Bell Work • Can you answer this riddle? Write your best guess in your notebook. A young lady looked at a picture and said “this person’s mother was my mothers mother-in-law.” Who is in the picture? Consider… • Are people good or bad by nature? • You must choose one: good or bad • Have 1 example to support your reasoning • Prepare to share Other opinions… • Thomas Hobbes • John Locke • Magna Carta • Iroquois Confederacy Hobbes thinks we’re Horrible • Thomas Hobbes • State of Nature: People left by themselves will destroy each other. • Best form of Government: Absolute Monarchy • Divine Right: Monarch is given power by God State of Nature: how people will act with no government to tell them what to do Locke thinks we’re Lovely • John Locke • State of Nature: People will support each other. • Natural Rights: Pursue Life, Liberty and Property • Best form of Government: Social Contract • People agree to give up a little freedom to have their rights protected • Government is given power by the people Magna Carta • King John • Rebel Barons • 2 key phrases: • "No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, deceased, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers and by the law of the land.” • "To no one will We sell, to no one will We deny or delay, right or justice." Iroquois Confederacy Bell Work Please answer the following questions about the Iroquois confederacy 1. Why was it created? 2. What did it do? 3. What did we take from it, what didn’t we use? Consider… • What were 3 complaints colonists had about King George the turd… I mean the 3rd? Declaration of Independence • Listed Colonists’ problems with the King of England • Examples? 1. Taxation without representation 2. Not allowing a trial by jury 3. Putting soldiers in colonists’ homes 1. Blocking colony growth st 1 Rulebook… • The Articles of Confederation Now… • Please take out your “Articles of Confederation” reading • Find 3 other students who read different sections of the Articles • • • • #1 read – state independence, relationship between the states #2 read – representation in congress, preparing for war #3 read – Powers of congress #4 read – Canada, debts of congress, pledge and conclusion • Share the powers you found for State and Congress • You should have 12 STATE powers • 9 CONGRESSIONAL Prepare to share your answers with the whole class Bell Work • Please show Mrs. V your T chart of State and Congressional powers so she can give you points. The Articles of Confederation Powers of the States Powers of Congress Bell Work: Please copy the powers given to States and Congress under the Articles of Confederation into your “T” chart. Powers of the States 1. Sovereignty over their own affairs 2. Any power not given to Congress is given to them 3. Print money 4. They can defend themselves and each other against attack without permission from Congress 5. Their decisions will be respected by other states (Courts) 6. Decide how their government representatives are chosen 7. Each state has 1 vote in congress no matter their size 8. Choose their own militia officers 9. Decide how they want to collect money from citizens 10. 9 out of 13 states must agree before Congress can make any decisions about money 11. States can decide if Canada or other colonies can enter the union 12. All states must agree to any changes to the Powers of Congress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Make peace and War Receive and send ambassadors Decide value of coins/print money Make decisions on trade and Indians but can’t infringe on a state’s right in that area Can choose officers of army but can’t keep a standing army Appoint a president for a 1 yr term Make decision about money with the permission of 9/13 states but can’t force states to pay a tax Will pay the debts Must approve of changes to the Articles Question to Consider 1. What was the mindset of the states when they created the Articles of Confederation? The Articles of Confederation Strengths ? Weaknesses 1. Congress could ask for money but had no power to make the states pay – they often didn’t 2. 1 vote per state no matter the size 3. No standing army to respond to threats 4. Each state had their own court no central court system. 5. Changes to the articles required 100% agreement 6. Congress had no power to make financial decisions on their own 7. No real way for Congress to regulate trade or make the states follow their decisions 8. No central leader 9. No veto The Central Government is too weak, the states too strong. Shay’s Rebellion • Massachusetts had high state debt • increased taxes and demanded debt repayment from citizens • Poor economy = farmers couldn’t sell their products • Their request for help was ignored • Led 1,000+ men to overtake the Massachusetts arsenal • Lasted several months Changing the Articles • In your groups: • Choose 1 weakness of the Articles • Propose a change to eliminate this weakness • Then answer the following • Does this revision create a new set of problems? • What would a natural rights philosopher (Locke) think of this provision? • How would this provision be evaluated under the social contract theory of government? Consider 1. List the objects and people you see in the cartoon 2. Identify any symbols you may see 3. Explain the message of the cartoon 4. Do you think this is an accurate picture of the Constitutional NO Bell Work • Agenda • Finish Constitutional Convention Activity • Call Mrs. V over when your group has completed the sheet. • REMEMBER: Parent Signature due TODAY. Constitutional Convention 1787 The Delegates • 55 men from 12 states • 35 were lawyers • 12 owned slave plantations • 2 were the wealthiest men in the country • It took 3.5 MONTHS 6 Big Questions 1. Do we keep the Articles or create something new? 2. If we have a single leader, how do we keep them from having too much power? 3. How do we divide power between national government and the states? 4. How do we divide power between the states? 5. Who will make the laws? 6. Who will vote? What THEY did A. Threw out the Articles wrote Constitution A. Strong central government BUT… • Federalism = shared power with the sates through Enumerated, Concurrent, and Reserved Powers • 3 Branches with Checks and Balances B. President • Commander in Chief BUT army can only be standing for 2 years • Checks from other 2 branches C. Congress • Connecticut (Great) Compromise • Bicameral Legislature = 2 parts (House and Senate) D. Women, children, and slaves count but can’t vote • 3/5 Compromise E. Men with property can vote • Electoral college chooses president • Popular elections for state leaders and House of representatives • State leaders appoint Senators Answering the 6 Big Questions Consider…. • Choose one of these conflicts from our activity today: a) A single leader that won’t become a king. b) Representation for large and small states. c) Sharing power between national and state governments. d) How women, slaves, and children fit into the new government. • Then in 1 paragraph: • Describe the conflict. • Describe how the delegates to the Convention resolved this conflict through compromise. Bell Work Please copy the following vocab words and their definitions into your notes. • Delegated Powers (aka Enumerated): The powers of National Government specifically written down in the Constitution in Articles I, II, and III. • Example: The power to declare war • Concurrent Powers: Powers held by both the states and the national government. • Example: The power to make laws • Reserved Powers: Powers held only by the states. • Example: State Sales Tax What THEY did A. Threw out the Articles wrote Constitution A. Strong central government BUT… • Federalism = shared power with the sates through Enumerated, Concurrent, and Reserved Powers • 3 Branches with Checks and Balances B. President • Commander in Chief BUT army can only be standing for 2 years • Checks from other 2 branches C. Congress • Connecticut (Great) Compromise • Bicameral Legislature = 2 parts (House and Senate) D. Women, children, and slaves count but can’t vote • 3/5 Compromise E. Men with property can vote • Electoral college chooses president • Popular elections for state leaders and House of representatives • State leaders appoint Senators Please finish copying these down into your notes. Checks and Balances • Take out your copy of the Constitution • Highlight the Titles of Articles I, II, and III • Note that they contain the rules that create our system of checks and balances Today’s Agenda • Head to the computer lab • Go to: http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/usgovernmentandlaw/br anchesofgovernment/ 1. Watch the video • 2. Complete the Graphic Organizer • 3. Answer 1-18 on the worksheet #19 on worksheet Complete the Map *Hand in when finished – must be completed by Wednesday.* Constitutional Convention How can we meet our need for a strong leader but not have a dictator? A question of Balance Bell Work 1. List the objects and people you see in the cartoon 2. Identify any symbols you may see 3. Explain the message of the cartoon Elections 2 types Presidential Electoral College (Article II, sect I and 12th Am.) Popular If you get the most votes, you win (Article I, sect II) What is an Electoral District? Definition: A territorial division used to hold elections. Only voters who live in the district can vote in that district. •AKA constituents AKA You How do they make Districts? • Census • Every 10 years districts change if the population has changed Who are your Popularly Elected Reps? 1. Who is your state assembly representative? 2. Who is your state senate representative? 3. Who are your two Senators? 4. Who is your Congressman? State Representatives State Assembly - #26 • Smallest District • Mike Endsley State Senate - #9 • 3 Assembly Districts Combined • Manty + Calumet + Sheboygan = D 9 • Joseph Liebham National Representatives Senator •Ron Johnson Senator •Herb Kohl Congressional District - #6 •Wisconsin has 8 Congr. Districts •Also for Presidential Elections •Tom Petri How Do I Find This Stuff? • Google It • “voting districts + WI” • Google It • “Who are my representatives + WI” How do I get in on this voting action?? •In person •City Hall •Online •www.ci.sheboygan.wi.us/ •www.RocktheVote.com Register! Learn! •Find out what the candidates stand for. •How truthful are they being? •www.politifact.org •Where do they get their $ from? •www.opensecrets.org •Find your polling place •www.vpa.wi.gov •If you can’t go on election day you can ABSENTEE VOTE •Forget to register? Don’t worry we’ll let you do that on election day. (bring ID and proof of address) Show up! Electoral College Article II, Section I • Features • Winner Take All System • 270 To Win • There were several times in history where a candidate won the popular vote but not the electoral vote. • 2000 Bush v. Gore • State Chart • Map Lets see how it works… • Fast forward to November • • • • YOU get to choose the next president! Check out their Party Platform Choose the candidate that fits you Record your vote on your secret ballot and then pass it forward. Will the electoral college results reflect the popular vote????? Party Platforms Candidate A Candidate B • Would raise taxes on the top 1% and cut taxes for the middle class • Would cut taxes for the top 1% but leave taxes the same for the middle class • Pro Choice • Pro Life • Would keep regulations on business at the same level they are now • Would decrease regulations on business • Would say that protecting the environment is more important than company profits • Would say that increasing company profit is more important than protecting the environment • Wants to add jobs • Wants to add jobs • Lifetime politician • Lifetime politician Electoral College – st 1 hr Popular Candidate A Popular Candidate B EC Candidate A EC Candidate B California (55) 42 24 55 0 055 Texas (34) 4 1 34 0 Wisconsin (10) 3 2 10 0 North Dakota (3) 1 0 3 0 Alaska (3) 1 0 3 0 Totals (105) 13 11 57 105 50 055 State and EC Votes Electoral College – th 4 hr Popular Candidate A Popular Candidate B EC Candidate A EC Candidate B California (55) 11 6 27 55 0 055 Texas (34) 8 1 34 0 Wisconsin (10) 2 1 10 0 North Dakota (3) 0 2 0 3 Alaska (3) 2 0 3 0 Totals (105) 23 18 611 102 47 358 State and EC Votes Bell Work • Please answer the following in 1 paragraph: • Is the Electoral College a useful way to control the power of the people and stop them from electing a bad leader or is it unnecessary? Should we abolish or keep the electoral college? Why? • Please hand in your answer to the Bell Work AND YOUR checks and balances packet Electoral College – th 6 hr Popular Candidate A Popular Candidate B EC Candidate A EC Candidate B California (55) 74 36 55 0 055 Texas (34) 4 1 34 0 Wisconsin (10) 3 1 10 0 North Dakota (3) 1 0 3 0 Alaska (3) 1 0 3 0 Totals (105) 16 13 59 105 50 055 State and EC Votes Changing the Constitution: 2 Ways Formal = changing the words • Look at Constitution, Article V • 2 steps – Propose, Ratify • Propose An Amendment - 2 Ways • Congress or the States can propose. • • Both Houses of Congress must propose the amendment with 2/3 vote. Two-thirds of the State legislatures must call on Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention. • 2. Ratify • Regardless of how it is proposed, it must be ratified by the States. • • ¾ of the State legislatures must approve of the amendment ¾ of the states must approve the amendment at conventions. Changing the Constitution: 2Ways Formal = changing the words • Look at Constitution, Article V • 2 steps – Propose, Ratify Informal = changing how we think and act • Supreme Court Interpretations • Rulings set precedent Happy Friday! Today’s Agenda • Correct “Checks and Balances” Worksheet • Correct Federalism Article Wksht • Checks on Supreme Court • Executive • Appoint/nominate justices • Legislative • Impeach • Approve appointments Please read the statements below and circle whether you Agree or Disagree. I say: Agree/Disagree Statement 1. Corporal punishment should be legal in all schools as a way to punish students. Agree/Disagree 2. Corporal Punishment is allowed in most schools in the US. Agree/Disagree 3. If I get in trouble at North, I could choose corporal punishment instead of detention. Agree/Disagree 4. If a child does something wrong, it is OK for their parents to use corporal punishment. Agree/Disagree 5. It should be a power of the local community to decide if they will allow corporal punishment in their school. The article says: Corporal Punishment Bell Work: please answer the following using your article and notes from yesterday. HOLD ON TO IT! 1. Why is corporal punishment allowed in public schools? 2. This is an example of what type of change to the Constitution? 3. Should an amendment be made to the Constitution banning corporal punishment in schools? 4. What would need to happen for this to occur? Was there good medicine for behavioral problems when you were a kid? Consider 1. What concept from the constitution is cartoon dealing with? National Power • Supremacy Clause – Article VI • If a local law conflicts with a national law, national law wins. • Necessary and Proper Clause – Article I, section VIII • Congress can make all laws that are necessary and proper in order to carry out their enumerated powers Articles of Confederation 1781 Constitution 1788 Civil War 1861-1865 • States and national gov share control • National Government takes more control • 14th Amendment 1868 – reduces state power Who has the power? •Citizenship •The due process clause •The equal protection clause • States have full control The Early Years Who has the power? Post civil war • Industrialization and Globalization (1865–1945) • Industrialization: • 19th century: laissez-faire economic policy • The Great Depression • Stronger regulatory role in the early twentieth century. Who has the power? Post Great Depression • Cooperative Federalism (1945– 1969) • State and national share more and more • New Federalism (1969–present) • National Government is too powerful 1. Compare and Contrast a) New Federalism b) Dual Federalism c) Cooperative Federalism Read the article and answer: 2. How do categorical grants allow the national government to tell states what to do? 3. How do block grants return power to the states? 4. Why is the legal drinking age 21? 5. Arguments over Federalism are really arguments over_______________. 6. Choose one of these other Federalism dilemmas: • Abortion • Marijuana use (medical or recreational) • Doctor assisted suicide • Gay Marriage a) Then Answer: a) Which level of government should set the policy for this issue? Why are they the best level to deal with it? b) If it were up to you, what policy would you create for this issue? Why would you handle this issue in this way? Bell Work • Directions: Write an answer to the following in your notebook and hold on to it: • Should a voter care about a candidate’s race, religion, income or level of education when deciding who to vote for? • Why or why not? Directions • You will be assigned either argument A or argument B • Read through the argument assigned to you and fill in your chart accordingly A battle over principles Federalists • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay – all published The Federalist Papers • Property owners, landed rich merchants in Northern states • Believed in elitism. Saw themselves and those of their class as most fit to govern • Powerful central government. 2house legislature, with one house (Senate) being more removed from the people, whom they generally distrusted. Anti Federalists • Thomas Jefferson, Melancton Smith • Small farmers, shopkeepers, laborers • Believed in the decency of the common man and in participatory democracy. Viewed elites as corrupt. Sought greater protection of individual rights • Wanted stronger state government at he expense of the federal. Frequent elections, smaller districts, more direct democracy. Bill of Rights • The Deal is Done • Washington suggests adding a list through the amendment process • Constitution ratified in 1788 • BOR officially added to the constitution in 1791 Bell Work • Make sure you have these written down: • The First 10 Amendments The first 10 minutes of class will be set aside for you to study (by yourself or with a partner) 1st = Freedom of speech, religion, and assembly 2nd= right to keep a weapon 3rd= troops can’t be kept in your home Feel free to look th 4 = proper searches and seizures through this PowerPoint for 5th= rights of an accused person info you may have 6th= right to a speedy trial missed. 7th= right to a trial by jury 8th= No cruel and unusual punishment 9th= the constitution should not be used to take rights away from the people (just because a right isn’t listed does NOT mean it doesn’t exist) • 10th= any powers not given to the national government are given to the states • • • • • • • • • Did the Anti-Federalist vision come true? • Is our government representation matched up with the country as a whole? Income Congress US 4.78 47 53 AGI Above One Million AGI Above One Million AGI Below One Million AGI Below One Million 95.22 How Do They Stack Up? Female Married US Senate Christian House Age 50-59 0 20 40 60 80 100 How Do They Stack Up? Caucasian Asian US Senate Hispanic House African American 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Homework • Study Up! Constitutional Convention How can we meet our need for a strong central government but make sure the states still have power? A question of Federalism What is an example of a State and a National Power?