits.
Carpet and Rug Institute
www.carpet-rug.com
(800) 882-8846
The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common U.S. air pollutants:
1. Particle pollution (often referred to as particulate matter)
2. Ground-level Ozone
3. Carbon monoxide
4. Sulfur oxides
5. Nitrogen oxides
6. Lead
These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage. Of the six pollutants,
particle pollution and ground-level ozone are the most widespread health threats.
Low-Emitting Materials
Composite Wood & Agrifiber
Products
1 Point
Requirements:
Specify wood and agrifiber products
that contain no added ureaformaldehyde resin. Specify
laminating adhesives for field and
shop applied assemblies that contain
no added urea-formaldehyde resins.
USGBC LEED Rating System
Leadership in Energy And Environmental Design
Redefining the way we think about the places. where we live, work
and learn.
An update on Formaldehyde
Consumer Product Safety Commission
www.cpsc.gov
LEED works throughout a building's life cycle.
LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a
building, home or community was designed and built using strategies
aimed at achieving high performance in key areas of human and
environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy
efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality.
FOR THE FAMILY
LEED-certified buildings are designed to: Lower operating costs and
increase asset value Reduce waste sent to landfills Conserve energy and
water Be healthier and safer for occupants Reduce harmful greenhouse gas
emissions Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in
hundreds of cities
Four Certification Levels
40-40
50-59
60-79
Average Savings Of Green Buildings
80+
Points
green building resource center
Poster Design By Dianne Polo

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