the status of renewable energy application in tanzania

Report
AN OVERVIEW OF ENERGY SECTOR
IN RURAL TANZANIA
Workshop on Innovations in Off-grid
lighting products and Energy Services
for Rural Tanzania
8TH TO 9TH APRIL 2010
By: N.C.X. Mwihava
OUTLINE
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IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY
ENERGY RESOURCES IN TANZANIA
ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERN IN TZ
ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN RURAL TZ
ENERGY POLICY
POLICY ON RURAL ENERGY
OPERATIONALISATION NEP, 2003
BARRIERS TO MODERN ENERGY SERVICES
IN TZ
OPTIONS FOR MODERN ENERGY SERVICES
TO RURAL TZ
CONCLUSION
IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY
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ENERGY IS A BASIC NEED FOR
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
IT IS A MAJOR INPUT FOR
SUCCESSFUL FAMILY AND FOR
IMPLEMENTATION OF MKUKUTA,
MKUZA, SECTOR POLICIES AND
PROGRAMMES
ROLE OF ENERGY IN ACHIEVING THE
MDGS
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (G1
 agro products processing, handling, storage,
preservation, mechanized agriculture, cooking,
transport, employment in energy sector, etc.
Achieve universal primary education (G2)
 Lighting, powering educational equipment, food
preparation, retention of qualified techers &
education personnel appropriately etc
Promote gender equality and empowerment of
women (G3)
 Reducing women’s time for search of energy &
food preparation.
Role of Energy in MDGs ctd.
Improve maternal health (G5)
 Food preparation, reducing women drudgery,
transport, powering health facilities e.g.
lighting labour wards, vaccine preservation,
retention of qualified staff.
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
diseases (G6)
 Powering awareness campaign equipment,
production and preservation of drugs and
preventive gadgets, powering health
equipment, lighting and heating at health
facilities
ENERGY RESOURCES IN TANZANIA
These encompass: Biomass,
hydropower, natural gas, coal,
geothermal, wind, solar, nuclear
and ocean based energy.
Biomass based energy
Sustainable biomass yield per annum is estimated
at 24.3 million m3.
 Annual demand is around 40 million m3 (for
household)
 Annual deficit is 15.7m3 that is harvested by
causing deforestation (over 392,000 ha cleared) At
40m3/ha
Currently total population relying on biomass
fuels for cooking are:
 Firewood 26,108,767 (79%)
 -Charcoal 4,486,235 (14%).
 In addition 2 million people are currently
relying on firewood for lighting.
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Biomass ctd.
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Biomass is also used for processing
agricultural crops, for rural industry and social
services.
. Biomass meet 90% of energy needs
40% cooking need in peri-urban areas
96% cooking needs of rural population
ENERGY RESOURCES IN TANZANIA IN
GENERAL
RESOURCE
POTENTIAL
DEGREE OF
EXPLOITATION AS OF
JAN 2010
HYDRO
4,700 MW
> 234 MW shp
561 MW
4.7 MW
BIOMASS
sustained yield 24.3 mil. m3 p.a.
Biomass
Residues
15 m. tons p.a of crop residues,
animal droppings from 17.5 million
cattle, 12.5 m. goats & 3.5 m sheep
(1998 Census), 200,000 tons of VS
of sisal waste & 1.1 m. tons p.a. of
forest residues
Use ~ 40 m. m3 91,276
ha.p.a deforestation
>2,000 biogas digesters
32.30MW at Sugar plants
3.525MW from forest
residues.{co-generatrion}
SOLAR
Average - 187Wm-2
1.5MWelectricity
+ water heaters, dryers,
WIND
Speed: 0.9 - 4.8 m/s Initial
special sites have up to 8 m/s
~129 windmills+ >10kWe
ENERGY RESOURCES IN TANZANIA ctd
RESOURCE
POTENTIAL
DEGREE OF EXPLOITATION AS OF
JAN 2010
COAL
304x106 tons
1.2 x 109 MT
probable
<150,000Tp.a
3MW, Thermal appl. e.g. M.
Cement
NATURAL
GAS
45 billion m3
[Songo]2 – 30 bcm
MnaziBay –15 bcm
+ 2 new discoveries
– on due diligence
Song Gas Project
327MW + Kioo Ltd,
Twiga, TBL, ALAF Group,
Nidatex, Kaributex,
Bora,LakHanitex, TCC,
Bora, Mukwano,
UrafikiTex, Tanzania
Cigarette Company
(TCC)etc. (thermal appl.) .
ENERGY RESOURCES IN TANZANIA ctd
RESOURCE
POTENTIAL
DEGREE OF
EXPLOITATION AS OF
JAN 2010
GEOTHERMAL
Not exploited
Limited
assessment est. >
650MW
NUCLEAR
Uranium
occurrence
reported.
Not exploited
OCEAN ENERGY
Not assessed
Not exploited
ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERN IN TZ
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
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Biomass
Petr
&NG
Electricit
y
Coal &
RE
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Traditional
biomass
dominate
Low level of
electrification
85kWh/cap/yr
Insignificant use
of non woody
renewable
energy.
ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN RURAL
TANZANIA
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Cooking - >90% wood fuel energy (per
capita is 1 m3 p.a.), biogas, kerosene,
gelfuel (motopoa), etc.
Lighting - > 2% kerosene, electricity, dry
cell batteries, solar PV, biogas, firewood,
candles (insignificant) etc.
Agro processing – woodfuel, solar,
electricity (grid and captive generators)
Energy Consumption in rural
Tanzania ctd.
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Space heating – mainly woodfuel
Water heating – wood fuel & limited
solar thermal
The poor spend about 35% of income
on energy
ENERGY POLICY
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The Energy Policy objective is to provide an
input in the development process by
establishing an efficient energy production,
procurement, transportation, distribution,
and end-user systems in an environmentally
sound manner and with due regard to
gender issues.
POLICY ON RURAL ENERGY AS PER
NEP, 2003
§43. Support research and development;
§44. Promote application of alternative energy
sources other than fuelwood and charcoal, in
order to reduce deforestation, indoor health
hazards and time spent by rural women in search
of fuelwood;
§45. Promote entrepreneurship and private initiative
in the production and marketing of products and
services for rural and renewable energy;
4/8/2015
16
Rural Energy Policy as per NEP
2003 ctd
§46. Ensure continued electrification of rural
economic centres and make electricity
accessible and affordable to low income
customers;
§47. Facilitate increased availability of energy
services, including grid and off-grid
electrification to rural areas;
§48. Establish norms, codes of practice,
standards and guidelines for cost effective
rural energy supplies.
NEP ON RENEWABLE ENERGY
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Promote efficient biomass conversion and end-use
technologies in order to save resources; reduce rate
of deforestation and land degradation; and
minimising climate change threats.
Introduce and support appropriate fiscal and
financial incentives for renewable energy
development to complement a “Rural Energy Fund”,
whose support would include renewable energy
programmes and projects.
Establish norms, codes of practice, guidelines and
standards for renewable energy technologies, to
facilitate the creation of an enabling environment for
sustainable development of renewable energy
resources.
ENERGY POLICY CTD.
 Facilitate
increased availability of
energy services, including grid and offgrid electrification to rural areas.
 Establish norms, codes of practice,
standards and guidelines for cost
effective rural energy supplies.
ENERGY POLICY CTD.
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Ensure inclusion of environmental
considerations in all renewable energy
planning and implementation, and
enhance co-operation with other
relevant stakeholders
Support research and development in
renewable energy technologies
Promote entrepreneurship and private
initiatives in the production and
marketing of products and services for
rural and renewable energy.
POLICY SPECIFIC TO RURAL
ENERGY
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Given the importance and weight
attached by the Government to rural
energy, a specific policy on rural energy
is in the making
The policy will take into consideration the
NEP, experiences, reforms & challenges
since the launching of NEP, 2003
OPERATIONALISATION OF ENERGY POLICY
OF 2003
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Establishment of Rural Energy Agency/Fund to
promote among others, renewable energy
technologies– key elements would be efficiency, cost
effectiveness, social and environmental
acceptability.
The Rural Energy Act was passed in 2005, REA/REF
are operational.
Electricity Act, 2008 has opened gates for private
sector participation, to generate electricity from any
source of energy as long as it is least cost
Introduction of SSPPA/tariff
Implementation of rural energy projects e.g. REA
Flagship projects, MEM/UNDP-GEF PV, MZ, MEM/Sida
PV, TEDAP/SSMP, TZ Domestic Biogas Program, etc.
BARRIERS TO MODERN RURAL ENERGY
SERVICES IN TANZANIA
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Inadequate awareness on rural energy
issues & related technologies;
Affordability of the people
Sparsely distributed population;
Insufficient research, development &
dissemination efforts;
BARRIERS TO MODERN RE ctd.
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Inadequacy of comprehensive data on
Rural Energy Resources & players;
Reluctance of the private sector to invest in
rural energy (high risk/low returns);
Inadequate quality control of rural energy
technologies leading to poor reputation of
some technologies;
OPTIONS FOR MODERN ENERGY SERVICES TO
RURAL TANZANIA
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Electrification – c/o Rural electrification study
recommendations
– Grid extension,
– Off grid - mini grids using NG, shp, biomass co-gen, solar PV/thermal,
wind, geothermal
– Stand alone systems - SHS, SSMP, wind, small scale gen sets
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Thermal applications – modern bioenergy (biogas, cogeneration, other solid & liquid biofuels, etc), solar thermal,
coal briquettes, efficient wood-energy appliances &
technologies/techniques, LPG, NG,
Mechanical power – modern bioenergy esp biofuels + ECE,
wind, petroleum products (GO, IK, MSP, LPG, NG (LNG,
CNG)
CONCLUSION
SOME OF THE RURAL LIGHTING OPTIONS
[interior & exterior (security lights & street lighting]
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Grid power
Mini grid power
SHS (PV) especially combined with LED
Solar lanterns
Solar thermal - electricity
Kerosene lamps
Biogas lamps
Liquid biofuels lamps
Dry cell batteries for torches
THANKS!

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