0.0_CH 5 THE PRAIRIES

Report
CH. 5
THE PRAIRIES
THE METIS FLEE WESTWARD
The Manitoba Act - 1870.
Fr. & Eng. = official languages.
MANITOBA
Two ed. Systems
Protestant & Catholic.
1870
1.4 million acres for Metis
1870 Man. Act -> Most of it was
based on the Metis List of Rights
PROBLEMS
Frustrated Metis moved West
- MacDonald’s peace agents were cruel to Metis.
- Land ownership & scrip.
- $160 or quarter section of land
($1 per acre).
- Metis did not understand (Rules - Ex. cultivation & lotteries )
and land speculators took
advantage at low prices.
-Threatened Metis with prison.
Result - Many Metis left Manitoba and moved further west.
THE METIS IN THE NORTHWEST
Tried to recreate Red River further
west.
Seigneural land patterns, Catholic
churches, farming, buffalo, & HBC.
By 1870 problems arose.
Bison declined - Laws of St. Laurent.
Food & pemmican/income became
scarce.
 Magistrate Clarke appointed.
He ran the HBC & laws of the N.West.
Conflict of interest????
HBC always got priority over Metis.
ie. Revoked Laws of St. Laurent
Why did US gov’t encourage the
decimation of the buffalo?
THE NWMP
NWMP
By 1873, the Canadian government established
the North West Mounted Police to patrol the
Northwest.
REASONS FOR THE NWMP
-Whisky traders from the US, were coming
north and used cheap liquor to take
advantage of the Native peoples.
-It was feared the US would work its way north
CYPRESS HILLS
and assimilate Canada’s Northwest.
MASSACRE
- Did not want “Wild West” of the USA.
FORT WHOOP-UP
30 Assinboine killed
by Whiskey traders
caused outrage in
Canada.
99% Alcohol
(20-40% normal)
Treaties with the Native Peoples
Settlement of the west would not be possible
without treaties and 1896 Indian Act
Treaty conditions were often ignored.
(See next slide).
Unkept promises =>Farm equipment, supplies,
farming techniques.
Reserve land often small & poor land.
Gov’t dependency increased.
Between 1874-1877,
7 treaties signed.
Mcdonald’s ‘Sea to Sea’
dream needed land.
1876 Indian Act
1876 = Indian Act
Natives to live on reserves.
Children to attend residential schools.
Propaganda Video vs. Reality Video
2008 Harper gave
Federal Apology
Missionaries sent to encourage treaties.
THE NORTHWEST REBELLION
 REASONS THE METIS WERE FRUSTRATED.
Could not re-create the Red River Settlement.
Troubles gaining land titles in Red River & the Northwest.
Canadian gov’t had its own agenda –> Natives not part of treaty process.
Prairie land was to pay off RR and debts.
Gov’t slashed “Indian Dept.”
budget.
Promised farm/land aid never
happened.
Blackmail => “Difficult Indians”
received no food relief.
By 1884, many First Nations
people starving.
- Status under Indian Act unclear
THE BLACKFOOT
NORTH WEST REBELLION RIEL RETURNS
In 1884, Riel returned from the US.
The Metis convinced Riel to leave his teaching
job and return to Canada to fight for his people.
Riel returned with peaceful intentions and
created the Metis Bill of Rights.
LOUIS RIEL
By March of 1885, Riel knew the Metis
could not achieve rights peacefully.
“Justice commands us to take up arms”
BATTLES
- DUCK LAKE
- FISH CREEK
- BATOCHE
GABRIEL DUMONT
ROLE OF THE FIRST NATIONS
The Cree supported the Metis and
fought with them.
CREE CHIEF
BIG BEAR
CREE CHIEF
POUNDMAKER
The Blackfoot opted not to fight as Chief
Crowfoot felt change was inevitable & he
wanted the best deal possible for his people.
“Pragmatist”.
CHIEF
CROWFOOT
Who was being most loyal to
their people?
RIEL’S ARREST
By May, Riel was arrested and Dumont
had escaped to the US.
Riel’s lawyers recommended he plead
insanity.
Riel refused as went against everything
he had been fighting for.
Riel was hanged Nov. 16, 1885.
MARTYR????
Riel’s jury - What emotion do
you see?
THE NATIONAL DREAM
CANADA - “A SEA TO SEA NATION”
REASONS FOR A RAILWAY
- MacDonald promised BC a transcontinental
RR if we joined Canada.
- Create a British North American nation
that would rival the US.
-To prevent the possibility of
assimilation by the US.
MacDonald looked for people
willing to build and pay for such a
huge expenditure. “Build it and we
will make it worth your while later.”
J. A. MacDonald
THE NATIONAL DREAM
(cont.)
THE PACIFIC SCANDAL - MacDonald
Promised Sir Hugh Allen the RR contract
If he paid for his election campaign.
MacDonald got caught and lost election.
Alexander Mackenzie (Liberal)
-won election but faced world depression.
-- hated RR idea but allowed Fleming
to survey.
- alienated BC.
MacDonald elected back
with his NATIONAL POLICY.
- Tariffs
- Western Settlement
- The CPR
SIR HUGH ALLEN
A. MACKENZIE
MORE POLITICAL SCANDALS
Chretien Sponsorship Scandal
Ford – Crack/DUI/Booze
Clarke – Renovation $
DUI - Hawaii
Clinton - Sex
THE CPR SYNDICATE
THE
SYNDICATE
George Stephen - Bank of Montreal
Donald Smith - HBC
James J. Hill - US Railways
STEPHEN
THE DEAL - $25 million
- 25 million acre land grant
- monopoly on RR. For 20 yrs.
- no land tax until sold.
RR TO BE COMPLETED IN 10 YRS.
SMITH
NOTE - The Syndicate changed the route to
VAN HORNE assume total control & avoid land speculators.
HILL
Construction started slow and William Van Horne
was hired to speed things up.
NOTE - Van Horne was paid $20 000 / yr. when average.
wage was $400 /yr.
Equivalent = $1 000 000 / yr. today.
CPR SYNDICATE CHANGES ROUTE
BUILDING THE CPR
 Van Horne made deadlines (completed in 1885) but $ ran out.
 Canadian gov’t gave $22.5 million to finish.
 Van Horne cut corners - ie. temp. bridges & ignored safety grades.
 Terrible work & living conditions.
 Bugs, poor diets, filthy bedding, leaks, danger, no plumbing.
 Over 35 000 ‘Navvies’
needed to finish the RR.
 1885 Rebellion transported
troops & showed value of RR.
=> justified more $ to finish.
THE LAST SPIKE
NOV. 7, 1885
A THOUGHT TO PONDER!
The expansion of Canada came with a great deal
of controversy.
Treatment of the First Nation people.
Finances
Pacific Scandal
Catering toEastern Business
1885 Rebellion
Settling the West
U.S. Manifest Destiny
Land Speculators
CPR
Working conditions
Van Horne
B.C.
Rockies - Rogers Pass

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