neutralizer

Report
Chapter 20
Chemical Texture Services
A blast from the
past
pics.livejournal.com/.../pic/0003cc97/s320x240
www.scott.k12.va.us/rita/51757_2.JPG
www.scott.k12.va.us/rita/51757_2.JPG
Chemical texture services gives the
ability to permanently change the
hair’s natural wave pattern
*offers variety of styling options
~used to curl straight hair
~straighten overly curly hair
~soften coarse, straight hair
www.wisconsinhistory.org/.../archives/003095.asp
trend911.com/wp-content/331.jpg
all4women.co.za/files.php?file=HairCare1_1751...
www.2009haircuts.info/.../2008/10/44.jpeg
Add:
First perm recorded 4000 b.c.
First recorded perm given:
1. Wrapped over crudely made
wooden rollers
2. Mixture of soil and water
3. Baked in sun
4. All day
Texture services include:
*Permanent waving
*Relaxing
*Curl Reforming (soft curl permanents)
The Structure of Hair
* involves chemically and
physically changing the
structure of hair
The Cuticle
*tough exterior layer
*protects the hair from damage
*chemicals must penetrate cuticle
-into cortex
www.hairfinder.com/hairquestions/hairporosity.jpg
The Cortex
*middle layer of the hair
*responsible for strength and
elasticity
*breaking side bonds
-changes the natural wave
www.hairdressersus.com/micro/Image10b.jpg
www.hairflatiron.org/.../damaged_hair_41220.gif
Shows how
prescription
and
recreational
drugs get
trapped in
the cortex.
Even an
aspirin can
affect the
outcome of
PW
Blood supply
Psychemedics.com
The Medulla
*innermost layer
-called pith or core
*does not play a role in texture
services
www.tardigrade.us/stfmel70.jpg
Importance of pH in Texture
Services
*potential hydrogen
*measures acidity and alkalinity
*range from 0-14
7 is neutral
below 7 is acidic
Above 7 is alkaline
4.bp.blogspot.com/.../HellaciousHair222.jpg
Chemical texturizers:
*raise the pH to soften and swell
the hair
• lifts the cuticle
•allows solution to reach the
cortex
*coarse, resistant hair requires a
highly alkaline chemical
solution
www.pgbeautyscience.com/.../Damage%2016.jpg
*porous, damaged, or chemically
treated hair requires a less
alkaline solution
newsimg.bbc.co.uk/.../_44474174_hair18_416.jpg
Basic Building Blocks of Hair
Amino acids:
*compound of carbon,
oxygen, hydrogen, and
nitrogen
Add: 18 amino acids
www.protocolsupplements.com/Sports-Performanc...
Peptide bonds (end bonds)
*link amino acids together
*form polypeptide chain
Polypeptide chains
*long chains of amino acids
web.virginia.edu/.../Images/8883n05_02.jpg
images.stanzapub.com/readers/2008/09/28/1_6.png
•Keratin proteins
*long coiled polypeptide chains
•Side bonds
*disulfide, salt, and hydrogen
bonds
www.foundationz.co.uk/.../hair_bonds.gif
•Keratin protein
*long chains of amino acids
linked together end to end
•Chemical bonds linking amino acids
together
*peptide bonds
*end bonds
• Chains of amino acids are called
polypeptides
www.codefun.com/Images/Genetic/tRNA/image004.jpg
Side Bonds
•Cortex is made up of millions of
polypeptide chains
*elasticity and strength
~Disulfide bonds
~Salt bonds
~Hydrogen bonds
•Altering these side bonds makes:
~wet setting
~thermal styling
~permanent waving
~soft curl permanents
~chemical hair relaxing
possible
farm2.static.flickr.com/1137/565739214_26d62e...
www.caribehair.com/geovannaperm1.jpg
Disulfide Bonds
*strong chemical side bond
*only broken by chemicals
-not heat or water
*chemical and physical changes
-make PW, curl re-forming, and
relaxing possible
*strongest of three
*accounts for one-third of
hair’s overall strength
Add:
Disulfide bonds add strength to the
keratin protein
Disulfide bonds must be broken down
during the perming process
Salt Bonds
*weak physical side bonds
*easily broken by changes in pH
*re-form when the pH returns to
normal
*accounts for one-third of hair’s
overall strength
www.pgbeautyscience.com/.../twoh/v3/Pump-3.jpg
Hydrogen Bonds
*weak side bonds
*easily broken by water or heat
wet setting/thermal styling
*re-form as hair dries or cools
*accounts for one-third of hair’s overall
strength
FYI: Wet set-physical change
*breaking bonds
*wetting hair/rolling on
rollers
*re-forms when hair is dry
www.pgbeautyscience.com/.../twoh/v3/Perm-6.jpg
Not in Book: Do not add, just listen
The Client Consultation
*most important part
*first:
-determine exactly what the
client expects
-what is possible
*nothing will compensate for a
lack of communication
•Ask open-ended questions
-find out what results are
expected
•What type of coloring product is
used
-metallic salts/not on
permed hair
http://www.helpusendhunger.org/perms411dosanddonts/
•Look at pictures
-desired style
•Previous texture services
-likes
-dislikes
•Currently styles his/her hair
-discuss any changes resulting
from the texture service
1.bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/hair+stylist.jpg
•Determine finished hairstyle
-haircut
-degree of curl or relaxing
•Evaluate
-condition
-texture
-wave pattern
•Fill out record card
www.totalcosmetology.com/Images/barbers.jpg
Results of spiral
conventional perm
with white rods
z.about.com/d/womenshair/1/0/-/0/-/-/IMG_3058.JPG
z.about.com/.../1/0/R/-/-/-/permafter.JPG
www.wellpromo.com/upload/upimg23/Spiral-Perm-...
Permanent Waving
*two step process
1. Physical change
-wrapping
2. Chemical change
-PW solution
-neutralizer
media3.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/phot...
cdn-write.demandstudios.com/.../80/5/20585.jpeg
The Perm Wrap
•Wet set versus PW
-difference: PW breaks the
disulfide bonds
Size, shape, and type of curl =
size, shape, and type of rod
End of story!!!!!
•The correct perm rod and wrapping
method=successful PW
***selection of solution
***What you wrap is what you get
Q. Without a perm tool, can I achieve a curl
in the hair if the PW solution is applied
to just the natural hair?
Hair wrapped on a tongue depressor
Q. What curl pattern can we expect to
achieve ?
Types of Rods
Concave rods
•smaller diameter in the center
•larger diameter on the ends
•tighter curl in center
(I feel these follow the
shape of the head
better)
stylors.com
Straight rods
*equal entire length
*uniform curl
*short rods
-small awkward sections
Hairfinder.com
Add:
Selection of rod size
1. Amount of curl desired
2. Physical characteristics of the
hair
-length
-texture
-elasticity
Other Perm Tools
Soft bender rods
*12” long
*uniform diameter
*bent into almost any shape
www.metroasis.com/suepermx.jpg
Toolboxes.flexiblelearning.net
Getsomehairapy.wordpress.com
Beautystore.com
Toolboxes.flexiblelearning.net
Loop rod or Circle rod
*12” long
*uniform curl
***spiral
***extremely long hair
Advanceddesigner.com
Hairfinder.com
Today:
Many perms are performed with
• Large rollers
• Rag rollers
• Other tools to achieve large,
loose curls
*large tools for root perms
*create lift and volume
without curls
Add:
Pre-perm analysis determines:
1. Is the hair in good condition
2. Which perm product should be
used
3. Which perm wrapping technique
and rod/parting sizes to use
End Papers
* end wraps
*absorbent papers used to control
the ends of the hair (protects)
*extends beyond ends of hair
-fishhooks
(demo)
*ends smooth and straight (covered)
-fried ends
Techniques:
Double flat wrap
Demo each
*use while in school
*most control over ends
*evenly distributed
Single flat wrap
*does not protect ends
*use only as a third paper
Bookend wrap
-one paper folded over
-use with short
rods/short lengths
-avoid bunching ends
-keep hair in center
Sectioning a Perm
*sectioning into panels
-size, shape, and direction vary
*then, divide into subsections/base
sections
*length and width of the rod being
used
Read “Here’s a Tip”
*** Break the rule
-11 perm rod PW
Lasts about 2 months
z.hubpages.com/u/1186366_f520.jpg
colorperfectsalon.com/images/Weav.JPG
Base Placement
•Position of rod to its base
On base
-45 degrees angle beyond
perpendicular
-greater volume
-my preference
-can mark or break the hair…use
picks
www.schillingdouglas.com/images/perm_new.jpg
Half off base-90 degree angle
-minimizes tension
***minimizes crispness of
curl
Off base
en.ask-schwarzkopf.com/content/image_path/125...
-45 degrees below center
(perpendicular)
-least volume
(scalp area-no curl)
i.ehow.com/.../5052200/209825-main_Thumb.jpg
Base Direction
*horizontally, vertically, or
diagonally
*backward, forward, or to one side
*wrapping with the natural
direction of hair growth causes
less stress/less breakage
-against hair growth
“band” or breakage
FYI: Not on Test
Direction of Hair Growth
Streams, whorls, and cowlicks
• base direction
• wrapping pattern
***wrapping the hair in the
opposite direction will help
client manage an area
better for about 2 months
Wrapping Techniques
Croquignole perm wrap
*ends to scalp
*in overlapping concentric layers
-perpendicular
*produces a tighter curl at the
ends and a larger curl at the
scalp
Note-not noticeable on short hair/will be
obvious in long hair
Spiral perm wrap
*from ends to scalp
*wrapped at an angle
-like a grip on a tennis racket
-angle remains constant
*conventional or loop rods
*produces a uniform curl from scalp
to ends
Different tools to achieve different looks
cdn-write.demandstudios.com/.../20/9/35529.jpg
toolboxes.flexiblelearning.net.au/.../rod_11.jpg
Sedu-hairstyle.net
Womenshairabout.com
•Extra long hair
*double rod wrap
-piggyback wrap
*better penetration of
processing and
neutralizing solutions
Add: better rinsing, blotting
results also.
hairstylist.up.seesaa.net/image/piggy20back.jpg
*tighter curl at scalp than
croquinole wrap (even
curl-scalp to ends)Fig. 20-27
Chemistry of Permanent Waving
*alkaline solution
-softens and swells the hair
-raises the cuticle
-solution penetrates into the
cortex
www.naturallycurly.com/.../2009/06/fig2.jpg
Figure 20-28
*five minutes-swelling of cuticle
(pH 9.4)
Fig. 20-29
*five minutes with acid-balanced
(pH 7.5)
-far less swelling of the cuticle
Reduction Reaction
*once in the cortex, waving solution
breaks the disulfide bonds
through a chemical reaction
called reduction
-either the addition of hydrogen
(in PW)
-or the removal of oxygen
*PW-due to the addition of hydrogen
*PW solution breaks a disulfide bond by
adding a hydrogen atom to each
sulfur atom
*breaks their attachment to each other
*once broken, polypeptide chains forms
into new curled shape
(size of the rod)
www.foundationz.co.uk/.../hair_bonds.gif
Reduction breaks disulfide bonds
*hydrogen in PW solution
-softens the hair
Oxidation reforms them
*oxygen in neutralizer
-rehardens the hair in
the new shape
img.dailymail.co.uk/.../037platell3_468x226.jpg
•reducing agents used in PW
solutions
*thiol
-referred to as thio
*Thioglycolic acid is most common
*colorless liquid with strong
unpleasant odor
*stronger perms
-higher concentration of thio
(hydrogen)
-more disulfide bonds are broken
Figure 15-31
hairsisters.com/.../ItalianPerm12_S.jpg
*acids do not swells the hair or
penetrate the cortex, so
manufacturers add an alkalizing
agent-ammonia
*new chemical called ATG
“ammonia thioglycolate”
(alkaline)
*ATG is the active ingredient or
reducing agent
*degree of alkalinity (pH)
-overall strength
Coarse hair
*more alkaline waving
solution
Porous hair
*easily penetrated
*damaged by highly alkaline
solution
*alkalinity should correspond to the
-resistance
-strength
-porosity
of the cuticle layer
Q. How do you determine the resistance,
strength and porosity of the cuticle
layer?
Q. If the hair has low porosity, will it
require a high alkaline or a milder
alkaline solution?
Q. If the elasticity of the hair is poor,
which strength of perm solution
should be used?
Add:
Stop action perms-curl takes place in
a fixed time without the risk of overprocessing
(we use on the clinic floor)
thumbs2.ebaystatic.com/pict/380084059519_10.jpg
Types of Permanent Waves
*First alkaline waves (cold waves)
*Developed in 1941
*pH between 9.0-9.6
(10,000 times stronger than hair)
*room temperature (without
heat)
www.retro-housewife.com/.../1954-cold-wave.jpg
Acid waves:
Glyceryl monothioglycolate(GMTG)
*acid with low pH
*primary reducing agent in all
acid waves
*also contains ATG (cold wave)
*repeated exposure to GMTG
causes allergic sensitivity
in hairstylists and clients
***use correct draping procedure
***use gloves and apron or
smock
True acid waves
*contain
-permanent waving solution
-activator
-neutralizer
www.wwbeautystore.com/shopping/color-perm/rev...
*activator tube contains
GMTG
-must be added to PW solution
immediately before using
*introduced in 1970’s
*pH between 4.5-7.0
*requires heat
*processes more slowly
*does not produce as firm a curl
*GMTG
low pH/active ingredient
Q. Since acidic solutions contract the
hair (close the cuticle), how does
a pH of 7.0 cause the hair to
swell?
Look at Fig. 20-32
4.bp.blogspot.com/.../HellaciousHair222.jpg
*pH of 7-neutral
*pH of 5-hair
*every step-tenfold change
pH of 7 is 100 times more alkaline
than hair
*pure water is pH 7
-can damage the hair
-causes it to swell
Acid-balanced waves (used today)
*pH between 7.8-8.2
*not true acid (actually acidbalanced waves)
*process at room temperature
*process more quickly
*produces a firmer curl
FYI
*all acid waves have three components:
-permanent waving solution
-activator
-neutralizer
*activator tube contains GMTG
-must be added to the waving solution
IMMEDIATELY before use
Just know…
-never mix until client is
completely wrapped and
draping procedure is complete
-product begins to oxidize
immediately
Q. What happens to the solution if it
is mixed for 5 minutes prior to the
application?
www.hairfinder.com/info/perm-chart.gif
Read both Caution boxes pg. 575!!!!
E
Xothermic waves
Dryer
*chemical reaction that produces heat
*heats up the solution and speeds up the
processing time
*Permanent waving solution, activator
and a neutralizer
*contains thio (in cold waves)
*activator contains an oxidizing
agent (hydrogen peroxide)
*added to PW solution immediately
before use
*causes a rapid release of
heat
*shortens processing time
www.cachebeauty.com/images/Zotos/feels_so_liv...
Endothermic waves
*absorbs heat from surroundings
*hooded dryer
*will not process at room
temperature
* true acid waves
Ammonia-free waves
*very little odor
*can be very damaging
Thio-free waves
*not ATG
*still a thio compound
*marketed as damage-free
-not necessarily true
www.modernsalon.com/.../06-61ISO_Option.jpg
Low-pH waves
*never been popular
*very weak
*do not provide a firm curl
*usually marketed as a
body wave
www.life123.com/bm.pix/home-perm-blonde-curls..
Selecting the Right Type of Perm
*after consultation
- determine which type of PW best
suits your client’s
hair type
condition
desired results
Perm for colored-treated hair may
not be safe on damaged or
bleached hair
Semipermanent color puts a
coating on the hair, making it
more resistant
Permanent Wave Processing
*amount of processing is determined
by the strength of the solution
Review Table 20-1(top of page)
Q. What will the result be if a weak
solution is used on coarse hair?
Q. What will the result be if a strong
formula is used on porous hair?
Q. If a plastic cap is not used or is not
tight enough, what will be the end
result of the PW?
*most of the processing takes place in
the first 5-10 minutes
*additional time allows for the
polypeptide chains to shift into
their new configuration
(hair takes the shape of the rod)
Fig. 20-33 (reason for not
mixing solution before
use)
Overprocessed hair
* happens in the first 5-10 minutes
* Use a weaker solution
www.hair-styles-secrets-revealed.com/images/p...
www.pgbeautyscience.com/.../Perm%203.jpg
Resistant hair
*requires a stronger solution
*thorough saturation
*apply solution slowly and
repeatedly (ex. Denise K.)
Q. Explain what it is like to
saturate resistant hair.
www.hairflatiron.org/images/hair_cuticle_cell...
Overprocessed Hair
*thorough saturation with stronger
solution=more disulfide bonds
broken
*does not give more curl
*a properly processed PW should
break and rebuild about 50% of
the disulfide bonds
*if too many disulfide bonds are
broken, hair may not have
enough strength left to hold the
desired curl
*weak hair=weak curl
*overprocessed hair
-weak curl
-completely straight
blstb.msn.com/i/56/30C7CA44767B5C2164ED6D10E0...
*hair at scalp is stronger (healthier)
-curlier at the scalp
-straighter at the ends
*further processing will make it
straighter/possibly break off
Underprocessed hair
*too few disulfide bonds were
broken
*not sufficiently softened
*usually very weak
curl/sometimes straight
*processing it more will make it
curlier
Permanent Waving
(Thio)Neutralization
*stops the action of the waving
solution
*rebuilds the hair into its new
curly form
i.ehow.com/.../5157364/265110-main_Full.jpg
www.sedu-hairstyle.net/images/perm-13.jpg
Neutralizers perform two functions:
1. waving solution is deactivated
2. disulfide bonds are rebuilt
*neutralizers are oxidizers
ADD: Also called “stabilizing lotion”
*chemical reaction
-oxidation
*hydrogen peroxide
*concentrations between 5 and
10 volume
FYI: the reason hair is lighter
after a perm
Neutralization: Stage One
*first function of thio
neutralizer is to deactivation, or
neutralization, of any waving
lotion left in the hair.
*called oxidation
*proper rinsing prior to neutralizer
*to avoid
-scalp irritation
-unwanted lightening
always rinse waving lotion for a
full 5 minutes (add 2 minutes
for long hair)
knol.google.com/k/-/-/3a9e8hggiw4cz/pt0w3t/a.jpg
*blot the hair
-excess water reduces the
effectiveness of the
neutralizer
*successful perms take time,
patience, and expertise
*proper rinsing and blotting are
important!!!
*rinse with warm water
*use gentle stream of water
*never apply pressure to the
rods while rinsing
**start at bang area then temples
*thoroughly rinse the bottom
rods
*rinse for time recommended by
manufacturer
*smell the hair
-if still smells, rinse until
odor is gone
(full 5 minutes first, then longer if
necessary)
*gently blot the hair with a dry
towel, then wubbies
*check for excess moisture, prior to
neutralizing
*adjust any rods that have come
loose
*acidic liquid protein conditioner
-applied prior to neutralization
-dried 5 minutes
*beneficial to very damaged
hair/strengthens hair
*always follow manufacturer’s
directions
Neutralization: Stage Two
•rebuilds the disulfide bonds by
removing the “extra” hydrogen
*20-36
*side bonds are reformed to new
shape as different pairs
To recap in layman's terms:
Waving solution softens and swells
the hair to break the disulfide
bonds…
Q. What would be the result if the
perm rods were removed at this point
and the hair shampooed?
The neutralizer rehardens the hair so
it keeps the shape of the perm rod.
Preliminary Test Curls
*determine how client’s hair will
react to a perm
*do if damaged
*uncertain about the results
(notice: only about 3 perm rods
placed in hair and processed)
cdn-write.demandstudios.com/.../60/9/20569.jpg
Tells you:
*correct processing time
*results you can expect
*curl results for the rod size and
wrapping technique
Test Curls
*used to check the progress of the
perm
Page 593-594 (procedure is the same as
preliminary test curls, however test curls are
done during the processing of a full perm to
check progress)
www.metroasis.com/perm1.jpg
Permanent Waving Procedures
*wide variety (when combined)
*unlimited number of styling
options
Basic perm wrap: we call it a
“straight back perm wrap”
*all rods move in the same
direction
*on equal-sized bases
*horizontal
*same length and width as the
perm rod
Curvature perm wrap:
*movement curves within the
sectioned-out panels
*follows the curvature of the head
*pie-shaped base sections
www.behindthechair.com/.../rszBasicPerm_orig.jpg
Bricklay perm wrap:
*offset from each other row by row
*prevents noticeable splits
*starting points affect the directional
flow of the hair
www.metroasis.com/bricklay.jpg
Weave technique:
* zigzag partings
*blending between perm rods
*smooth transition from rolled areas
to unrolled areas (partial perms)
Double-rod technique or
Piggyback wrap:
*two rods are used for one
strand of hair
*one on top of the other
*lower half of strand wrapped
around one rod
hairstylist.up.seesaa.net/image/piggy20back.jpg
*upper half of same strand
wrapped on a second rod and
stacked on top
***same color tool used
*effective on long hair
Q. Why should the picks never be
placed in the rods in this
manner?
Spiral perm wrap:
*wrapped at an angle
*perpendicular to the length
of the rod
*uniform from scalp to ends
*for long hair
*conventional rods, bendable soft
rods, and circle (loop) rods can be
used
www.finishingtouchspa.com/images/perm.jpg
Stack perm
Toni and Guy
Teamsmithy.blogspot.com
www.behindthechair.com/.../rszBasicPerm_orig.jpg
Partial Perms
* not entire head
* short hair
* use for hair on top
-sides and nape tapered
* volume and lift
•perimeter curls (smooth crown)
-has not been done for 30 years
Things to consider:
*smooth transition
-rolled to unrolled
*use larger tool for the last tool
*apply a protective barrier cream
(thick conditioner) to the
unrolled section
Root perm
farm1.static.flickr.com/230/481717912_a26d1ab...
11-15 perm rod wrap
www.howtogetridofstuff.com/wp-content/uploads...
Japanese
modern
day twist
on old
idea.
Claims:
•Smoother
•Looser
•Curl starts
farther
down
i100.photobucket.com/albums/m34/mbdg/process1.jpg
www.clickthecity.com/.../CTC-1957-image6.jpg
i100.photobucket.com/.../mbdg/hair_results.jpg
img150.imageshack.us/img150/8762/28948842094d...
Perms for Men
*texture, fullness, style, and low
maintenance
*helps thin hair look fuller
*helps control cowlicks
*same techniques
fershur.com/.../2008/09/mcenroe-300x285.jpg
Safety Precautions for Permanent
Waving
*protect client’s clothing
-gown
-water proof shampoo cape
-double drape
*do not give if had an allergic
reaction to previous perm
*examine the scalp
-skin abrasions
-scalp disease
*do not perm if excessively
damaged
-signs of breakage
*do not perm if treated with
hydroxide relaxers
*test for metallic salts if
possibility
*apply protective barrier cream
-hairline and ears
*do not dilute or add anything
unless directed by
manufacturer
*keep out of client’s eyes
*always follow manufacturer’s
directions
*wear gloves
*immediately replace cotton and
towels when wet
*do not save any unopened, unused
solutions
-chemicals change strength
and effectiveness
***Always recommend to the client
to wait two days (48 hours)
before shampooing
-use professional
shampoos and conditions
for chemically treated hair
Mrs. Mandato and Mrs. Kucas say:
Instruct the client to wait 2 days…if
the client uses a shampoo or
conditioner on their freshly permed
hair that is not salon qualityregardless if it is acid-balanced (may
contain waxes) the perm could
relax…
Q. Who is responsible to re-perm the
client’s hair if the perm relaxes?
Q. Who will pay for the second service,
your time, and possibly the perm
solution used?
Q. Do you want to take that risk?
Old textbook: recommended three
days waiting period prior to a color
service.
*some concern about scalp
irritation and excessive
relaxation
-Gee, do you think!
Mrs. M and Mrs. K say: wait one
week, again for the same reason
stated earlier.
Metallic salts
* home haircoloring products
*not compatible with permanent
waving
Causes:
-uneven curls
-severe discoloration
-breakage
* men’s haircolors
*progressive haircolor
*Grecian Formula
Grayhairloss.com
To test for metallic salts:
*glass or plastic bowl
*mix 1 oz. 20 volume developer
with 20 drops of ammonia
*immerse 20 + strands of hair
*30 minutes
en.ask-schwarzkopf.com/content/image_path/53/...
Results:
No Salts
*hair lightens slightly-proceed
If present:
*hair lightens rapidly
*may get hot
*gives off unpleasant odor
*Do not proceed!!!!
Add:
Metallic dyes fade:
Silver-greenish cast
Lead-purple
Copper-turn red
Add:
Hair dyed with
Lead-lighten immediately
Silver-no reaction
Copper-boil and pull apart
Chemical Hair Relaxers
*rearranges curly hair into a
straighter, smoother form
*thio relaxers and perms are
exactly the same
*all break the disulfide bonds
i.ehow.com/.../4741408/106990-main_Full.jpg
Most common types of chemical
relaxers are:
Thio (ATG)
Hydroxide
mp.hairboutique.com/.../rusk_anti_Curl2_350.jpg
www.deepbrilliance.com/.../products/relaxer2.jpg
Extremely Curly Hair
*exists in all races
*grows in long twisted spirals, or
coils
*thinnest and weakest at twists
*extra physical force
can break this area
www.hair-styles-secrets-revealed.com/images/p...
Thio Relaxers
*has a pH above 10 and a higher
concentration of ATG than
perms
*thicker
*higher viscosity
(resists flowing)
Read: Caution Box
i190.photobucket.com/.../539608.jpg
*break the disulfide bonds
-soften the hair
*after enough bonds have been
broken, the hair is straightened
into its new shape
*relaxer is rinsed
*blotted
*neutralized
Thio Neutralization
*neutralizer is an oxidizing agent
*usually hydrogen peroxide
*rebuilds the disulfide bonds
www.nihonjinnopuraha.com/.../LP-before-after.jpg
Thio Relaxer Application
*steps are the same as hydroxide
relaxers
*neutralization procedure is
different
*Relaxer may be applied with bowl
and brush, applicator bottle, or
the back of a hard rubber
comb
*different application for virgin
relaxers and relaxer retouch
*light shampoo before relaxer is
optional
*perform analysis of hair and
scalp
*Test for elasticity and porosity
*poor elasticity= do not perform
service
Japanese Thermal Straighteners
*also called Thermal reconditioning
or TR
*combines thio relaxer with flat
ironing
*Each manufacturer has slightly
different procedures
After hair is shampooed and
conditioned: (many flat iron before
straightener is applied)
*straightener is applied
-distributed evenly
*processed until curl or
frizz is reduced
*rinse thoroughly for about 10
minutes
ep.yimg.com/ca/I/sleekhair_2071_68204274
*condition and blow dry
(completely dry!!!!!)
*flat iron each section
-several passes of flat iron for
each section
article.wn.com
*then neutralize and blow dry
*service takes several hours (6-8 hours)
*not always appropriate for
extremely curly hair or some
color-treated hair
*many manufacturers require
certification to use their
product
http://blog.myhairstylingtools.com/blog/2008/02/page/2/
Q. What is the current cost
to have this process done?
http://knottyhairsalon.blogspot.com/2011/07/top-10-japanese-hairstraightening.html
Hydroxide Relaxers
*hydroxide ion is the active
ingredient in all hydroxide
relaxers
*very strong alkalis
*pH over 13.0
i.ehow.com/.../4566662/50768-main_Thumb.jpg
Types:
•sodium hydroxide
•potassium hydroxide
•lithium hydroxide
•guanidine hydroxide
* swells the hair 2x
1.bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/image0046.jpg
*not compatible with thio relaxers
*100 million times more alkaline
(stronger) than hair
*hydroxide relaxers break the
disulfide bonds differently
*removes one atom of sulfurconverting it into a lanthionine
bond-called lanthionization
*disulfide bonds broken permanently
*can never be reformed
*unfit for PW
*will not hold a curl
www.surviving-hairloss.com/images/disulfide_b...
Types of Hydroxide Relaxers
*metal hydroxide relaxers
*sodium, potassium, lithium
*include:
sodium hydroxide
potassium hydroxide
lithium hydroxide
www.behindthechair.com/multimedia/Articles/Mu...
*all metal relaxers
-only one component
-no mixing
Lye-based Relaxers
*sodium hydroxide relaxers
-called lye relaxers
i.ehow.com/.../chanelrelaxer-main_Full.jpg
*oldest-most common
*used in drain cleaners and
chemical hair depilatories
No-lye Relaxers
Lithium hydroxide and potassium
hydroxide
* “no mix-no lye”
*chemistry is identical to lye
*little difference in
performance
3.bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/relaxer.JPG
Guanidine hydroxide relaxers
* “no lye” relaxer
*two components
*mixed prior to use
*straightens hair completely
*less scalp irritation
images.teamsugar.com/.../P6120_hero.larger.jpg
*for sensitive scalps
*sold for home use
*swells hair more than hydroxide
relaxers
*more drying
Low pH Relaxers
*ammonium sulfite/ammonium
bisulfite
*mild alternative relaxers
*compatible with thio relaxers
*not compatible with hydroxide
relaxers
*does not completely straighten
extremely curly hair
*good for
-color-treated
-damaged
-fine
Base and No-base Relaxers
*hydroxide relaxers
*Base cream
-called protective base cream
-oily cream
-protects skin and scalp
-applied prior to relaxer
cdn-www.expertvillage.com/showImage.aspx?site...
No-base relaxers
*contains base cream
*melts at body temperature
Added protection:
-use base cream on hairline
and ears
www.jessicabeautysupply.com/.../1390_s.jpg
Strengths:
*Mild
~ fine hair
~ color-treated
~ damaged
www.beautyofnewyork.com/.../RLX-MILD-JAR-151.JPG
*Regular
~normal hair
~medium natural curl
*Super strength
~coarse hair
~extremely curly
3.bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/Beyonce3.jpg
Periodic Strand Testing
*tells when sufficiently relaxed
*stretch the strand
-see how fast curls are
removed
*smooth strand to the scalp
-using back of comb
-applicator brush
-fingers
*if curl returns-continue processing
phenomenalhair.blogspot.com
Hydroxide Neutralization
*deactivates-neutralizes the alkaline
residues left
*lowers pH of the hair and scalp
*does not involve oxidation or
rebuilding disulfide bonds
*thorough rinsing needed first
www.ladine.org/images/1lneutshamp.jpg
*rinsing alone does not deactivate the
relaxer or restore the normal
acidic pH
Q. What will the result be if a normal
acidic level is not achieved?
*acids neutralize alkalis
*apply an acid-balanced shampoo or
normalizing lotion
*neutralizes any remaining
hydroxide ions (lowers pH)
Neutralizing shampoos:
-built-in pH indicator
-changes color when the ph has
returned to normal
hairscammers.com
myweku.com
i282.photobucket.com/.../300_17539.jpg
Result of improper
shampooing or too
frequent applications
Hydroxide Relaxer Procedures
*Virgin hair application
-starts ¼”- ½” from scalp
-entire strand (not ends)
~cold shaft
-scalp and ends last few
minutes
*Relaxer retouch application
-starts ¼”- ½'” from scalp
-only to new growth
-scalp last few minutes
-previously treated hair, if
additional straightening
-apply last few minutes
phrophro.com
*texturizing or retexturizing service
uses hydroxide relaxers to reduce
curl pattern
*product is gently combed through
*using large-toothed comb
*allows you to observe the curl
pattern release and halt
processing
Option A:
Normalizing lotions used after rinsing
out relaxer, prior to shampooing
*conditioners
*acidic pH
*restores natural pH prior to
shampooing
Option B:
Normalizing shampoo
*used after rinsing out the
relaxer
*acidic shampoo
*restores pH of hair and scalp
*includes color signal-turns pink
*thorough consultation
-determine which type of
relaxer by:
~hair type
~condition
~desired results
See Table 20-2
advantages and
disadvantages
Keratin Straightening Treatments
*also called smoothing treatments or
Brazilian keratin treatments
*widely used
*contain silicone polymers and
formalin
*formalin releases formaldehyde gas
when heated (known carcinogen)
http://www.prlog.org/11661817-new-jersey-beauty-school-students-perfectpopular-keratin-straightening-treatment.html
sleekhair.com
hairkeratin.info
•“formaldehyde free” contains
formalin
•Keratin (protein) alone will not
straighten hair
•Keratin straightening
treatments work by
fixing the keratin in
place in a
semipermanent
manner
Price: $315.84
http://qodusa.com/qod-brazilian-keratinkits.shtml
*they do not break the bonds
Procedure:
*treatment is applied
*hair is blown dry
ehow.com
*flat ironed at 450 degrees on
narrow sections (each section
ironed several times)
*takes 2 hours or longer
Read next paragraph
http://www.goldbook.ca/src/showasset?bid=19104&acid=1&title=Madrid%2520H
air%2520Salon%2520%2520Beauty%2520Salons%2520in%2520Markham%2520%2520Ontario%2520%2520Menu%2520-%2520Goldbook.ca
http://www.josemerat.com/salon/salon_b_2f.htm
*eliminates up to 95% of frizz and
curl
*lasts 3-5 months
*not usually appropriate for
extremely curly, tightly coiled
hair.
*no certification/manufacturers do
offer specialized training in
service and after care
Conduct a detailed consultation:
•So client will understand what to
expect from the service
•Based upon
*condition of hair
*chemical history
*degree of curl
Discuss the following:
•Hair history-all chemical treatments
•Home-care maintenance during the
3-day (72 hours) after service
*hair may not be shampooed for
3 days
*avoid getting moisture in the
hair for 72 hours. If hair gets
damp, blowdry immediately and
flat iron with low heat setting
*client should wear hair down
~no pins, ponytail holders,
or sunglasses to hold
hair back
•determine the length and density
of the hair before quoting a price
Preconditioning before a Keratin
Straightening Treatment
•Equalize porosity
•Hair that is extremely porous,
damaged, or very curly
shampoo and deep condition
prior to service
Permanent color/highlights and Keratin
Straightening Treatments
•Client may have before treatment
is applied
•Use regular/mild shampoo during
the haircolor service
•Follow MD regarding use of
clarifying shampoo before
treatment (do not use on 70% or
more highlights)
Toners or Demi-gloss and Keratin
Straightening Treatments
•Done 3-5 days after the treatment
*prevents color loss
*avoids wetting newly
straightened hair
•Keratin straightening treatments do
coat the hair, a strand test may
show the product will not cover
the existing cuticle coating to
desired degree
Soft Curl Permanents
*does not straighten the hair
*makes curl larger and looser
*
use of thio relaxer and thio perm
*relaxed then wrapped on large perm
rod
*ATG and oxidation neutralizer
*can be called a “perm”, check for clarity
bobbythebrown.blogspot.com
facebook.com
Not in textbook
FYI:
Procedure:
*two services
*extremely curly hair
arajekiw.comule.com
*subsections-horizontal
*same length and width of rod
*half-off base
*wrapped on large rods
*process with second thio solution
*after processing
~rinse
~blot
~neutralize
Safety Precautions for Hair Relaxing
and Curl Reforming
*perform
~ hair analysis
~client consultation
*examine scalp for abrasions
*keep client records
*do not apply hydroxide relaxers
over thio relaxers
*visa versa
*do not relaxer over metallic dye
*do not relax damaged hair
*do not shampoo prior to hydroxide
relaxer
*hair and scalp completely dry and
perspiration free prior to
hydroxide relaxer
*use protective base cream
*wear gloves
*protect client’s eyes
wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb...
Chemical burn caused
by sodium hydroxide
relaxer
*solution in eyes
1. flush with water
2. refer to doctor
*no solution contact with ears,
scalp, and skin
*perform strand test
*avoid scratching scalp
*do not overlap
*never use strong relaxer on fine or
damaged hair
*do not remover more than 80% of
natural curl
*thoroughly rinse
failure to do so will result in
excessive skin irritation and hair
breakage
*use normalizing lotion
*use neutralizing shampoo
with color indicator
hairscammers.com
*use conditioner and wide-toothed
comb
*do not use hot irons or excessive
heat
Texture services involve powerful
chemicals
~handle with utmost caution
~act responsibly
~perfect your technique
~your services will be in great
demand
www.great-hairstyles.com/resources/1/articles...

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