Designer Drug Issues in the State of New Jersey

Report
Designer Drug Issues in the
State of New Jersey
Assistant Prosecutor W. Brian Stack
(908) 575-3320; [email protected]
Revised from original PowerPoint by:
DEBORAH COLE
FORENSIC SCIENTIST III
OFFICE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
NEW JERSEY STATE POLICE
[email protected]
(609)584-5054 ext. 5741
Designer Drugs
• “Designer drugs” are synthetic derivatives
of federally controlled substances,
created by slightly altering the molecular
structure of existing drugs
• Produced illegally in clandestine
laboratories for illicit use
• Most prevalent:
Cathinones and Synthetic Cannabinoids
Worldwide Epidemic
Manufactured in China, India and Asia
Ordered online from Asian distributors
Routed through Europe and shipped to the US in inconspicuous
packaging - almost impossible to track
Sold in convenience stores, gas stations, head & skateboard shops
Synthetic Cannabinoids
(Spice / K2 / Synthetic Marijuana)
• Synthetic marijuana is a designer
drug in which herbs, incense or
other leafy materials are sprayed
with lab-synthesized liquid chemicals
to mimic the effect of
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the
psychoactive ingredient in
marijuana.
How to make Synthetic Cannabinoids
Crystalline/pure
Source: Asia
Mix with acetone
Let dry and package
Spray
vegetation
Synthetic Marijuana base can be
any smokable herbal mixtures.
Potpourri?
$25.00 for 3 grams or
$3,779.93 per pound.
$1.40 for 1 Lb =
453.592 grams
History
Synthetic cannabinoids were first designed after the structure of the primary
psychoactive compound in marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), was
figured out in the 1960s.
Synthetic cannabinoids have been used as a tool to study endocannabinoid
biochemistry and also to design cannabinoid derivatives for medicinal use, for
example in appetite stimulants and pain medications.
In the late 1990s, The John W. Huffman research group at Clemson University
began to synthesize over 450 cannabinoids. JWH-018 was one such synthetic
cannabinoid that his group created for research purposes but in 2004 it first
appeared in Europe in recreational smoke blends under the marketed name
“Spice” or “K2.”
First became available in the U.S. in 2008. It was frequently marketed as incense
in colorful three ounce pouches and labeled “not for human consumption”.
Spice or K2 became increasingly popular with high school students and young
adults because it was legally obtainable from convenience stores, smoke shops,
and online.
• Similar effects to natural marijuana -- elevated mood,
relaxation, and altered perception.
• Effects often stronger than natural marijuana due to the
synthesized chemicals. Users report psychotic effects
like extreme anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations.
• Some of the synthesized compounds in synthetic
marijuana bind much more strongly to THC receptors
than regular marijuana, which can lead to a more
powerful, unpredictable or dangerous effect - some are
100x more potent than the THC in natural marijuana.
• In addition, the chemical composition is not regulated
and may be laced with other toxic chemicals.
Growing Popularity and Media Attention
In 2010, the DEA reported that 30–35% of specimens
submitted by juvenile probation departments tested positive
for synthetic cannabinoids.
2011 Use of synthetic marijuana use was second only to use
of natural marijuana in high school seniors. 36% of U.S. high
school seniors reported past year use of natural marijuana,
while over 11% reported use of synthetic marijuana
4.5% of urine specimens collected from 5,956 U.S. athletes
tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids, the highest of all
drug classes detected.
Why so popular?
•
Easy to obtain at most convenience stores;
•
Trade shows (vendors sell products at annual
counter-culture convention in Atlantic City);
•
Most drug tests do not test for these substances –
US Military, CDL licenses, Employers, Drug Courts;
•
Addictive – Somerset County CI’s report the length
of high is only 30 minutes, and some users resort to
prostitution to fund their habit.
Spice Timeline
Hundreds of new brands
emerge: Comatose Candy,
NJ and NY Ban
Kush, Happy Hour,
entire classes
Chronic, Down to Earth,
of synthetics
Booda Bud, Fragrant
including
potpourri, Climaxxx, Cloud
analogs.
9, Wicked X
THC
isolated
from
Cannibis
Synthesis of
HU-210
The brand “spice” was
coined in Europe
USA Federal
ban on 5
synthetic
compounds
Spice/K2 hits USA
CP-47,497
by Pfizer
1964
1970
1988
Synthesis of
JWH-018
1995
K2 introduced in
Europe
2004
2006
2009 2010
2011 2012
Austria and switzerland ban
spice.
States enact
emergency Legisl.
Poison Control Data
American Assn. of Poison Control Centers
Synthetic Marijuana Data:
Year
2011
2012
2013
2014 (through Aug. 31)
Number of Cases
6,968
5,230
2,666
2,154
Horror Stories
• Synthetic marijuana killed nine
people in 2010 in the U.S.
• An 18 year old, David Rozga, of
Indianola, Iowa smoked Spice and
“felt like he was in hell” and shot
himself with a shotgun
• A Hawaiian man threw his
girlfriend off an 11th floor balcony
while high on Spice
• 2011 Chase’s Law (banning synthetic marijuana)
was passed in Georgia.
• Named after 16 y/o Georgia teen Chase Burnett.
• Chase was found dead in March in a hot tub at
his Fayette County home, a packet of synthetic
marijuana was found nearby.
• Max Dobner, (Illinois) died June 14, 2011 after he bought a
$12 packet of “ iAroma” at the local mall. Within 15 minutes
of smoking it, he phoned his older brother to say he was
having a panic attack and was freaking out.
• Dobner, a college student, got into his 1999 Chrysler and
drove 100 mph on neighborhood roads until he crashed into
and destroyed a suburban home, the car lodged inside a
baby’s empty bedroom.
• http://2themax.org/
“Bath Salts” - Synthetic Cathinones
• Synthetic cathinones are central nervous system
stimulants.
• They are chemically similar to cathinone, a Schedule I
controlled substance that occurs naturally in the khat
plant (Catha edulis) a native African plant.
Not really “Bath Salts”
Psychoactive drug that produces distinctive
emotional and social effects, similar to those of
Ecstasy (MDMA) and Hallucinogens, but also act
as central nervous system stimulants (like
cocaine or amphetamines).
Dangerous?
•
•
•
•
•
Anxious and jittery behavior
Decreased need for sleep
Lack of appetite
Severe paranoia
Erratic behavior with
potential for hallucinations
• Violence and self-mutilation
Artist Bryan Lewis Saunders’ “Drugs” Self Portrait Project
So what does doing bath salts feel like? Saunders said he's only tried any
given drug -- except for weed -- one time. But he said bath salts gave him
the worst trip of all. "It made me angry, ornery, just gave me a real vicious
angst," he said. "It's like a dark cloud of doom settling on your shoulders.
Your brain gets really clogged.” "You just want it to end -- I'd never ever do
it again," he added.
Generation 1
MDPV
Mephedrone
In decline due to
federal ban
Poison Control Data
American Ass’n of Poison Control Centers
Bath Salts Data
Year
2011
2012
2013
2014 (through Aug. 31)
Number of Cases
6,137
2,691
996
421
Horror Stories
DICKIE SANDERS, PICTURED HERE ON LEFT WITH HIS FATHER
RICK AND SISTER JAYMI, TOOK HIS OWN LIFE DAYS AFTER
INGESTING BATH SALTS. ACCORDING TO HIS MOTHER,
SANDERS FIRST SLICED HIS OWN THROAT AND SAID, "I CAN'T
HANDLE WHAT THIS DRUG HAS DONE TO ME. I'M NEVER GOING
TO TOUCH ANYTHING AGAIN." HOURS LATER HE SHOT HIMSELF.
"HE TOOK HIS LIFE BECAUSE HE WAS SCARED OUT OF HIS
MIND," HIS FATHER TOLD ABC NEWS.
Horror Stories
Investigators determine that Army Sgt. David Stewart was
under the influence of bath salts when he killed himself, his
wife Kristy and their five-year-old son (who was found with
a plastic bag over his head) in Spanaway, Washington.
Granules of bath salts were found in his car and his home,
and a 500-milligram jar of salts was found in his pocket,
according to the coroner.
Horror Stories
Mark Thompson of Alum Creek, West Virginia was arrested
after allegedly killing his neighbor's goat while under the
influence of bath salts. According to the criminal complaint,
Thompson was found semi-dressed in women's clothing in
his bedroom with blood everywhere. The goat was dead on
the floor next to a pornographic photo. Thompson told police
he'd been taking bath salts for three days.
New Jersey Legal History
“Bath Salts”
On 4/27/11, by Order of the Acting Director of the NJ Division of Consumer Affairs, six types of “bath
salts” were added to the New Jersey list of Controlled Dangerous Substances as Schedule I CDS:
3,4 – Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)
4 – Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone, 4-MMC)
3,4 – Methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone, MDMC)
4 – Fluoromethcathinone (Flephedrone, 4-FMC)
3 – Fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC)
4 – Methoxymethcathinone (Methedrone, bk-PMMA, PMMC)
K2 / Spice / Synthetic Cannabinoids / Herbal Incense
On 4/1/11, five synthetic cannabinoids became Schedule I Controlled Dangerous Substances in New
Jersey:
1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018)
1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073)
1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)etyl]-3-(1-naphtyoyl)indole (JWH-200)
5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP-47,497)
5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl))-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol; CP-47,497 C8)
The DEA Administrator issued an Order scheduling these substances dated 3/1/11; under NJ law,
the substances automatically become scheduled in NJ 30 days later.
Current Law: Synthetic Cannabinoids
(as of 3/12/13)
• Distribution / PWI – 2C:35-5.3b
– 1 oz. or more = 2nd degree
– Less than 1 oz. = 3rd degree
• Possession – 2C:35-5.3c
– 1 oz. or more = 3rd degree
– Less than 1 oz. = 4th degree
• “Synthetic Cannabinoid” – includes 11 named classes,
as well as “any other synthetic chemical compound that
is a cannabinoid receptor agonist and mimics the
pharmacological
effect
of
naturally
occurring
cannabinoids that is not listed in Schedules II through V
or is not an FDA approved drug.”
Current Law: Synthetic Cathinones
(as of 8/22/11)
• Distribution / PWI – 2C:35-5.3a (six named types)
– 1 oz. or more = 2nd degree
– Less than 1 oz. = 3rd degree
• Possession – 2C:35-10.3a
– 1 oz. or more = 3rd degree
– Less than 1 oz. = 4th degree
• Only applies to six named substances.
24:21-3c – “30 day rollover”
• c. If any substance is designated, rescheduled or
deleted as a controlled dangerous substance under
Federal law and notice thereof is given to the director,
the director shall similarly control the substance under
P.L.1970, c. 226, as amended and supplemented, after
the expiration of 30 days from publication in the Federal
Register of a final order designating a substance as a
controlled dangerous substance or rescheduling or
deleting a substance, unless within that 30-day period,
the director objects to inclusion, rescheduling, or
deletion. . . .
Any substance scheduled federally
automatically becomes scheduled in
New Jersey 30 days later.
Main groups of new psychoactive substances
Generation 2 and 3
• Naphyrone
• 4'-methyl-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP)
• 3',4'-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone
(MDPPP)
• methylone (or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone
• a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (a-PPP)
• 3',4'-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone
(MDPPP)
• Pentedrone - also known as 2-(methylamino)-1phenylpentan-1-one
• Alpha-PVP - a-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alphaPyrrolidinovalerophenone
Problem:
• New substances are being created
and sold (legally) faster than law
enforcement can identify the
substances as a problem and the
legislature can act to ban them.
Next Problem:
Vaping, E-cigarettes and E-liquids
•
•
•
•
No odor
Lab takes months to test substance
Substances not yet scheduled
Sold in vapor shops
Questions?

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