Scotland is part of United Kingdom
The money used is called the sterling pound
The population of Scotland is 4.996.000
Scottish English: varieties of English spoken
in Scotland
◦ Gaelic is an ancient language of Scotland
◦ Most of the Gaelic speaking-people live in the
Union of the Crowns (1603)
Union of the Parliaments (1707)
Steady decline of Scots begins in 16th century, by the end
of the 17th century
English has gained considerable influence in Scotland
English learned formally in Highlands and northern and
Will instead of shall .
Ex: Will I see you after?
Passive expressed by “get”
Ex: I got told off
Verbs of motion may be elided before adverbs of motion
Ex: I’ll away home then; the cat wants out.
“Have” behave more like an auxiliary
Ex: he’d a good time
“Need to”, “use to” and “dare to” are used as main verbs.
Ex: he didn’t need to do that; he doesn’t dare to talk
Perfect aspect of a verb is indicated using “be” as auxiliary
with the preposition “after”
Ex: “he is after going” instead of “ he had gone”
Some verbs are used progressively.
Ex: I was hoping to see him or they were meaning to come
Pronouns in –self may be used non- reflexively
Ex: How’s yourself today?
Anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody are preferred to
anyone, everyone, no one, someone.
Amn’t I? is used virtuarlly to the exclusion of aren’t I?
Ex: I’m expected too, amn’t I?
use of “not” rather than “n’t”
Ex: he’ll not come; you’re not wanted.
 The
 The
adverbial particle follows the verb
Ex: he turned out the light
of participle after “need”
Ex: My car needs washed
 Use
 Dinnae=
 Aye=
 Brae= hill
 Wee = small
 To mind= to remember
 Dram= drink
 Gate= road
 Nippin’ = nagging
 Paddock = frog
 Canny = careful
 Kirk= church
 Kilt
= Scottish Skirt
 Lassies = girls
How are you keeping ? = how are you?
That’s me away = I’m going now
The back of nine o’ clock = soon after nine
o’ clock
I’ve got the cold = a cold
Vowels and consonants
Strongly rhotic (trilled alveolar /r/ or alveolar tap
/R /)
Monophthongized diphthongs:
◦ RP/əU / as /o/ (“go” /go/);
◦ RP /εI/ as /e/ (“play” /ple/);
◦ RP /aU/ as /u:/ (“house” /hu:s/)
Unstressed vowels often realized as /I/
where RP has /ə/
◦ “pilot” as /pʌilIt/,“letter” as
and /U /, e.g. “pool” and
“pull” are homophones
 /u:/
/ɔ/ and /ɒ/ merged to /ɔ/ such that “cot”
and “caught” are homophones
/I / and /ʌ/ are always short
RP diphthong /AI / becomes longer. e.g., in
“tied”, “high”, “prize”.
Non-initial /t/ often replaced by /ʔ / (“butter”
/bʌʔIr/) , use decreases in higher social classes
Which is the second largest city of Scotland?
a) Aberdeen
b) Glasgow
c) Edinburgh
When did the Union of the Parliaments happen?
a) 1607
b) 1807
c) 1707
Which is a national symbol of Scotland?
a) Sunflower
b) Thistle
c) Rose
In Scottish English, “have” could be….
a) A modal
b) An auxiliar
c) Both of them
Perfect aspect of a verb is indicated using
“be” as auxiliary with the preposition…
a) Before
b) After
c) At
What does “wee” mean?
a) Small
b) Big
c) Cold
What does “kilt” mean?
a) Church
b) Scottish skirt
c) Trousers
In Scottish English, which are homophones?
a) /u:/ and /U/
b) /U/ and /I/
c) /U/ and /A/
/I / and /ʌ/ are always…
a) Homophones
b) Long
c) Short
When does Scottish use glottal stop?
a) Consonant “t”
b) Consonant “d”
c) Consonant “k”

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