Culturally Responsive Teaching

Report
Culturally Responsive Teaching
A Pedagogical Paradigm Shift
This session is designed to allow participants to think differently about the
instruction of diverse groups of students. Through the research of Geneva Gay
(2000) and Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995), culturally responsive and relevant
pedagogical practices have espoused to meet the needs of diverse learners. This
session helps educators to better understand their role in meeting the needs of
these learners and equips them with strategies to close educational gaps, while
addressing the whole child.
Épryl King, M.Ed.
Doctoral Candidate
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Why Culturally Responsive Teaching?
And why me?
• 2006, Masters, Gannon Univ. - Black/White Achievement Gap Focus
• Countywide Professional Development, Closing Achievement Gaps
• Contact/collaboration with University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, Harvard
University
• Communication with PSEA leadership, Legislative, MAC Committees
• Research Advisory Committees, Pitt, IUP
• PSEA Northwest Regional, Minority Leadership Conferences, Gettysburg
• NEA/RA, Washington DC
• Founding of non-profit, RAMP (Raising Achievement in Monroeville and Pitcairn, Inc.)
• Presentations –
• International Conference at University of Pittsburgh
• Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
• PA-NAME (National Association of Multicultural Education), Millersville Univ.
• Dissertation Focus
Differentiated Instruction
• Interest
• Readiness
• Learning profile
Culturally Responsive Teaching
• Interest
• getting to know your students through their
cultural background, and using that information
to help them learn
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT lessons
• Become equipped with to guide
implementation of CRT resources
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Indications of differences by race
• honors/AP courses
• standardized test scores (NAEP, PSSA)
• graduation rates
• college entrance, matriculation rates
• career/profession obtainment
• wealth
• health
• conviction rates
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
from a historical perspective…
How did inequities arise with diverse cultural
groups?
Historical Challenges
of Being a Country
with Diverse Ethnic
Groups
Early laws/court rulings enacted to marginalize minority groups
• 1793, 1850 Fugitive Slave Act
• 1790 Naturalization Act excluded Asians from naturalized
citizenship
• 1800 -1835 Southern States outlawed educating slaves to read and
write
• 1830 The Indian Removal Act
• 1872 California school code provides no public education for any
minority
• 1882 Chinese Exclusion Law banned all Chinese workers from U.S.
• 1896 Plessy Decision (separate but equal)
• 1941 Internment of Japanese Americans into concentration camps
(Nelson, Palonsky & McCarthy, 2010; Spring, 2010; NCLB 2001)
Historical Challenges
of Being a Country
with Diverse Ethnic
Groups
Later laws which set to help minority groups
• 1927 U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Japanese language in
Hawaii schools
• 1954 Brown vs. Board (ended segregation)
• 1954 - Hernandez vs. Texas
• 1961, 1965 Affirmative Action
• 1965 Immigration Act – ended discrimination against Asians
• 1968 Bilingual Education Act
• 1970 Cisneros v. Corpus Christi (Brown vs. Board applied to
Mexican-Americans)
• 1972 Indian Education Act
• 1974 Lau v. Nichols (guaranteed assistance for non-English
speaking students to learn English)
(Nelson, Palonsky & McCarthy, 2010; Spring, 2010; NCLB 2001)
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Indications of differences by race
• honors/AP courses
• standardized test scores (NAEP, PSSA)
• graduation rates
• college entrance, matriculation rates
• career/profession obtainment
• wealth
• health
• conviction rates
Gateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores
Mathematics
All
77%
White 82%
Black
60%
Hispanic 62%
ED
68%
IEP
44%
Reading
All
White
Black
Hispanic
ED
IEP
78%
83%
60%
65%
66%
45%
Gateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores
Mathematics
All
77%
White 82%
Black
60%
Hispanic 62%
ED
68%
IEP
44%
Reading
All
White
Black
Hispanic
ED
IEP
78%
83%
60%
65%
66%
45%
Gateway’s 2012 PSSA Scores
“There are virtually no racial or social class
differences in mental ability among infants before
their first birthday and a few social class indicators
are able to explain the small differences that do
exist.” – Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative
http://www.agi.harvard.edu/projects/thegap.php
Holistic Approach
The body of research points to all stakeholders in an effort to close achievement gaps
All Stakeholders
• Parents
• Teachers
• Administrators
• Community
Holistic Approach
The body of research points to all stakeholders in an effort to close achievement gaps
All Stakeholders
• Parents
• Teachers
• Administrators
• Community
Culturally Responsive Teaching
Culturally Responsive Teaching “can be defined as using
the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of
reference, and performance styles of ethnically
diverse students to make learning encounters more
relevant to and effective for them. It teaches to and
through the strengths of these students” (Gay, 2000,
p.29).
Culturally Responsive Teaching…
…is something that we already do, and for centuries
has been directed at mainstream culture.
• Pictures in textbooks
• Choices of literature taught
• Learning of scientist, inventors, musicians, theories,
history
• These have mostly appealed to mainstream (white,
middle class) society.
“Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the
following characteristics:”
• “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic
groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal
curriculum.
“Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the
following characteristics:”
• “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic
groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal
curriculum.
• It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences
as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities.
“Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the
following characteristics:”
• “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic
groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal
curriculum.
• It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences
as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities.
• It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to
different learning styles
“Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the
following characteristics:”
• “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic
groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal
curriculum.
• It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences
as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities.
• It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to
different learning styles
• It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others’ cultural
heritages.
“Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching has the
following characteristics:”
• “It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic
groups, both as legacies that affect students’ dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal
curriculum.
• It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school experiences
as well as between academic abstractions and lived socio-cultural realities.
• It uses a wide variety of instructional strategies that are connected to
different learning styles
• It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others’ cultural
heritages.
• It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and materials in all the
subjects and skills routinely taught in schools” (Gay, 2000, p29).
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT activities
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to develop CRT activities
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Descriptive Characteristics of Culturally Responsive
Teaching
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is Validating
Comprehensive
Multidimensional
Empowering
Transformative
Emancipatory
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
Use cultural references
• “using cultural referents to impart knowledge,
skills, and attitudes” (Ladson-Billings, 1992, p.382).
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
Use cultural references
• “using cultural referents to impart knowledge,
skills, and attitudes” (Ladson-Billings, 1992, p.382).
• This is empowering and helps to combat the
learned helplessness that permeates our many
cultural groups
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
The gravity of “CARING”
• According to Ronald Ferguson (2002), the MSAN
student survey of 2001 shows that AfricanAmerican and Hispanic students attributed their
successes to “teacher encouragement” as
opposed to “teacher expectations” to do well.
How do I get to know my students’ cultural backgrounds
better?
Know and use your resources:
•Internet, Journal Articles
•Television and movies are one of the most impactful
ways that people are socialized. Carefully select those
that will inform you of historical and current cultural
practices and values.
• Text is wide and expansive. Magazines that espouse
the general values of cultural groups are helpful…Ex. Jet,
Ebony Magazines
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
• Incorporate characteristics of CRT throughout
instruction and across content areas
(this is our main focus for today)
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
• Use parents as resources and extensions of the
educational team
• Parents face many different challenges in educating
their children. Many will benefit from your expertise
in sending newsletters or other educational material
home with students to help parents better support
their children’s education at home
How can I demonstrate culturally relevant teaching?
• Include parents in the homework process (Epstein &
Voorhis) – TIPS
* 1x or 2x a month
* Includes directions for parent
* Student must interact with parent to complete
the assignment
* This helps promote student/parent interaction
with homework
What are some examples of successful schools?
• 90/90/90 Schools (Douglas Reeves)
– Dame-Dame Schools (University of Pittsburgh)
•
•
•
•
75% or more African-American
75% or more low-income backgrounds
75% or more proficient
(Gold standard is 85% in all three categories, and
proficient in both reading and math)
What are some examples of successful schools?
Name
Enrollment
City
%
Black
%
Poor
Franklin Square
Elementary
(preK-5)
286
Baltimore
MD
98.6
89.0
90.0
97.4 94.6
86.4 94.8 86.3
394
Baltimore
MD
98.4
79.4
83.9
85.4 88.0
99.0 96.3 96.0
909
Columbus
OH
90.7
78.3
90.8 89.9
KIPP Ujima
Village
Academy
(5-8)
Independence
High
(9-12)
% At/Above in
Reading
Proficiency
2007 2008 2009
84.5
% At/Above in
Math Proficiency
2007 2008 2009
83.7 76.3 75.1
What are some examples of successful schools?
Locally
Pittsburgh Public Schools (Fulton Academy)
High percentage of African-American students
High percentage of students from low-income
backgrounds
2012 PSSA Scores
All Students Math = 87%
Black Students Math = 86% (n=113/129)
All Students Reading = 62%
Black Students Reading = 60%
For Comparison
5 Year Trend in Reading PSSAs by Subgroup
Gateway School District Overall Results (3-8, 11)
Subgroup
% Proficient
White
African American
Hispanic
2007
2008
2009
74
76
82
45
51
58
64
50
65
2010
2011
82
84
62
65
43
63
For Comparison
5 Year Trend in Math PSSAs by Subgroup
Gateway School District Overall Results
Subgroup
% Proficient
White
African American
Hispanic
2007
2008
2009
73
77
83
45
49
59
59
68
59
2010
2011
86
84
66
69
67
75
For Comparison
2005 PSSAs in Math and Reading
Moss Side Middle School
Subgroup
% Proficient
White
African American
Hispanic
2005
Math
62
40
n/a
2005
Reading
73
47
n/a
What does a culturally responsive classroom or lesson
look like?
Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning (8:53), 2:40 – lesson example
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=_uOncGZWxDc&NR=1
* Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (4:40) (1:08 – 3:00) (3:52-4:15)
(Gay, 2000)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGTVjJuRaZ8&feature=related
* Gloria Ladson-Billings Cultural Competency (3:10)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ccEu7r2IwM0&feature=related
What do the expert scholars say?
Who are Culturally Competent Teachers?
* Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (4:40) (1:08 – 3:00) (3:52-4:15)
(Gay, 2000)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGTVjJuRaZ8&feature=related
* Gloria Ladson-Billings Cultural Competency (3:10) ( :47-2:21)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ccEu7r2IwM0&feature=related
* Culturally Responsive Teaching (Multiple Histories) – (3:00)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKK2nuFxfbY
Looking at multiple histories…how people change their trajectories
What Culturally Responsive Teaching Is Not:
• Standardized test prep – teaching students how to
take test
Culturally Responsive Teaching…
• Immerses students in activities and contexts that are
culturally meaningful and relevant. It builds bridges
from that meaning to other contexts (text to text). It
makes learning more efficient and teaching more
effective. Because students have learned they will do
better on tests.
What does a sample culturally responsive lesson plan
look like?
Multicultural Curriculum – Fifth Grade Science/Math Lesson Plan: Egyptian
hieroglyphs
http://www.palmbeachschools.org/multicultural/documents/MultiFifth.pdf
Diversity in Mathematics: Census Statistics in Utah
http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=22271
What does CRT look like in different subjects?
Reading:
• authentic multicultural literature
• skills areas situated within a cultural context
Science, Math:
• skills areas situated within a cultural context
• contributions of different backgrounds reflected in
lessons
Social Studies:
• minority perspectives reflected in historical accounts,
key events, implications on today’s society
What might a culturally responsive lesson plan look
like using our KUD Lesson Plan Template?
Second Grade Reading Comprehension Lesson: Character
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop
CRT lesson
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Steps to developing a Culturally Responsive repertoire
• First, get to know your students’ background
• Identify cultures
• develop relationships
• talk to parents
• use media resources
• Draw from that knowledge to develop culturally
responsive lessons.
Culturally Responsive Teaching Resources
Contributions of Minorities to United States Culture
(quick examples)
The Hispanic American.com
http://www.thehispanicamerican.com/famous-hispanic-american/hisanicamerican-scientist-02/
http://www.thehispanicamerican.com/famous-hispanic-american/hispanicamerican-inventor-02/
Native American Scientists
http://bio.sacnas.org/biography/listsscientist.asp
Buzzle
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/famous-black-mathematicians.html
Contributions of Minorities to U.S. Culture
Culturally Responsive Teaching Resources
Contributions of Minorities to U.S. History
(quick examples)
Trail of Tears, Pt. 1 Documentary
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGBHAqur5YY&feature=related
Slavery and the Making of America (Chapter 1) "The Capture" (clips from Amistad)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsdosE10EjU&feature=related
A Short History of Asians in America
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hVlSuuaQhs
Hispanic Americans
Univision: The New American Reality
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQnhuj11zgI
Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930 (Harvard University Library)
http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/timeline.html
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop
CRT activities
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop
CRT activities
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Where can you find information about the cultures
represented in your classroom?
•Here’s a start.
• Historical Contributions, Cultural History
•Scientists, mathematicians, inventors
• Representative Literature
•Literature by and/or about the race/culture
represented.
Agenda/Objectives
• Understand the background/rationale for CRT
• Identify characteristics of CRT
• Apply characteristics of CRT to analyze or develop
CRT activities
• Become equipped with resources to guide
implementation of CRT
Let’s put what we’ve learned into action!
Develop a culturally responsive lesson plan
K-4th Grade Teachers
(Storytown Manuals)
• Group by grade level
if you can.
• Select a major
concept/skill in
Reading and develop
a culturally responsive
Reading Lesson
5th-6th Grade Teachers
(Either Storytown or
Math Manuals)
• Group by
subject/grade area:
• Reading
• Math
• Select a major
concept/skill in
Reading or Math and
develop a culturally
responsive lesson
References
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 29-36). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Ferguson & Martin, 2009. The love to read survey. The Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University. Retrieved from:
http://www.agi.harvard.edu/projects/lovetoread.php
Ladson-Billings, G. (1992a). Culturally relevant teaching: The key to making multicultural education work. In C.A. Grant (Ed.),
Research and multicultural education (pp. 106-121). London: Falmer Press.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1992b). Liberatory consequences of literacy: A case of culturally relevant instruction for African-American
students. Journal of Negro Education, 61, 378-391.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1992c). Reading between the lines and beyond the pages: A culturally
relevant approach to literacy teaching. Theory Into Practice, 31, 312-320.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant
pedagogy. Theory Into Practice, 34, 159-165.
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012, August 19). State Report Card 2010-2011.
Retrieved August 19, 2012 from: http://paayp.emetric.net/Content/reportcards/RC11M.PDF
Taylor, J., Orgass, S., Kouyatè, M., & King, E. (in preparation). A Gardening Metaphor:
Framework for Closing and Reversing Racial Achievement Gaps in America.
Department of Africana Studies, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Evaluation
I value your feedback as to what could help make this
presentation more effective in the future. Please take a
moment to complete a short, anonymous evaluation of
this session.
Thank you.
Épryl King, M.Ed., Doctoral Candidate
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
[email protected]

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