Road to Independence TZ

Report
Decolonization and end of Empire
East Africa=Road to Independence
TZ
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Rural discontent- peasants not happy
Forced to dig trenches for soil conservation
Hated growing of cotton.
Hated growing of peanut, no research was done
–failure =poor planning & peoples opinion
ignored.
• TANU declare Uhuru now.
• 1951 COLONIAL GOVT REMOVED Meru from
their land. Nyerere and Meru took case to UN
Case thrown out, so people became agitated
Road to independence
• Nationalism reared its head in Africa though
different manifestation.
• Youth Movements, Religious Movements
• Trade Unions,
• Regional Associations
• Political Parties
• Was a struggle in TZ. British officials took a
stubborn approach.
• Julius Kabarage Nyerere offered unity and
cemented it with Kiswahili
Regional Parties
• TTACSA -Tanganyika Territory African Civil
Servants Association- formed and led by
Martin Kayamba in 1922, educated in Britain
• Wanted his people to be educated, so organized
community libraries with help of missionaries
• Sponsored soccer teams and sensitized the
youth on rights
• wanted better treatment & rights under British
rule
Regional Parties
• KNPA -Kilimanjaro Native Planters
Association= coffee planters agitated for better
prices and were actively involved in politics.
• BBU- Bukoba- Buhaya Union formed by
educated Buhaya ,were coffee growers wanted
opportunity to make profits & education.
• Strongly opposed the land tenure system coz
chiefs enriched themselves, refused to pay taxes
to chief=corrupt
Formation of Parties
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TAA- Tanganyika Territory Association
Formed in1929 by elite –Mission “boys”
Wanted education and representation of people in Legco
TAA wanted change from within and not independence.
TANU -Tanganyika African National Union
Formed in1954 and wanted “Uhuru,” means Freedom
The assumption of state power by local people
1955 TANU had many members = mass movement
Nyerere identified Uhuru as the most desired thing
TZ Sent Nyerere to New York to petition case at UN
TANU won elections in 1958 and 1959
UTP- United Tanganyika Party- sponsored by colonial Governor Twining
to challenge TANU, UTP was multi- racial party led by a European
Bayldon, represented paternalistic idealism so lacked mass support
lost in the 1958 election did not win even a single seat of the 71 seats
contested.
The struggle
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TANU offered “Uhuru” Freedom
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UTP offered “Utupu” Emptyness
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Nyerere charged and paid fine
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Colonial Secretary in London wanted gradualism in independence,
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“Pole Pole” Strategy e.g. independence of TZ by 1968 and Kenya 1975.
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But TANU was so strong and wanted independence now, New govern
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Turbull knew TZ could no longer be governed. Turbull was afraid of
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Nyerere refused negotiations until he was made a Prime Minister.
violence- he did not want another mau mau in TZ. So negotiated with
Nyerere.
The struggle
• Period of rapid change
• 1960 another election TANU won with majority
as Asians backed TANU and not UTP.
• March 1961 Constitutional Conference in Dar
es Salam not the usual Lancaster House.
• December 1961 TZ had independence, the first
in East Africa= Triumph of Nationalism TZ was
a success story of mass movement of the
people

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