Kebele

Report
Agricultural Extension Service
Policy in Ethiopia
BY:
KIDANEMARIAM B. HAILU
MEP10105
COUNTRY: ETHIOPIA
INSTRUCTOR AT AKSUM UNIVERSITY
JULY 2011
1. Overview of the Agricultural Sector in
Ethiopia
• Ethiopian population is about 80 mil, 3rd Populated
from Africa.
• Majority (84%) of the population live in the rural areas
• The economy is predominantly agrarian
• Agriculture accounts for about

46% of GDP

85% of Employment

90 % of Export Earning,
•
Since 2004/5 the average growth rate of agr. has been about 8% per year
•
Of the total agral value added: crop, livestock and forestry, respectively,
contribute 60%, 27% and 13%.
o But, still characterized by low productivity and has been
unable to produce sufficient quantities to feed the population
(Tewodaj et al., 2009).
o Factors that contribute to the low level of productivity
 low level of adoption of modern agricultural inputs
 use of traditional tools and farming practices
 land degradation and frequent drought
 Totally rain-fed agriculture
2. Agricultural Extension Service in Ethiopia
Extension service started in Ethiopia since 1953 and has passed
at least five stages
Land grant extension system
Comprehensive Package Programs
Imperial Regime
(1952-74)
Minimum Package Projects
Peasant Agricultural Development Program- Military Regime
(1974-91)
Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems
(PADETES)- Current Regime (since 1995-present)
 Lessons learned from the past extension service
 absence of participation of the very people for whom they have
been designed.
 lack of complementary institutional support services such as
input supply and credit services.
 was biased against the livestock subsector.
 was accessible to farmers located only a few kilometers from
both sides of all weather roads.
 emphasis was given to few producers, cooperatives and state
farms
Agricultural Extension under the Current Government

After coming to power in 1991, the current government adopted
Agricultural
Development Led Industrialization Strategy (ADLI) in 1994.

Within the framework of ADLI, a new extension approach, PADETES has been
adopted in 1995.

PADETES aimed at (Berhanu, 2006);
increasing productivity and production of smallholders
empowering farmers to be active participants in the development process
increasing food self-sufficiency, increasing the supply of raw materials for domestic
use and export
enhancing the rehabilitation and conservation of natural resource base, and
encouraging farmer organizations.
 The principle of PADETES is that it is agro-ecology based and followed a
package approach
•
The program initially started with technology packages for wheat, maize,
sorghum and teff in high rainfall areas.
•
Later, it expanded its area coverage and number of technology packages
(livestock, high value crops, post harvest technology, and agro-forestry).
 Components of the Extension package
•
crop production packages (cereals, pulses, fruits and
vegetables) including
crop protection and irrigation
•
livestock production technologies (feeds, modern beehives, dairy, fattening,
animal health, fishery, poultry, apiculture)
•
natural resources management (agro-forestry, soil conservation and water
harvesting)
3. Policy Framework and Organization of the Extension Service
ADLI
MoARD
BoARD
WOARD
Kebele
National Policy Framework to maintain national food
security and improving rural livelihoods
At Federal level, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development (MoARD) is responsible for
• formulating national extension intervention related
policies,
• coordinating interregional extension, and
• providing technical advice and training services
• Providing financial support
At the Regional State level, Bureau of Agriculture and
Rural Development (BoARD) is responsible for
• implementation of the PADETES through its district
and local level offices
Woreda (district) level Office of Agriculture and Rural
Development (WOARD)
Kebele is the smallest administration unit in Ethiopia
 At woreda level, extension activities are handled by a team
composed of
• an extension team leader
•
an extension and training expert
•
experts in crop production, livestock production, and natural
resource management.
 PADETES is based on demonstrating technologies and training
farmers on agricultural technologies
 For this reason, one farmers training center (FTC) is established
in each Kebele
Drip irrigation
Sample FTC in Tigrai Region (adopted from Molla, 2009)
Modern beekeeping
 The FTCs serve as
centers of extension service and information
places where modular training to farmers are given
demonstration of entrepreneurship
 To realize this, three Development Agents (DAs), one each in the
areas of crop production, livestock production and natural resource
management are placed at each FTC.
 To deliver knowledge, PADETES makes use of farm visit, farm
and home visit, use of model farmers, demonstration of farm
technology and demonstration plots and mass media approaches.
4. Analysis of systems Framework and Working
Components
Participatory
Demonstration and
Training Extension Systems
Agricultural Technical and
Vocational Education and
Training
Farmers Training Centers
Institutional coordination
 Systems/Management and Linkages
• new actors, policies, technologies, and relationships are affecting
the system
• but, still the public sector is the single most important player
• Participation of the private sector and NGOs is weak.
• research-extension linkage increasing
 Mind-sets and Capabilities
• mind-set changes among research and extension staffs and farmers
• Capacity is a major issue within the extension system
• The DA position suffers from high turnover
• DAs and other extension staff have limited skills relating to
innovation, networking, social learning, policies, farmer group
development, and negotiation
• use of DAs for non-extension activities such as credit distribution
and repayment collection
 Infrastructure and Resources
• FTCs should be the focal point for all the actors within the innovation system
• However, they suffer from lack of modern equipments
• Lack of transportation facilities
• They need monitoring and support
 Enabling Environment
• policies are often formulated and implemented without due regard to farmers’
• distribution channels and institutions are weak
• lack of input and output markets
• lack of inputs or their high prices and late delivery (due to lack of coordination)
 Institutional Environment
• Various actors and institutions play important role in the extension system
• Major govt ministries include MoARD, Ministry of Trade , Ministry of Industry,
Ministry of Capacity Building, Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, and
Ministry of Transport and Communications
• Regional, woreda and kebele institutions
• Other institutions such as farmers’ cooperatives for input supply or marketing,
community-based organizations, NGOs, private firms (such as traders or
transporters), and microfinance institutions .
• Well integration and coordination of these institutions lead to the success of the
extension system
5. Effectiveness of PADETES
 Reached many farmers equitably (35-40% of the farmers in Ethiopia)
 Increased productivity in some cases
 About 8,489 FTCs established throughout Ethiopia, and about 62,764 DAs
have been trained in total, with a reported 45,812 staffed on location.
 Increased production of grains
 Increased numbers of participating households in extension packages
 Many farmers became millionaires under this system (Model farmers).
 Increased use of fertilizer and improved seed
 Diversification of farm enterprises
 Generally, Studies (example Dercon et al. 2008) shows poverty level of the
participant households decreased.
 Reasons for the encouraging results could be

Countrywide enabling environment in which extension operates

Strong foundation of FTCs
 train DAs and farmers
 entrepreneurialism and innovation exist

Agricultural technical and vocational education

Institutional coordination
 linked PADETES with credit, cooperative and marketing support

Consistent policy (PADETES) with strong believe of the gov’t that
change could only come through PADETES.

Considered agro-ecology variance
Irrigation farmland of Potato, wheat and barley of model farmer in Tigrai, 2009
Modern house of participant household in Tigrai
Cross-breed milk cow dev’t package in Tigrai
Table 1: Trends of production and productivity
Year
Total
productio
n in tones
Area in
hectare
productivity
(tones per
hectare)
% of area
covered by
improved
seeds
Fertilizer
applied
in tones
% of area
covered by
fertilizer
1994/95
7889510
7689580.9
1.03
0.61
184126
27.70
1995/96
11857800
9037957.32
1.31
0.71
1996/97
10605100
8822878.54
1.20
1.87
264579
32.23
1997/98
-------
--------
-------
1.98
235882
34.47
1998/99
10529181
8811030.13
1.20
2.68
1999/2000
11067566
9131655.12
1.21
3.61
432966
38.81
2000/01
12848106
10437129.2
1.23
4.22
341493
37.85
2001/02
12168406
8697931.38
1.40
2.99
258178
8.4
2002/03
8024093
7866757.84
1.02
-------
------
-------
2003/04
12810689
9653872.65
1.33
3.67
388251
40.22
2004/05
-------
---------
-------
3.18
454966
41.79
CSA, 2005
256217
389104
31.43
38.60
•
However, the very critical point to be raised here is whether these
changes are really sufficient to significantly increase agricultural
productivity and production levels
•
About 40% of the total population is still undernourished
•
Effectiveness of PADETES has been largely measured in terms of
the number of farmers participating in the extension program.
•
Number of annual target beneficiaries is compared against
accomplishments to evaluate the effectiveness/ performance of the
extension package program.
•
Fulfillment of quotas still remained a criterion in DAs
performance evaluation.
6. Impact of the Program on Poverty in Tigrai (by Kidu, 2010)
o ATT= Expenditure of participants minus that of non-participants
Table 2: ATT Estimation Results of Food and Total Expenditures
Table 3: ATT Estimation Results of household Investment on human capital
Table 4: ATT Estimation Results of Household Productive assets
7. Problems that Need attention
Performance
measures
are
largely
input
based,
not
output/outcome based
Still top-down and non-participatory approach dominates
Predominantly supply driven approach
Limitations in infrastructure facilities, marketing chain and inputs
Limited participation by women farmers
DAs use coercion to involve farmers to fulfill quota
DAs are involved in several non-extension activities, including
credit distribution and collection of repayments
THANK YOU!!

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