Dynamic Earth I feel the Earth move under my feet Inertia Flattens out the poles Fattens the equator http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/structure/dynamicearth/internal/moment/index.htm Oblate Just look at Saturn… Low density Extremely rapid rotation 1 day is 10 hours, 47 minutes Flattens poles and fattens equator http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030817.html The Earth Is Not Spherical What about Earth Very high density Slow rotation We still are an oblate sphere http://www.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img/earthshape_20030417112611.jpg BONUS!!! 1 point for just trying! 1 point for correct answers! (and I will be generous) Show your work! Be neat and organized Line up columns and rows Underline your answers Math Time!!! Terms: Diameter Radius Circumference Surface area Velocity Volume Mass = 3.141592653589793… We will use 3.14 • circumference/diameter http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/02-029/images/circle1.jpg Math Time!!! Let’s figure out the Surface Area of Earth! HOORAY!!! Surface Area of a Sphere: SA = 4r 2 Diameter of Earth = 12,756km http://www.libraryofmath.com/pages/surface-area/Images/surface-area_gr_84.gif Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km ½ diameter = radius http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km ½ diameter = radius Radius = ½(12,756km) http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km ½ diameter = radius Radius = ½(12,756km) Radius = 6,378km http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km ½ diameter = radius Radius = ½(12,756km) Radius = 6,378km SA = 4 x 3.14 x 6,378 2 http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Earth’s Surface Area (SA) SA = 4r 2 Diameter = 12,756km ½ diameter = radius Radius = ½(12,756km) Radius = 6,378km SA = 4 x 3.14 x 6,378 2 510,926,783km 2 http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/images/Sun_and_earth_med.jpg Math Time!!! Let’s figure out the velocity of the Earth at the equator as it rotates on its axis! HOORAY!!! velocity = change of distance divide by change of time v = d/t http://research.physics.uiuc.edu/CTA/movies/r-Mode/images/scene2_7.jpg Earth’s Velocity at Equator v = d/t Change in Distance Volcan Wolf on Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands, Peru is on the equator Change in Time How long does it take the Earth to make one complete rotation on its axis? http://syntropypress.com/south_america_september.jpg http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/GalapagosWWW/VWolf.html Earth’s Velocity at Equator How can we figure out the distance Volcan Wolf travels in one day? What do you need to figure this out? http://calgary.rasc.ca/images/howfast_earth_rotation.gif Earth’s Velocity at Equator Circumference = diameter x (don’t use r (radius) http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/images/pi.gif Math Time!!! Let’s figure out the volume of Earth! HOORAY!!! Volume = (4 divided by 3) times pi times (radius cubed) 4 3 V = /3r http://scienceblogs.com/deepseanews/240px-Sphere-wireframe.png Turn in your papers Be sure to include your name!!!! http://yfinder.de/random/hooray.jpg Let’s Check We said: SA = 510,926,783km 2 Actual Surface Area 510,072,000 km² 196,939,110 mile² http://oxfordinspires.org/Programmes/images/earth-planet.jpg Actual Earth Figures Surface Area 510,072,000 km² Velocity 1,673.72km/h Volume 1.0832073×1012 km³ 1,083,207,300,000 km³ http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0703/bluemarble_apollo17_big.jpg Formation During Earth’s first 100 million years, ever-larger particles in the infant Solar System collided and stuck together, generating tremendous heat. Earth accreted, then melted completely, and layers began to form. Dense molten iron sank and created the core. Lighter silicate liquid rose and cooled, forming the mantle. http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/107/Solar/FG02_29b.JPG The inner Earth is layered Beneath its familiar surface and thin crust lie a rocky mantle and iron core. http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html Proportional Layers Inner core – solid, hot, heavy, dense iron Outer core – liquid, hot, heavy, dense iron Mantle – primary component of Earth Crust – very thin http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/threedearth/threedearth_files/image017.jpg Inner Core The inner Earth is hot. Its core is hotter than the surface of the Sun. Tectonic plates move because the internal heat escapes into cold outer space. The inner core is hot and solid. http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/BrauImNew/Chap07/FG07_23-05.jpg Outer Core The outer core is liquid iron and flows In the outer core, a churning dynamo of liquid iron generates Earth's magnetic field. http://lpmpjogja.diknas.go.id/kc/e/earth_files/earth-15.jpg Mantle Primarily Rock The uppermost 100km of the mantle is rigid. Along with the crust, it makes up the lithosphere (the plates). The next layer, the asthenosphere, is solid, hot, and soft. It flows much like a glacier does. The lower mantle is extremely dense, but still flows. http://lpmpjogja.diknas.go.id/kc/e/earth_files/earth-15.jpg Crust Later, partial melting of the mantle produced the crust, a process that continues today. http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html The Crust – Earth’s Thin Skin Relative to its size, Earth's crust is about as thin as an apple's skin. This outermost layer is composed primarily of two types of rock. Granite The continental crust is mostly granite. Basalt The oceanic crust is mostly basalt. http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html Extraterrestrial Some components of Earth are extraterrestrial Iridium – common in meteorites, rare on Earth http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/mystery/images/fg_ktRock.jpg http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_4_0.html Extraterrestrial Formation of the Moon – composition is similar to Earth’s crust and mantle, not the core Meteors more similar to core Iron, silicated iron, stony iron, or stone, http://a52.g.akamaitech.net/f/52/827/1d/www.space.com/images/ig162_01.jpg Plate Tectonics Large scale motions of the Earth's lithosphere Lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates Asthenosphere has low viscosity and shear strength and can flow like a liquid on geological time scales http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/subs/PSResearch/Strain/Fig8.gif Plate Tectonics Convergent Boundaries two plates slide towards each other forming either a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other) a continental collision (if the two plates contain continental crust). Deep marine trenches are typically associated with subduction zones. http://www.alancolville.com/plates/cascades.jpg Plate Tectonics Divergent Boundaries two plates slide apart from each other. Mid-ocean ridges (e.g., Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and active zones of rifting (such as Africa's Great Rift Valley) are both examples of divergent boundaries http://www.alancolville.com/plates/cascades.jpg Plate Tectonics Transform boundaries plates grind past each other along transform faults. Relative motion of the two plates is either sinistral (left side toward the observer) or dextral (right side toward the observer). The San Andreas Fault in California is one example. http://www.alancolville.com/plates/cascades.jpg Land Through Time Next 20 slides are maps from Dr. Scotese’s website. Scotese, C.R., 2002, http://www.scotese.c om, (PALEOMAP website).