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Report
DL PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING AND
CONSULTING LIMITED
Presentation
Prepared By:
Dale Lee, P.Eng.
May 30, 2013
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AGENDA
DL Petroleum Engineering and Consulting Ltd.
Waterflood Concepts
Our Methodology
Devon Waterfloods (Diana Goldstein)
Q&A
DL PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND
CONSULTING LIMITED
Engineering focus
Analyze reservoirs’ production performance
Predict the locations of underperforming wells
 Injectors and Producers
Predict underperforming regions of reservoirs
 Infill Drilling
 injector conversions
Primary Analytical Tool: Oil Field Manager (OFM)
DL PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND
CONSULTING LIMITED
Engineering focus
Statistical analyses of hydrocarbon production
 Spatial statistics (i.e. kriging & Regression
Analysis)
 P etro-physical data
 Pressure & Production history
Purpose
 Optimize hydro-carbon recovery
Make money
DL PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND
CONSULTING LIMITED
 Previous Studies:
 Arsenal Energy:
 Bangladesh (BGFCL):
 Devon Energy:
 CNRL:
 Petro-Canada:
Provost Area – Analyzing pools
Titas – non associated gas field
Ferrier – waterflood
Nipisi – waterflood
Grand Forks – waterflood
Golden Lake – heavy oil waterflood
Bellshill Lake – bottom water drive
Wapiti – primary oil production
Williston Green - waterflood
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
Objectives of Waterflooding
Maintain pressure support above bubble point
 Keep gas in solution
 Minimize oil viscosity (gas dissolved in oil)
Physical displacement of the oil by the water
 Balance the voidage replacement ratios (VRR)
 VRR = (Injection/Production) at res. conditions
Optimize oil recovery
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
 Pressure
Temperature phase
envelope
 C to C 1 considered
waterflood zone
 Pet r o l e um S o c i et y C a n a d i a n I n s t i t ute o f M i n i n g , M et a l l ur g y & Pet r o l e um ,
D ete r m in a t i o n o f O i l a n d G a s Re s e r v e s , Pet r o l e um S o c i et y M o n o g r a ph N o . a , P g . 1 47
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
Criteria for Waterflooding
Geology (k, θ, Sw, heterogeneity index)
 Single layer model (Buckley Leverett)
 Multi layer model (Dykstra and Parsons)
Gas saturation

′
∗
<



(Craig, The Reservoir Engineering Aspects Of
Waterflooding)
Mobility ratios
 0.3 < ( ∗   )/( ∗   ) < 10
 ( ∗   )/( ∗   ) = 1, Ideally
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
Four stages of Waterflooding
Start of injection to interference
Interference to fill-up
Fill up to breakthrough
Breakthrough to economic flood-out limit
Injection rates ( piston displacement )
 = 2 ∗   until fill-up
 =
  after fill-up
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
Recovery Factor (RF)
RF =
Displacement Efficiency (DE)
x Volumetric Sweep Efficiency (VSE)
1 −  − 
 =
1 − 
 = (  ∗  )
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
 - Variable
 - Constant
Google:
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May 22, 2013 – Date Accessed
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
 Determine ROIP (Remaining oil in place)
 =
∗(1− )∅ℎ
from start of waterflood

 Determine OOIP (Original oil in place)
 =
∗(1− )∅ℎ
 
 Determine recovery factor at start of waterflood
% =
( −)

∗ 100
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
Example – Ferrier Unit #2 (Devon)
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
FERRIER PERFORMANCE
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
VOIDAGE REPLACEMENT RATIO
 
 =
  +   +  
 =
 
  +   +
 
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS
STEPPED, INTERPOLATED AND FITTED PRESSURE VARIABLES
Waterflood_Patterns (90)
48000
40000
32000
24000
16000
Waterflood_Patterns (90)
BHSI Pressure ( kpa )
Stepped Res Press ( kpa )
Interpolated Reservoir Pressure ( kpa )
Fitted Reservoir Pressure ( kpa )
0
1963 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 09
8000
Date
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
FLUID PVT DATA
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
FRACTIONAL FLOW (WATER)
 Fractional Flow equations
 =
  
    +    +   
  =  ∗
  ℎ  −

  ln  

 Used to calculate average (point) water saturation
around a given producer
 = 1/(1 + ( ∗  )/( ∗  ) +
( ∗   )/( ∗   ))
 Used to generate fractional flow plot as a function of
water saturation, Sw, (Buckley Leverett)
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
FERRIER EXAMPLE
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
FRACTIONAL FLOW CURVE (WATER)
WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS
PRODUCER WATER SATURATION
OUR METHODOLOGY
Our methodology delivers:
Production Forecasts - Fractional Flow Analyses
Production Trends - OFM Scatter Plots
Production Trends - Aerial Maps
Individual Well Production Analysis
Regional or Pattern Production Analysis
Inadequate Injection Support Identification
Damaged Injector Identification
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (OIL)
 Fractional Flow equations
  =
    
      +      +     
    =  ∗
  ℎ  −
ln


 Used to calculate average (point) oil saturation around
a given producer
 = 1/(1 + ( /( ) + ( )/( ))
 Used to generate fractional flow plot as a function of oil
saturation, So
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (OIL)
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (@SO)
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (WATER)
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (OIL)
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (GAS)
OUR METHODOLOGY
FORECAST - FRACTIONAL FLOW
OUR METHODOLOGY
PRODUCER OIL SATURATION
OUR METHODOLOGY
PRODUCER QUADRANT ANALYSIS
OUR METHODOLOGY
CONFORMANCE PLOTS
OUR METHODOLOGY
CONFORMANCE PLOTS
 Conformance plot of recovery factor as a function of hydrocarbon pore
volume injected for each pattern. The thick black line represents the
average pattern
OUR METHODOLOGY
INJECTOR HALL PLOTS
OUR METHODOLOGY
INCREMENTAL OIL CALCULATIONS
12.5
Working Forecast
Phase
Case Name
b
Di
qi
ti
te
Final Rate
Cum. Prod.
Cum. Date
Reserv es
Reserv es Date
EUR
Forecast Ended By
DB Forecast Date
Reserv e Ty pe
Oil Rate (CD) per Well, m3/d
10.0
7.5
Parameters
: Oil
: Case1
: 6.9566
: 0.0297993 A.e.
: 1.5671 m3/d
: 07/30/2008
: 07/31/2018
: 1.31753 m3/d
: 34.273 Km3
: 12/31/2012
: 2.77498 Km3
: 07/31/2018
: 37.048 Km3
: Time
: Not Sav ed
: None
5.0
2.5
0.0
2000
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
Date
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
 The red curve is used as a base line for calculating
incremental reserves ( 100,000 bbl)
OUR METHODOLOGY
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Year 2010
 First regression
 Fit 43 of 139 wells
 Second regression
 Fit 23 of 139 wells
 Third regression
 Fit 11 of 139 wells
 Total fit 77 wells
 ± 20%
  =
  − 
 
 100
OUR METHODOLOGY
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Statistical Study
139 wells
 77 modeled ± 20%
 16 wells under
performed
 46 wells over
performed (e.g.
pressure support)
OUR METHODOLOGY
STATISTICAL LIMITATIONS
Statistical Limitations:
 Regression equations are only valid for the dataset
analyzed
 Attention to end points
 (e.g. modeling relative permeability curves)
 Statistical models iterative
 Results can change with dataset and location
 Fractional flow analysis can not be generalized
 One reservoir is not necessary representative of other
reservoirs
 Each dataset requires individual analysis
OUR METHODOLOGY
FRACTIONAL FLOW (OIL)
 First presented at the 46 th Annual Technical Meeting May,
1995 in Banf f
 Published in the Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology,
August 1996
NEXT: DEVON WATERFLOODS
(DIANA GOLDSTEIN)

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