Collaborative Learning

Report
Collaborative
Learning
John Milliken
School of Education
Queens University Belfast
Learning outcomes
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To consider the role of collaborative learning
To examine some collaborative learning
approaches
To consider some aspects of educational
debate
To be aware of changing aspects of teaching
and learning
Curriculum issues
Prescriptive Curriculum
Experiential Curriculum
Teacher-centered
Student-centred
Linear & rational
Coherent & relevant
Part to whole organisation
Whole to part organisation
Teaching as transmitting
Teaching as facilitating
Learning as receiving
Learning as constructing
Structured environment
Flexible environment
Learning in context
Teaching vs learning
John Amos Comenius, a 16th
Century scholar; summarised the
approach that teaching should
follow, “The main object is to find
a method by which teachers
teach less but learners learn
more”, proving that current
problems have noble pedigrees.
Collaborative learning
“Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of
educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students,
or students and teachers together. Usually students are working in
groups of two or more, mutually searching for understanding,
solutions or meanings, or creating a product.
Collaborative learning activities vary widely, but most center on
students’ exploration or application of the course material, not
simply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it”.
Smith and McGregor (1992)
Educational goals
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Involvement
Co-operation and
teamwork
Community
responsibility
Assumptions about learning
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Learning is an active constructive process
Learning depends on rich contexts
Learners are diverse
Learning is inherently social
Approaches
Collaborative learning
Co-operative learning
Writing groups
Learning communities
Peer teaching
Problem-based learning
Discussion groups
RQ
Widespread use
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Based on theory and validated by research
Amount, generalisability, breadth and
applicability
Variety of co-operative learning methods
available
Why use cooperative learning?
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promote student learning and
academic achievement
enhance student satisfaction
with their learning experience
help students develop skills in
oral communication
develop students' social skills
promote student self-esteem
increase student retention
develop a community of learners
5 Elements of cooperative
learning
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Positive interdependence
Face-to-face interaction
Individual and group accountability
Interpersonal and small group skills
Group processing
Postive interdependence

Each group member's efforts
are required and indispensable
for group success

Each group member has a
unique contribution to make to
the joint effort because of his
or her resources and/or role
and task responsibilities
Sink or swim together!
Face-to-face interaction

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Orally explaining how
to solve problems
Teaching one's
knowledge to others
Checking for
understanding
Discussing concepts
being learned
Connecting present
with past learning
Promote each other's success
Individual and group
accountability
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Keeping the size of the group
small.
Giving an individual test to each
student.
Randomly examining students
orally.
Observing each group and
recording the frequency with
which each member-contributes
to the group's work.
Assigning one student in each
group the role of checker.
Having students teach what they
learned to someone else.
No hitchhiking! No social loafing
No freeloading
Interpersonal and small group
skills
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Social skills must be taught:

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Leadership
Decision-making
Trust-building
Communication
Conflict-management skills
Mutual understanding
Group processing

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Group members discuss
how well they are
achieving their goals and
maintaining effective
working relationships
Describe what member
actions are helpful and not
helpful
Make decisions about
what behaviours to
continue or change
RQ
Jigsaw Approach
Jigsaw Approach
Jigsaw approach
Approaches
Collaborative learning
Co-operative learning
Writing groups
Learning communities
Peer teaching
Problem-based learning
Discussion groups
Problem based learning (PBL)
PBL is a learning-centred pedagogy based
on current theories of learning including
constructivism, social constructivism and
situated learning.
Problem-based learning clearing house https://chico.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/
PBL - an iterative process
You
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Mr.
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Mrs.
have
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been
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aindifferent
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…..
organisational
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to
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..... the mechanism of the killing…
Brainstormhypothesize
Read the
problem
Next page
EVALUATE
Identify learning
issues
Research-Learn
Return-RereadReport-Review
Prof. H. Pross
Queens School of Medicine
Kingston, Ontario
Problem statement
EXEMPLAR TASK:
Based on the information provided on the
handout, work in groups of four and
compile a problem statement.
Approaches
Collaborative learning
Co-operative learning
Writing groups
Learning communities
Peer teaching
Problem-based learning
Discussion groups
Learning communities


1.
2.
Sociocultural and constructivist views of
learning (Lave & Wenger)
Two important questions:What social engagements and processes provide the ‘proper’
context for learning?
What forms of co-participation might be required when
engaging learners in these forms of learning.
Community types

Learning community: focus on learning together,
sharing, developing relationships

Communities of practice: focus on developing
professional practice

Community of enquiry: focus on enquiring about
and issue/area

Knowledge community: focus on developing
knowledge
Cyber communities
Teaching/learning
Face-to-face
Blended
Online
“…the cornerstone of an online community lies in the presence of
socially close, strong, intimate ties, the development of trust, shared
values and social organisation.
The quality of peoples’ relations is an important characteristic in an
online community
(This will be the modified role of the teacher as an e-moderator!)
E-Learning (teacher to moderator)
Salmon (2005)
References
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Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R. T. (1990) Cooperation and
Competition: Theory and Research, Edina, MN; Interaction Book
Company
Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning; legitimate peripheral
participation, Cambridge University Press
McConnell, D. (2006) E-learning groups and communities, SRHE/OU
Press
Salmon, G. (2005) E-moderating, Open University Press
Smith, B. L. & McGregor, J. (1992) What is collaborative learning? –
National Center on Postsecondary education

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