Mandatory

Report
Surveillance in Europe:
status and plans
MAKS 2013, Moscow
29th August 2013
Johan Martensson
Network Manager Directorate, EUROCONTROL
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation
Agenda
1
• Introduction
2
• Deployment & Regulations
3
• Performance Analysis
4
• Next steps
2
ADS-B/WAM Deployment – CASCADE

Wide Area Multilateration (WAM)

Ground Surveillance Applications (ADS-B Out)





Enhanced ATS in Non-Radar areas (NRA)
Enhanced ATS in Radar areas (RAD)
Airport Surface Surveillance (APT)
Aircraft derived data (ADD)
2010 IOC
ADS-B
Receiver
Airborne Surveillance Applications (ADS-B In ATSAW)




ATS – Air Traffic Services
TSA – Traffic Situation Awareness
Enhanced TSA during Flight operations (AIRB)
In Trail Procedure (ITP)
2011
Visual separation on approach (VSA)
Enhanced TSA for Surface operations (SURF)
IOC
 Interval Management (FIM - ADS-B In Spacing)
3
Global interoperability
•
More than a decade of intensive international co-operation
•
•
Common Standards for Operations and Systems
•
•
•
•
Completed for
• ADS-B Out
• ADS-B In: Traffic Situation Awareness in the cockpit
Ongoing for
• ADS-B In: Spacing, Separation, Alerting
Aligned Certification material
Civil-Military interoperability
•
•
•
•
•
•
ANSPs/Airspace Users/Industry/Regulators
Reduction of exemptions for State aircraft
Provisions for military in SES Regulations
Rationalisation of CNS infrastructure
Exchange of functional performance assessment results
Guidance to implementers
Great contribution to global interoperability and cost-efficiency
4
Agenda
1
• Introduction
2
• Deployment & Regulations
3
• Performance Analysis
4
• Next steps
5
ADS-B IN
ADS-B and WAM Deployment in Europe
Pioneer Phase
Voluntary implementation in wider areas
New equipage
Avionics: EASA AMC20-24 and later EASA CS-ACNS
WAM
ADS-B OUT
Pioneer Phase
Voluntary implementation
in pocket areas
Certified existing equipage
Avionics:
EASA AMC20-24
Mandate Phase
EU Regulation 1207/2011
2015
2017
2019
Forward-fit
Retro-fit
State a/c
IR based implementation
in wider areas
Upgraded equipage
Avionics:
EASA CS-ACNS
WAM / ADS-B Ground system Deployment
6
ADS-B Out and Mode S Mandate
Regulation (EU) 1207/2011
European Commission Single European Sky
Surveillance Performance & Interoperability
Implementing Rule
(SPI IR)
● All aircraft flying IFR/GAT
● Mode S ELS
● Aircraft flying IFR/GAT >5700 kg or >250kts TAS
● ADS-B Out & Mode S EHS
● Option for ADS-B specific airspace mandate
● Mandate dates
● Forward fit
8 Jan 2015
● Retrofit
7 Dec 2017
● Provisions for State a/c (Article 8)
● 7 Dec 2017 (Mode S ELS)
● 1 Jan 2019 (Mode S EHS and ADS-B for transport-type aircraft)
7
Mode S radar Deployment
• 322 Mode S radars
• 12 new applications (not included)
8
Austria
ADS-B & WAM Deployment
Legend
Dates
ADS-B
current equipage
ADS-B
updated avionics
WAM with ADS-B
capabilities
ADS-B and WAM
Opportunities
System Deployment
D = Deployed
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Cyprus
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Iceland
Italy
Latvia
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
UK
9
Estimated ADS-B & WAM sensors & systems
10
Aircraft readiness for ADS-B Out operations
Two certification baselines:
AMC 20-24
Legacy ADS-B Out installations are generally compliant to AMC20-24
Several configurations are Certified
Currently used in Operations
Short term implementation in lower density airspace
CS-ACNS – compliance means for EU Regulation 1207/2011
Avionics upgrade required (currently limited availability)
Support high density surveillance
Recommended (future) implementation baseline
EU IR 1207/2011 (CS-ACNS)
Key ADS-B Avionics Requirements
GNSS
(E)TSO-C129a (DO208)
(E)TSO-C145/146 (DO229D)
(E)TSO-C196 (DO316)
Transponder
(E)TSO-C166b
(ED102A/DO260B)
(E)TSO-C112d
(ED73E/DO181E)
ADS-B Out Regulations in Europe and USA
High-level comparison
Europe 1207/2011(Draft CS-ACNS)
≈
US 14 CFR 91.227(AC20-165A)
1207/2011
Applicability
ADS-B Out Protocol
Aircraft related
91.227
Airspace related
Identical (ED-102A / DO-260B, 1090ES v2)
91.227 allows for UAT below 18 000ft
Antenna Diversity
Required
Required, bottom-mounted
allowed for A1S,B1S
Position source
ETSO-C129a/196/145/146
+ additional requirements
NIC=7(0.2NM), NACp=8(0.05NM),
NACv=1(10m/s), SIL=3, SDA=2
ETSO-C129()/196/145/146*
+ additional requirements
* In practice, higher end receivers (145/146) will likely be
required to meet the US rule with satisfactory availability
Data items
Same baseline +
Same baseline +
Vertical rate, GPS antenna
ADS-B In Capability
offset, Selected Altitude,
Barometric Pressure Setting
ADS-B IN
5000+ ATSAW flights
• First ATSAW certified aircraft delivered June 2011
• First ATSAW Operations by Swiss 7 Feb 2012
Pioneer operators
• 5000+ flights performed so far
Aircraft
Type
ADS-B IN installation type
Number of
Aircraft
B767
EFB Class 3
3
A330
Integrated display system
16
A330
EFB Class 3
5
Total
24
• Other operators are ordering ADS-B In for new a/c
14
Agenda
1
• Introduction
2
• Deployment & Regulations
3
• Performance Analysis
4
• Next steps
15
Surveillance Evolution & Consequences
•
Surveillance functions are moving to the aircraft
• Cooperative surveillance: Mode A/C >> Mode S >> ADS-B
• More information is provided by the airborne sub-system
• Surveillance performance is more dependent on the airborne sub-system
 Increasing need for air-ground & air-air interoperability
•
Airborne surveillance sub-system is becoming more complex
• More functions
• Increasing number of interfaces with avionics
 Increasing need for inter-avionics equipment interoperability
16
Performance Monitoring
13300 ADS-B aircraft in the Database
19 billion ADS-B reports
Continuous monitoring
International co-ordination
17
Agenda
1
• Introduction
2
• Deployment & Regulations
3
• Performance Analysis
4
• Next steps
18
Ground Surveillance
Technical specifications
• Composite ADS-B and WAM surveillance system specification
• Surveillance services from a single equipment network
architecture
• New system specification for combined systems (ED-nnn)
• Updated ADS-B & WAM system specifications
(ED-129 & ED-142)
• Generic Surveillance (GEN-SUR) - SPR & PSC
• Guidance to address safety requirements in EC Regulation
1207/2011 – Safety assessment for all Surveillance systems
• Combining surveillance techniques (ADS-B, Radar, WAM) at
functional a level
Ground Surveillance
Satellite based ADS-B
• Global coverage of ADS-B Out
• excluding higher density areas
• Several studies
• One consortium (Aireon) with firm deployment plans
• Objective to support 15-15 NM Separation
• 66 LEO satellites (Iridium NEXT)
• First launch 2015 / Full constellation 2017
• ATM Impact – key areas
• Network Improvement
• Business Case
• Interoperability
• Global coordination will be required
ADS-B Out expansion
beyond Air Transport
• Proposal to increase the scope of EU Regulation 1207/2011
• No change to existing requirements or dates !
• Objective to cover all aircraft subject to surveillance
• Maximise Surveillance infrastructure rationalisation
• Mitigate airspace infringements and prevent misleading data
• Low cost ADS-B Out [GNSS & Transponder]
• Two initiatives:
• LPSE – Low Power Surveillance Equipment (FAA)
• LPAT – Low Power ADS-B Transceiver (UK)
• Voluntary equipage
• Target low end airspace users, visible for Situation Awareness
but not for ATC separation services
• Mitigate airspace infringements and prevent misleading data
ABS-B IN Next steps
•
Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM)
• Speed guidance to achieve precise interval spacing between aircraft
• Step 1: MOPS & SPR target end 2014
• Step 2: tbd
•
Traffic Situation Awareness with Alerts (TSAA)
• ADS-B based collision avoidance system for aircraft without ACAS II
• At the “traffic advisory” level, i.e. no coordination or resolution advisories
• MOPS & SPR target end 2013
•
CDTI Assisted Visual Separation on Approach (CAVS)
• After initial visual contact - allow Own Visual Separation where the
Display replaces visual contact
• MOPS & SPR target end 2013
Other Surveillance related
Developments
• Flight plan indications for ADS-B
• Proposal to introduce means to indicate specific ADS-B Out
and ADS-B In capabilities in the ICAO flight plan
• FPL 2012 indications as baseline
• Expanding through the SUR/ indicator in Item 18
• ACAS improvements
• Hybrid ACAS – reduced RF though passive use of ADS-B
• ACAS X – Improved ACAS, backwards compatible, with
application adjusted logic
• Improved data link for Surveillance
• 1090 MHz increased bandwidth through phase modulation
• Future data link studies
Conclusions
Surveillance
standards and
Regulations
published
Airborne & Ground
Deployment
ongoing
Rationalised
High Performance
Surveillance
system
Global
Interoperability
New
Application
Development
ongoing
Questions
SES Surveillance Regulations overview
…
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
…
Airborne Surveillance – ADS-B In
Voluntary benefit driven implementation
Airborne Safety net – ACAS II v7.1 – IR driven
EC IR 1332/2011
ICAO Forward-fit v7.1
EUR Forward-fit v7.1
EUR Retro-fit v7.1
Air / Ground Interface – Mode S & ADS-B Out – IR driven
Aircraft operators
EC IR 1207/2011
Forward-fit
Retro-fit
Mil. a/c
ELS / EHS / ADS-B ELS / EHS / ADS-B ELS
Mil.Trp.a/c
EHS / ADS-B
NPA 2012-19 -> CS-ACNS
EC IR 1206/2011
Service providers
Systems ready for Aircraft ID
as identification means
Ground Surveillance – ADS-B Out / Mode S / WAM
Most appropriate & efficient surveillance solution for the particular environment
SES Surveillance Regulations Applicability
EU IR 1207/2011 – Mode S & ADS-B Out (v2)
• All IFR/GAT aircraft
• Mode S ELS
• IFR/GAT aircraft >5700kg or >250kts TAS
• ADS-B Out
• Fixed wing IFR/GAT aircraft >5700kg or >250kts TAS
• Mode S EHS
ANSPs
• Most efficient
solution
• Possibility for
local mandates
EU IR 1332/2011 – ACAS II v7.1
• Turbine-powered aeroplanes > 5 700 kg or > 19 passengers
• ACAS II v7.1
Also applies to aircraft which will be equipped on a voluntary basis
Does not apply to unmanned aircraft systems
Timeline
Regional Mode S mandates
TCAS v7.1 Fwd
1 Mar 2012
Earlier
2012
ADS-B/ELS/EHS Rtr
+ ELS Mil. a/c
7 dec 2017
ADS-B/ELS/EHS Fwd
8 Jan 2015
TCAS v7.1 Rtr
1 Dec 2015
2013
2014
2015
2016
ADS-B/EHS Mil. Trp. a/c
1 Jan 2019
Ground systems ACID ready
2 Jan 2020 (EU IR 1206/2011)
2017
2018
2019
2020
Later
ICAO Documents
• ADS-B Out
• Annex 10 Volume IV (Current Amdt 85, next version: v2 ES 1207/2011)
• Mode S Services on ES (Doc 9871 ed2, 2012)
• ADS-B In [AIRB, ITP, SURF, VSA] + [IM, CAVS, CAPP, TSAA] +…
• PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) to include A/C Operating Procedures
• Airborne Surveillance Manual (Draft Doc 9994, ASTAF)
• ITP (SASP and ASTAF)
• PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) ITP Circular (Draft)
• Mode S & ACAS II
• Annex 10 Volume III & IV
• Mode S Services on ES (Doc 9871 ed2, 2012)
• ACAS Manual (Doc 9863 ed2, 2012)
SASP
ASTAF
- Separation and Airspace Safety Panel
- Airborne Surveillance Task Force
Regional Regulatory Documents
•
Equipment certification:
•
•
•
•
•
ADS-B Out
ADS-B In
ACAS II
Mode S
ETSO-C166b (Jul 2012)* + ETSO-C129a / ETSO-C145c/146c / ETSO-196a
ETSO-C195a (Jul 2012), TCAS hybrid sur. ETSO-C119c (Dec 2009)
ETSO-C119c (Dec 2009)
ETSO-C112d (to be issued)
Airworthiness Approval
•
ADS-B Out:
•
ADS-B In:
•
Mode S &
ACAS II
CS-ACNS (NPA 2012-19, expected Q2 2013)
(AC20-165A (Nov 2012))
CRI (Certification Review Item), Tbd EASA Certification Memo
(AC20-172A (Mar 2012))
CS-ACNS (NPA 2012-19, expected Q2 2013), JAA TGL13 Rev1 (June 2003),
AMC20-13 (Dec 2006)
(AC20-131A, AC20-151A)
29
ADS-B Out Required Data items
1207/2011(Draft CS-ACNS)
AMC 20-24
§91.227 (AC20-165A)
ICAO 24 bit address
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
Aircraft identification
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mode A code (incl. disabling function)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
Special position indication (SPI or IDENT)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
Emergency status (incl. emgy indication)
Mandatory
Mandatory*
Mandatory
Barometric Pressure altitude (incl NICbaro)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory, ≥ 2
Mandatory
Mandatory, ≥ 2
Horizontal position (incl. NIC, NACp, SDA & SIL)
Mandatory
Mandatory*
Mandatory
Horizontal Velocity (E/W,N/S & Hdg/Trk gnd, HRD, NACv)
Mandatory
Recommended
Mandatory
Geometric Altitude (HAE) (incl. GVA)
Mandatory
-
Mandatory
ADS-B Emitter category
Mandatory
-
Mandatory
Aircraft length and width
Mandatory
-
Mandatory
GNSS antenna offset
Mandatory
-
Recommended
Vertical rate (Hybrid, Baro, Baro-inertial or GNSS)
Mandatory*
-
Recommended
Selected Altitude (MCP/FCU incl status)
If available
-
Optional
-
-
Optional
Barometric pressure setting
If available
-
-
ACAS traffic status (incl. RA active (TCAS II) etc)
If available
-
If TCAS II installed
ACAS installed & operating RA capable (TCAS II)
If available
-
If TCAS II installed
-
-
Parameter
ADS-B version number
Selected Heading
ADS-B In capability installed
30
If installed
.
Mode S Required Data items
Parameter
ELS
1207/2011 (Draft CS-ACNS)
EHS
1207/2011 (Draft CS-ACNS)
ICAO 24 bit address
Mandatory
Mandatory
Aircraft identification
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mode A code
Mandatory
Mandatory
Special position indication (SPI or IDENT)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Emergency status (incl. Mode A codes)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Barometric Pressure altitude
Mandatory
Mandatory
Level 2 SI Code capable
Mandatory
Mandatory
Flight Status (Air/Gnd)
Mandatory
Mandatory
Data link capability report (ACAS, Mode S, ES, SI,…)
Mandatory
Mandatory
If TCAS II installed
If TCAS II installed
Horizontal Velocity (Ground speed)
-
Mandatory
Vertical rate
-
Mandatory
Selected Altitude (MCP/FCU incl status)
-
Mandatory
Barometric pressure setting
-
Mandatory
Roll Angle
-
Mandatory
True Track Angle
-
Mandatory
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) or Mach
-
Mandatory
Magnetic Heading
-
Mandatory
Track Angle Rate (or true airspeed if “TAR” not available)
-
Mandatory
ACAS traffic status (incl. RA active (TCAS II) etc)
Typical ADS-B/WAM Benefit cases
Non-Radar Airspace
•
•
•
•
•
TMA around secondary airports with
increasing traffic (e.g. low-cost carriers)
No Surveillance coverage
Reduced efficiency (sub-optimal routing,
holdings etc.)
-> estimate 2-3 mins per a/c
-> enabling of PBN (Kos/Greece as a
pilot case)
If there are predominant carriers, current
ADS-B technology could be used
If there is mixed fleet, WAM could be an
alternative (typically higher cost than
ADS-B as it includes multiple stations but
still lower than radar)
32
Typical ADS-B/WAM Benefit cases
Radar Airspace
● Future Radar decommissioning
● Cost avoidance (ADS-B/WAM cost is
significantly lower)
● Assessed with UK NATS (Mode
S radar replacement)
● WAM can be used now
● ADS-B requires the SPI IR
functionality (dates 2015-2017)
● Clause for ANSP efficiency
● IR 1207/2011 extension?
● Incentives (e.g. low-end)?
33
ACAS X
ACAS XA
ACAS XO
User
Group
Surveillance
Technology
Advisories
Current TCAS II
users (large aircraft)
Active radar
supplemented
with passive
Same as
current TCAS II
Users of specific
operations
(e.g., CSPO,
Formation Flights,
ASAS Operations)
Active radar
supplemented
with passive
Procedure-specific
alerts for selected
aircraft, global
alerting against all
others
General aviation
Passive only
Reduced advisory
set
ACAS XP
Unmanned aircraft
ACAS XU
Potentially radar,
EO/IR, etc.
Vertical and
horizontal
advisories
EC Implementing Rule
Exemptions and Incentives
Regulation (EU) 1207/2011
Exemption provisions:
● Mode S EHS only (specific architectures)
European Commission Single European Sky
Surveillance Performance & Interoperability
Implementing Rule
(SPI IR)
Basic Regulation (EU)
216/2008
Generic exemption provisions:
● Article 14 para 4 and 5
INCENTIVES:
● At this stage not anticipated for AOC holders
35

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