Road to Independence TZ

Decolonization and end of Empire
East Africa=Road to Independence
Rural discontent- peasants not happy
Forced to dig trenches for soil conservation
Hated growing of cotton.
Hated growing of peanut, no research was done
–failure =poor planning & peoples opinion
• TANU declare Uhuru now.
their land. Nyerere and Meru took case to UN
Case thrown out, so people became agitated
Road to independence
• Nationalism reared its head in Africa though
different manifestation.
• Youth Movements, Religious Movements
• Trade Unions,
• Regional Associations
• Political Parties
• Was a struggle in TZ. British officials took a
stubborn approach.
• Julius Kabarage Nyerere offered unity and
cemented it with Kiswahili
Regional Parties
• TTACSA -Tanganyika Territory African Civil
Servants Association- formed and led by
Martin Kayamba in 1922, educated in Britain
• Wanted his people to be educated, so organized
community libraries with help of missionaries
• Sponsored soccer teams and sensitized the
youth on rights
• wanted better treatment & rights under British
Regional Parties
• KNPA -Kilimanjaro Native Planters
Association= coffee planters agitated for better
prices and were actively involved in politics.
• BBU- Bukoba- Buhaya Union formed by
educated Buhaya ,were coffee growers wanted
opportunity to make profits & education.
• Strongly opposed the land tenure system coz
chiefs enriched themselves, refused to pay taxes
to chief=corrupt
Formation of Parties
TAA- Tanganyika Territory Association
Formed in1929 by elite –Mission “boys”
Wanted education and representation of people in Legco
TAA wanted change from within and not independence.
TANU -Tanganyika African National Union
Formed in1954 and wanted “Uhuru,” means Freedom
The assumption of state power by local people
1955 TANU had many members = mass movement
Nyerere identified Uhuru as the most desired thing
TZ Sent Nyerere to New York to petition case at UN
TANU won elections in 1958 and 1959
UTP- United Tanganyika Party- sponsored by colonial Governor Twining
to challenge TANU, UTP was multi- racial party led by a European
Bayldon, represented paternalistic idealism so lacked mass support
lost in the 1958 election did not win even a single seat of the 71 seats
The struggle
TANU offered “Uhuru” Freedom
UTP offered “Utupu” Emptyness
Nyerere charged and paid fine
Colonial Secretary in London wanted gradualism in independence,
“Pole Pole” Strategy e.g. independence of TZ by 1968 and Kenya 1975.
But TANU was so strong and wanted independence now, New govern
Turbull knew TZ could no longer be governed. Turbull was afraid of
Nyerere refused negotiations until he was made a Prime Minister.
violence- he did not want another mau mau in TZ. So negotiated with
The struggle
• Period of rapid change
• 1960 another election TANU won with majority
as Asians backed TANU and not UTP.
• March 1961 Constitutional Conference in Dar
es Salam not the usual Lancaster House.
• December 1961 TZ had independence, the first
in East Africa= Triumph of Nationalism TZ was
a success story of mass movement of the

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