### Planet Earth - Science A 2 Z

```Dynamic Earth
I feel the Earth move under my feet
Inertia
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Flattens out the poles
Fattens the equator
http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/structure/dynamicearth/internal/moment/index.htm
Oblate



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Just look at Saturn…
Low density
Extremely rapid
rotation
 1 day is 10 hours,
47 minutes
Flattens poles and
fattens equator
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030817.html
The Earth Is Not Spherical
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Very high density
Slow rotation
We still are an oblate
sphere
BONUS!!!

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1 point for just trying!
1 point for correct
answers! (and I will be
generous)
Be neat and organized
 Line up columns and
rows
 Underline your
Math Time!!!

Terms:
 Diameter
 Circumference
 Surface area
 Velocity
 Volume
 Mass
  =
3.141592653589793…
 We will use 3.14
• circumference/diameter
http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/02-029/images/circle1.jpg
Math Time!!!
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Let’s figure out the
Surface Area of Earth!
HOORAY!!!
Surface Area of a
Sphere:
 SA = 4r 2
 Diameter of Earth =
12,756km
http://www.libraryofmath.com/pages/surface-area/Images/surface-area_gr_84.gif
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
 ½ diameter = radius
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
 ½ diameter = radius
½(12,756km)
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
 ½ diameter = radius
½(12,756km)
 Radius = 6,378km
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
 ½ diameter = radius
½(12,756km)
 Radius = 6,378km
 SA = 4 x 3.14 x
6,378 2
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Earth’s Surface Area (SA)

SA = 4r 2
 Diameter =
12,756km
 ½ diameter = radius
½(12,756km)
 Radius = 6,378km
 SA = 4 x 3.14 x
6,378 2
 510,926,783km 2
http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg
Math Time!!!
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Let’s figure out the
velocity of the Earth at
the equator as it
rotates on its axis!
HOORAY!!!
velocity = change of
distance divide by
change of time
 v = d/t
http://research.physics.uiuc.edu/CTA/movies/r-Mode/images/scene2_7.jpg
Earth’s Velocity at Equator
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v = d/t
Change in Distance
 Volcan Wolf on Isabela
Island, Galapagos
Islands, Peru is on the
equator
Change in Time
 How long does it take
the Earth to make one
complete rotation on its
axis?
http://syntropypress.com/south_america_september.jpg
http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/GalapagosWWW/VWolf.html
Earth’s Velocity at Equator

How can we figure out
the distance Volcan
Wolf travels in one
day?
 What do you need
to figure this out?
http://calgary.rasc.ca/images/howfast_earth_rotation.gif
Earth’s Velocity at Equator

Circumference =
diameter x 
 (don’t use r (radius)
http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/images/pi.gif
Math Time!!!
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Let’s figure out the
volume of Earth!
HOORAY!!!
Volume = (4 divided
by 3) times pi times
4
3
 V = /3r
http://scienceblogs.com/deepseanews/240px-Sphere-wireframe.png
Turn in your papers

Be sure to include
http://yfinder.de/random/hooray.jpg
Let’s Check
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We said:
 SA =
510,926,783km 2
Actual Surface Area
 510,072,000 km²
 196,939,110 mile²
http://oxfordinspires.org/Programmes/images/earth-planet.jpg
Actual Earth Figures
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Surface Area
 510,072,000 km²
Velocity
 1,673.72km/h
Volume
 1.0832073×1012 km³
 1,083,207,300,000
km³
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0703/bluemarble_apollo17_big.jpg
Formation

During Earth’s first 100
million years, ever-larger
particles in the infant
Solar System collided and
stuck together, generating
tremendous heat.



Earth accreted, then melted
completely, and layers
began to form.
Dense molten iron sank and
created the core.
Lighter silicate liquid rose
and cooled, forming the
mantle.
http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/107/Solar/FG02_29b.JPG
The inner Earth is layered

Beneath its familiar
surface and thin crust
lie a rocky mantle and
iron core.
http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html
Proportional Layers
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Inner core – solid, hot,
heavy, dense iron
Outer core – liquid,
hot, heavy, dense iron
Mantle – primary
component of Earth
Crust – very thin
http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/threedearth/threedearth_files/image017.jpg
Inner Core

The inner Earth is hot.
 Its core is hotter
than the surface of
the Sun. Tectonic
plates move
because the internal
heat escapes into
cold outer space.
 The inner core is
hot and solid.
http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap07/FG07_23-05.jpg
Outer Core

The outer core is
liquid iron and flows
 In the outer core, a
churning dynamo of
liquid iron
generates Earth's
magnetic field.
http://lpmpjogja.diknas.go.id/kc/e/earth_files/earth-15.jpg
Mantle Primarily Rock
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The uppermost 100km of
the mantle is rigid. Along
with the crust, it makes up
the lithosphere (the
plates).
The next layer, the
asthenosphere, is solid,
hot, and soft. It flows
much like a glacier does.
The lower mantle is
extremely dense, but still
flows.
http://lpmpjogja.diknas.go.id/kc/e/earth_files/earth-15.jpg
Crust

Later, partial melting
of the mantle
produced the crust, a
process that continues
today.
http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html
The Crust – Earth’s
Thin Skin

Relative to its size, Earth's
crust is about as thin as an
apple's skin. This
outermost layer is
composed primarily of
two types of rock.
 Granite
The continental crust is
mostly granite.
 Basalt
The oceanic crust is
mostly basalt.
http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html
Extraterrestrial


Some components of
Earth are
extraterrestrial
Iridium – common in
meteorites, rare on
Earth
http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/mystery/images/fg_ktRock.jpg
http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html
Extraterrestrial


Formation of the
Moon – composition
is similar to Earth’s
crust and mantle, not
the core
Meteors more similar
to core
 Iron, silicated iron,
stony iron, or stone,
http://a52.g.akamaitech.net/f/52/827/1d/www.space.com/images/ig162_01.jpg
Plate Tectonics
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Large scale motions of
the Earth's lithosphere
Lithosphere is broken
up into tectonic plates
Asthenosphere has
low viscosity and
shear strength and can
flow like a liquid on
geological time scales
http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/subs/PSResearch/Strain/Fig8.gif
Plate Tectonics

Convergent Boundaries
 two plates slide
towards each other
forming either



a subduction zone (if
one plate moves
underneath the other)
a continental collision
(if the two plates
contain continental
crust).
Deep marine trenches
are typically associated
with subduction zones.
Plate Tectonics

Divergent Boundaries
 two plates slide apart
from each other.
 Mid-ocean ridges
(e.g., Mid-Atlantic
Ridge) and active
zones of rifting
(such as Africa's
Great Rift Valley)
are both examples
of divergent
boundaries
Plate Tectonics

Transform boundaries
 plates grind past each
other along transform
faults.
 Relative motion of the
two plates is either
sinistral (left side
toward the observer) or
dextral (right side
toward the observer).
 The San Andreas Fault
in California is one
example.
Land Through Time
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
Next 20 slides are
maps from Dr.
Scotese’s website.
Scotese, C.R.,
2002,
http://www.scotese.c
om, (PALEOMAP
website).
```