Standards & Unpacking Practicum in PE Dr. Cummiskey Q - What are Standards &A ◦ What students should know and be able to do as a result of instruction ◦ Standards describe the goals of schooling, the destinations at which students should arrive at the end of the unit or term. For example, be able to create a personal fitness program Standards are the WHAT of education while curriculum and instruction are the HOW! Note that the standard doesn't prescribe how to get the students to this destination -- that is determined by the curriculum. Types of standards: ◦ National ◦ State (often shaped by the national stds) What do standards have to do with my classroom? Standards guide what is taught in your classroom. ◦ Must address all of the content specified for your grade level All classroom activity should be aligned to standards. Additional benefits of academic standards? Teachers can better see if students are learning (objective measures) Teachers choose classroom activities aligned with the standards. Students know the standards, too, and can see scoring guides that embody them. Standards often posted for students to see or presented (anticipatory set) by the teacher at the start of a lesson PA Standards Facts Time Requirement Missing from the PA Requirements -previously 30 hours per year Assessment is based on student proficiency in the standards Proficiency is not based on seat time or activity time Mandated by Chapter 4 - PA School Code Standards ARE NOT a curriculum ◦ The unique way that each district uses to interpret the standards is the curriculum; the standards are a content guideline. You are the Boss – YOU determine the essential content, objectives, activities and assessments by interpreting the standards Standards vs. Activity-Based Instruction Standards based – start with standard, determine the essential content (EC) and infuse the EC in a systematic way throughout instruction and the curriculum ◦ Backward design – start with what you want them to learn first ◦ This doesn’t mean you base your units on the standards Standards vs. Activity-Based Instruction Activity based– going from one activity (hockey, tennis etc) to the next while not addressing some or most of the essential content Standards-Based vs. StandardsReferenced Standards Referenced - write the curriculum/unit/lesson plan and then “match” the standards to what was already developed. ◦ Requires considerable forethought to ensure all standards are being taught the appropriate amount. ◦ Can sometimes be used synonymously with standards-based but is different Norm in PA Backward design ◦ Why then do most programs seem activity based? Backward design is often used when creating portions of the curriculum but day-to-day programming is activity based Compromise standards-referenced. PE Reality Check: In most programs… Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment practices are often not directly linked to state or national standards. ◦ Students are missing out on a lot of knowledge they should have and skills they can do. Assessment practices are based more on timeliness, dress, and behavior vs. what the students know and are able to do (more on this in the Assessment Lesson) Health, Safety & PE Standards 10.1 Concepts Of Health 10.2 Healthful Living 10.3 Safety & Injury Prevention 10.4 Physical Activity 10.5 Concepts, Principles & Strategies of Movement Anatomy of a Standard i.e. 10.5.9.D ◦ 10: Health, Safety and PE (subject area) ◦ 5: Concepts, Principles, and Strategies of Movement (category) ◦ 9: Grade 9 (grade level) ◦ D: Principles of Exercise and Training (standard statement) Bullets (standard descriptors) Standard Statements Explain what students will learn Standard statements must be assessed Verbs and Content (nouns) become more complex throughout benchmark years grades 3, 6, 9 and 12 (Bloom’s Taxonomy) ◦ See PDE HPE standards Standard Descriptors Standard descriptors are the Bullets Explain the complexity of the standard statement School districts may add additional descriptors ◦ e.g. Is an example ◦ i.e. Must be taught Big Picture - Backward Design Process 1. 2. 3. Identify desired results – Steps 1 to 5. Determine acceptable evidence – Steps 6&7 Plan learning experiences and instruction – Step 8 (not included) Step 1. Start with the Standard Statement Standard Statement10.5.12.D: ◦ Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of exercise principles, training principles, and health and skill-related fitness components to create a fitness program for personal use. Step 2. Identify content (nouns) and verbs In statement above, the content (nouns) are purple and the verbs are red Step 3: Define the content from the standard statement Standard Statement - Exercise principles, training principles, health-related fitness components, skill-related fitness components, and fitness program ◦ part1 – Glossary of the standards document ◦ part 2 – Standard statement from previous grades (in this example 3, 6 and 9) ◦ part 3 – District interpretation (yours and that of your colleagues) Step 4: Compose Essential Questions Using the Nouns Digging Deeper into the Essential Content – beyond the Knowledge Level: Compose Essential Questions: what, why, how, when, where, similarities and differences, etc. The answers to the Essential Questions serves as the Essential Content Essential Questions – Personal Fitness Plan (PFP) What is the goal of a PFP? How often should a PFP be revised? When is it a good idea to start building a PFP? What kind of goals might a PFP include? Why should a PFPs be developed What are some possible obstacles to implementing a PFP? Essential Questions – Health Related Fitness Components (HRFCs) What are the HRFCs? Why are the HRFCs important to understand in order to develop a personal fitness program? What are some benefits to having good results for each component? When is it acceptable to begin strenuous muscular strength exercises? What are the characteristics of exercises that improve cardiovascular endurance? How often should you conduct muscular strength exercises on the same muscles? What is the difference between the health and skill related components? Why is this important? Step 5: Answer Essential Questions The answers to the essential questions represents the Essential Content of the lesson. Basically reverse the questions from the previous slide Step 6: What do the Verbs Imply? Refer to Standards Verbs Review the meanings of the Verbs to gain an understanding of the intent of the evidence (assessment) ◦ Standard statement: Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of exercise principles, training principles, and health and skill-related fitness components to create a fitness program for personal use. Step 7: Brainstorm Assessment Ideas Use the VERBS in the Standard Statement as your guide to developing assessments. Verb in standard statement – Analyze Align with the Verbs in learning objectives – The students will be able to analyze… Develop an assessment that requires analysis. Standard Assessment Format Common Mistakes Beginning with the ACTIVITY in mind before doing the other steps – the activity is devised LAST ◦ Different spin – systematically teach and assess the EC through various activity units No assessment (no proof of learning) Giving up…please have patience Objectives – where do they fit in? More specific than the essential content and relative ONLY to that lesson ◦ Standards ◦ Essential Content ◦ Objective Many different approaches to the same idea of broad to narrow The standards based format discussed in this PowerPoint is not universal, many different ways to determine what Ss will learn but they do share common points: 1. 2. 3. 4. Start with the standards Pull out the important information Narrow down to be more specific Link to assessments Examples on thenewPE Suggested Resources Understanding by Design, 2nd Edition: Wiggins & McTighe Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design: Tomlinson & McTighe Standards-Based PE Curriculum Development: Lund & Tannehill NASPE Resources NASPE Assessment Series Moving into the Future: NASPE National Standards Concepts of PE: What Every Student Needs to Know Appropriate Practices for HS, MS and Elementary PE PE Checkup Self Evaluation What Constitutes a Quality PE Program?