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ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE THE
C O M P O U N D S T H AT C O N T A I N
CARBON
THEY CAN BE FOUND IN PRODUCTS
MADE FROM LIVING THINGS OR
T H I N G S T H AT A R E A R T I F I C I A L LY
PRODUCED.
T H E Y A R E P A R T T H E S O L I D M AT T E R
OF EVERY ORGANISM ON EARTH.
R A W M AT E R I A L S F O R M O S T
M A N U FAC T U R E D O RG A N I C
COMPOUNDS COME FROM
PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL.
M A N Y O RG A N I C C O M P O U N D S H AV E
SIMILAR PROPERTIES IN TERMS OF
H A V I N G M E LT I N G P O I N T S , B O I L I N G
POINTS, ODOR, ELECTRICAL
C O N D U C T I V I T Y, A N D S O L U B I L I T Y.
M A N Y H A V E L O W M E LT I N G A N D L O W
BOILING POINTS
T H E Y T E N D TO H AV E ST RO N G
ODORS
DON’T CONDUCT ELECTRIC
CURRENT
A N D D O N ’ T D I S S O LV E I N W AT E R .
CARBON COMPOUNDS
BY Lily, Jorge, and Skyler
Carbon Atoms
Carbon atoms act as the backbone of a
skeleton or the molecules of these
compounds. Carbon compounds include
gases such as, propane; liquids such as,
olive oil; and solids such as, cotton.
Mixtures of compounds can be found in
food, paper, and shampoo.
organic compounds
organic compounds are compounds that contain
carbon. the term is used because scientists once
thought that organic compounds could only be
produced by living things. but, now scientists know that
they can also be artificially produced.
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
many organic compounds have similar properties in
terms of melting points, boiling points, odor,
electrical conductivity, and solubility.
many organic compounds have low melting points
and low boiling points. as a result they have strong
odors.
hydrocarbons


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
the simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons.
a hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains
hydrogen and carbon.
Methane, the main gas in natural gas, and it is used
to heat homes
Propane
STRUCTURE OF
HYDROCARBONS
By: Athena the awesome
Caden the grey
Marleen the sparkles
CARBON CHAINS
A hydrocarbon may be straight, branched
or ring shaped
They can be straight or branched
STRUCTURE FORMULA
A structure formula shows the kind,
number and arrangement of atoms in a
molecule.
METHANE CH 4
ETHANE C 2 H 6
PROPANE C 3 H 8
Compound that have the same chemical
formula but different structural formulas.
Butane and Isobutane

Double and Triple bonds

 Carbon can form a single or double bond with
oxygen
 Structural formulas represent a double bond with a
double dash between two elements
 A triple bond is indicated by a triple dash
Saturated and
unsaturated
hydrocarbons
By Andrew Martin
Penny Kibbe
Jaquie Macias
Contents
 Saturated
Hydrocarbons
 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 Classifying Saturated Hydrocarbons
 Classifying Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 ConclusionS
Saturated Hydrocarbons
 Saturated
Hydrocarbons are
hydrocarbons (molecules with only
Hydrogen and Carbon Atoms) in which all
bonds are single bonds
 It has the maximum number of atoms in
the valence field
 All saturated hydrocarbons end in the
suffixes –ane
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 Hydrocarbons
in which at least one or
more bonds are double or triple
 All unsaturated hydrocarbons end in the
suffix –ene or –yne.
Simplest unsaturated
Hydrocarbon and Function
 The
simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon
with one double bond is ethene (C2H4)
 Fruits produce ethene gas because it
helps the fruit ripen.
 The simplest hydrocarbon with one triple
bond is ethyne (C2H2), also known as
acetylene.
 Acetylene torches are used for welding.
Conclusion
 Saturated
Hydrocarbons
 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 Classifying Saturated Hydrocarbons
 Classifying Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 Conclusion
Substituted Hydrocarbons
And compounds containing halogens
• Hydrocarbons contain only one carbon and one
hydrogen
• Carbon can form stable bonds with several other
elements
• Substituted hydrocarbon- atoms of other elements
replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a
hydrocarbon
• Hydrocarbons include- halogen-containing
compounds, alcohols, and organic acids
• One or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms
• Halogen family includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and
iodine
• Freon is used as a cooling liquid in refrigerators and air
conditioners
Chapter 8 Stuff
By: Pierson, Caius, Joe
Substituted Hydrocarbons
• Substituted Hydrocarbons are where
atoms of other elements replace one or
more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon.
• If you change on hydrocarbon it becomes
a completely different compound.
• The carbon can bond with many other
elements like oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and
halogens
Compounds Containing Halogens
• In some substituted hydrocarbons one or
more halogens replace hydrogen atoms.
• Halogen family includes fluorine, chlorine,
bromine, and iodine.
• Freon is used as a as a cooling agent in
refrigerators.
Alcohols
• An alcohol is a substituted hydrocarbon that
contains one or more hydroxyl groups.
• They have high boiling points and dissolve well
in water
• When a hydroxyl group is substituted for one
hydrogen atom in ethane, the result is
ethanol.
• Ethanol is produced naturally by the action of
yeast or bacteria on the sugar stored in corn.
Organic Acids
• An organic acid is a substituted hydrocarbon
that contains one or more carboxyl groups.
• A carboxyl group is written as –COOH
• You can find organic acids in many foods
Esters
• An ester is a compound made by chemically
combining an alcohol and an organic acid.
• Many esters smell like fruit
• Esters are responsible for the smell of many
fruits
• Some esters are used in medicines like aspirin
*
By: Jack, Ruysch, and Max
* In chapter 8, our science textbook explains
carbon compounds. Organic compounds are
compounds that contain carbon within them. It
also talks about hydrocarbon, isomers, the
carboxyl group, monomers, and so on.
*
* An ester is a compound made by chemically
combining alcohol and an organic acid.
*
* Very large molecules made of a chain of
smaller molecules bonded together is a
polymer. The prefix poly means “many” and
mono means “one”.
*
* Some polymers are made by many living things.
Examples are sheep growing wool and cotton
fibers from cotton seeds. Synthetic polymers
are made in factories. Nylon or polyesters are
synthetic polymers.
*

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