KMF 2033 Research Methodology

Chapter 1: Introduction
 Chapter 2: Literature Review
 Chapter 3: Methodology
 Chapter 4: Data Analysis and
Interpretation of Findings
 Chapter 5: Discussion and conclusion
To acquire information/knowledge
Research – a particular way of knowing
Emphasis on systematic investigation
Scientific method- collecting observations
in a systematic and objective manner
Identify problem
Generate Objectives/hypotheses/RQ
Collect data
Determine whether or not the hypotheses are
Researches that use non-scientific method
› Historical, etnography
Basic research (Fundamental Research)
› Concerned with fundamental and theoretical
› A foundation upon which others can develop
applications and solutions
› while basic research may not appear to be
helpful in the real world, it can direct us toward
practical applications in the long run.
› E.g. A study on job rotation impact (positive and
negative impact) on employees.
Applied research
› concerned with finding solutions to practical
problems and putting these solutions to work
in order to help others
› E.g. Action Research on Best Job Rotation
practices for Academic Institution
Research Introduction and background
Problem statement
Objectives (main & specific objective)
Hypotheses or research questions
Theoretical/conceptual framework (quantitative
› Variables definition (quantitative only)
Definition of terms (include operational definition)
Contribution/Significance/important of research
Limitation of research
2 things to be considered
› Level of interest
 Topic of interest will motivate one to do research on it
 Choosing the wrong topic – you might end up or fail to
discover some interesting value.
› Feasibility
 Your capability to complete a research conducted –
e.g. data collection and analysis, report writing
 Always take a research as you want to unveil a mystery
Yourself (observation on a particular
Discussion with expert in the field
Journal articles
Academic books (based on research work)
Proceeding and conference papers
Thesis, dissertation, final year project
Organizational Report (e.g statistic)
Others (Internet, Newspapers/magazines
A problem statement is a clear concise description
of the issues (or problems) that need to be
addressed by a researcher.
The primary purpose of a problem statement is to
focus the attention of the researcher.
A research-worthy problem statement is the
description of an active challenge (i.e. problem)
faced by a researcher that does not have
adequate solutions or theoretical foundation.
› Should briefly address the question: What is the problem
that the research will address?
Define a problem or a gap that need to be
researched to find a solution
Justify the need for a research
These gaps are discovered through journal articles
(refer to limitations or suggestions in journal articles)
Sometimes a problem is discovered through:
› personal experience of a researcher or a
research sponsor
› phenomena that happens around us.
No known study that has looked into this specific
topic. - exploratory research
There are only few studies that address this issue
but most of the studies were done in Western
countries especially in the United States(Mueller,
1998; Adruce, 2002; Adam, 2008) – Confirmatory
There are several research works in this specific
area but the findings are not consistent. Therefore,
there is a need to do further research in this area –
Confirmatory research
There are several research works that have looked
into a direct relationship between smoking habit
and cancer; however, no known research has
specifically looked into a mediator/moderator
effect of a third variable (types of food consumed)
This incident (eg. Tsunami) has never happened in
Malaysia, therefore, there is a need to study the
post Tsunami effects in the affected region of
Most of the previous research in this area were
done using qualitative method; therefore, there is a
need to use quantitative/experimental method to
test the preposition/ hypothesis.
Most of the previous research in this area
were done using quantitative method;
therefore, there is a need to use
qualitative/experimental method to
validate the findings.
Based on the Problem Statement mentioned earlier
It is a statement that explains what the study will
focus on
There are two types of objective
› Main (This study is interested in studying the
employees behavior related to job rotation
amongst support staff)
› Specific (to study the relation ship between job
rotation and job satisfaction)
The purpose is to refine the objective of the study
and make it easier to understand what we want to
When to use Hypothesis or research question
› Phenomena has been studied before and to test the findings we
use hypotheses testing (e.g There is a relationship between job
rotation and job satisfaction)
› If no known study has been done in that specific area we should
use research question instead (e.g Is there any relationship
between job rotation and job satisfaction?
When can we use hypothesis even if there is no
know research done in a specific area?
› Experimental research
Only to be used in quantitative study.
 There is no need for
theoretical/conceptual framework in a
Qualitative study
Basic Needs
Peer Support
Job Satisfaction
There is a relationship between Basic
Needs and Employees Job Satisfaction
 Better Job Security will result in Better
Employees Job Satisfaction
 There is a relationship between work
environment and employees job
 RQ if there is no hypothesis
› Which of the above factors rank the highest contributor to
job satisfaction?
Dictionary definition
› Defined by dictionary
Operational definition
› An operational definition defines something
(e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of
the specific process or set of validation
tests used to determine its presence and
Theoretical Definition
› A theoretical definition relies on the
acceptance of theories and so it does not
simply reduce to a set of observationsLike
the theories that build them, theoretical
definitions also improve as scientific
understanding grows
› theory/concept/model/hypothesis/proposition
or knowledge in the field
› Methodology
 Research Framework (statement of problem,
objective, hypothesis, research question)
 Instrument (questionnaire, interview guide,
observation guide etc.)
 Data Collected
 Data Analysis Framework
› Practitioner and community
This study is expected to contribute toward
a theory (e.g. diffusion of innovation)
related to the use of technology in
organization because findings from
previous studies implicate lack of
consistencies either in supporting or refuting
the theory.
 Use of ICT in organization is a developing
area and not many studies have really
studied Malaysian organizations pertaining
to their employees usage of ICT
Since not many research were done in this
area before, the Research Framework
(statement of problem, objective,
Hypothesis and Research Questions) use in
this study could be use by future researcher
who wanted to replicate this study.
 The Instrument (questionnaire, interview
guide, observation guide etc.) used in this
research could be used for future research
in the same area.
Findings from this research especially on
the office and environmental factors
that ensure success in job rotation should
be a good guide to Human Resource
 Finding from this research should also
inform the community of employees in
the organization on the important of
office and environmental factors to
ensure success in job rotation practices.
Topical/subject/field limitation (limited to
study of HRD and not on Psychology or
management aspect of human resource)
 Methodological limitation (Data collection
› Population and Sample
› Time Frame
› Area/place of research
 Resources Limitation (for example Literature
Review is limited to Emerald online
Gather all related and relevant findings
from previous studies.
› Introduction to the Chapter
› Discussion on Theories, models, concepts
and philosophy related to the research
› Discussion on previous studies related to the
topics. Guided by the specific objectives in
the study.
› Summary of the chapter
What it is not
› Not an essay
› Not just a mere summary or annotated
bibliography or abstract
What it is
› Reflection of previous studies
 Improve understanding on topic of interest
 Status of works done in similar area
 Updating you on what have been done in the
Locate all related Previous Works on
same topic to update you on what have
been done.
› Highlight the status of Previous research and
finding Gaps or opportunities (availability,
strength, weaknesses)
 Uncertainties and doubts in previous findings
 Limitations of previous studies that need to be
dealt with
 Methodological limitation
 Geographical location
 Time factor
Research Framework (Qualitative, Quantitative or
Place and time of study
Population under study
› Unit of analysis
› Sample/respondent/informant (qualitative)
› Sampling method and sampling framework
Method of Data Collection
› Survey using Questionnaire (quantitative)
› Interview (qualitative)
› Document Analysis
› Observation Technique
Determining method of data collection for each
objective/research question/hypothesis
Research Instrument
› Pre-Test and pilot test (quantitative)
 Validity and reliability issues
Equipments (video, audio recorder etc.) to be used during
data collections
Consent Form
Research Schedules and Timelines
Quantitative (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) Confirmatory
› to research questions that are best answered by
collecting and analyzing numerical data (using
Qualitative (mostly using inductive Reasoning) –
Mixed Method – Qualitative and Quantitative
› To research questions that are best answered by
giving descriptions on how one understand and
interpret various aspects in their surroundings
Experimental (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) –
Looking at Cause & Effect
To be determined – provide justification
 Determined also time to conduct the
study because both place and time
could determine the outcome of the
Determine the population where the
study will be conducted
 Identify the unit of analysis (individual or
 Determine the sampling method (simple
random method, cluster, stratified,
systematic, purposeful/convenient, snow
balling etc.) to be used and design the
sampling framework
Survey - Quantitative
 Experimental – Quantitative, Qualitative
 Correlation - Quantitative
 Case study – Quantitative, Qualitative
 Historical - Qualitative
 Ethnography – Qualitative
Present your analysis of data –
summarize the relevant findings that are
crucial to your study.
Interpret your data to meaningful
information that is understandable.
 Discussion and comparison with previous
studies (focusing on similarities or
differences in term of result)

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