Agricultural Extension Service Policy in Ethiopia BY: KIDANEMARIAM B. HAILU MEP10105 COUNTRY: ETHIOPIA INSTRUCTOR AT AKSUM UNIVERSITY JULY 2011 1. Overview of the Agricultural Sector in Ethiopia • Ethiopian population is about 80 mil, 3rd Populated from Africa. • Majority (84%) of the population live in the rural areas • The economy is predominantly agrarian • Agriculture accounts for about 46% of GDP 85% of Employment 90 % of Export Earning, • Since 2004/5 the average growth rate of agr. has been about 8% per year • Of the total agral value added: crop, livestock and forestry, respectively, contribute 60%, 27% and 13%. o But, still characterized by low productivity and has been unable to produce sufficient quantities to feed the population (Tewodaj et al., 2009). o Factors that contribute to the low level of productivity low level of adoption of modern agricultural inputs use of traditional tools and farming practices land degradation and frequent drought Totally rain-fed agriculture 2. Agricultural Extension Service in Ethiopia Extension service started in Ethiopia since 1953 and has passed at least five stages Land grant extension system Comprehensive Package Programs Imperial Regime (1952-74) Minimum Package Projects Peasant Agricultural Development Program- Military Regime (1974-91) Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems (PADETES)- Current Regime (since 1995-present) Lessons learned from the past extension service absence of participation of the very people for whom they have been designed. lack of complementary institutional support services such as input supply and credit services. was biased against the livestock subsector. was accessible to farmers located only a few kilometers from both sides of all weather roads. emphasis was given to few producers, cooperatives and state farms Agricultural Extension under the Current Government After coming to power in 1991, the current government adopted Agricultural Development Led Industrialization Strategy (ADLI) in 1994. Within the framework of ADLI, a new extension approach, PADETES has been adopted in 1995. PADETES aimed at (Berhanu, 2006); increasing productivity and production of smallholders empowering farmers to be active participants in the development process increasing food self-sufficiency, increasing the supply of raw materials for domestic use and export enhancing the rehabilitation and conservation of natural resource base, and encouraging farmer organizations. The principle of PADETES is that it is agro-ecology based and followed a package approach • The program initially started with technology packages for wheat, maize, sorghum and teff in high rainfall areas. • Later, it expanded its area coverage and number of technology packages (livestock, high value crops, post harvest technology, and agro-forestry). Components of the Extension package • crop production packages (cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables) including crop protection and irrigation • livestock production technologies (feeds, modern beehives, dairy, fattening, animal health, fishery, poultry, apiculture) • natural resources management (agro-forestry, soil conservation and water harvesting) 3. Policy Framework and Organization of the Extension Service ADLI MoARD BoARD WOARD Kebele National Policy Framework to maintain national food security and improving rural livelihoods At Federal level, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) is responsible for • formulating national extension intervention related policies, • coordinating interregional extension, and • providing technical advice and training services • Providing financial support At the Regional State level, Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) is responsible for • implementation of the PADETES through its district and local level offices Woreda (district) level Office of Agriculture and Rural Development (WOARD) Kebele is the smallest administration unit in Ethiopia At woreda level, extension activities are handled by a team composed of • an extension team leader • an extension and training expert • experts in crop production, livestock production, and natural resource management. PADETES is based on demonstrating technologies and training farmers on agricultural technologies For this reason, one farmers training center (FTC) is established in each Kebele Drip irrigation Sample FTC in Tigrai Region (adopted from Molla, 2009) Modern beekeeping The FTCs serve as centers of extension service and information places where modular training to farmers are given demonstration of entrepreneurship To realize this, three Development Agents (DAs), one each in the areas of crop production, livestock production and natural resource management are placed at each FTC. To deliver knowledge, PADETES makes use of farm visit, farm and home visit, use of model farmers, demonstration of farm technology and demonstration plots and mass media approaches. 4. Analysis of systems Framework and Working Components Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education and Training Farmers Training Centers Institutional coordination Systems/Management and Linkages • new actors, policies, technologies, and relationships are affecting the system • but, still the public sector is the single most important player • Participation of the private sector and NGOs is weak. • research-extension linkage increasing Mind-sets and Capabilities • mind-set changes among research and extension staffs and farmers • Capacity is a major issue within the extension system • The DA position suffers from high turnover • DAs and other extension staff have limited skills relating to innovation, networking, social learning, policies, farmer group development, and negotiation • use of DAs for non-extension activities such as credit distribution and repayment collection Infrastructure and Resources • FTCs should be the focal point for all the actors within the innovation system • However, they suffer from lack of modern equipments • Lack of transportation facilities • They need monitoring and support Enabling Environment • policies are often formulated and implemented without due regard to farmers’ • distribution channels and institutions are weak • lack of input and output markets • lack of inputs or their high prices and late delivery (due to lack of coordination) Institutional Environment • Various actors and institutions play important role in the extension system • Major govt ministries include MoARD, Ministry of Trade , Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Capacity Building, Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Transport and Communications • Regional, woreda and kebele institutions • Other institutions such as farmers’ cooperatives for input supply or marketing, community-based organizations, NGOs, private firms (such as traders or transporters), and microfinance institutions . • Well integration and coordination of these institutions lead to the success of the extension system 5. Effectiveness of PADETES Reached many farmers equitably (35-40% of the farmers in Ethiopia) Increased productivity in some cases About 8,489 FTCs established throughout Ethiopia, and about 62,764 DAs have been trained in total, with a reported 45,812 staffed on location. Increased production of grains Increased numbers of participating households in extension packages Many farmers became millionaires under this system (Model farmers). Increased use of fertilizer and improved seed Diversification of farm enterprises Generally, Studies (example Dercon et al. 2008) shows poverty level of the participant households decreased. Reasons for the encouraging results could be Countrywide enabling environment in which extension operates Strong foundation of FTCs train DAs and farmers entrepreneurialism and innovation exist Agricultural technical and vocational education Institutional coordination linked PADETES with credit, cooperative and marketing support Consistent policy (PADETES) with strong believe of the gov’t that change could only come through PADETES. Considered agro-ecology variance Irrigation farmland of Potato, wheat and barley of model farmer in Tigrai, 2009 Modern house of participant household in Tigrai Cross-breed milk cow dev’t package in Tigrai Table 1: Trends of production and productivity Year Total productio n in tones Area in hectare productivity (tones per hectare) % of area covered by improved seeds Fertilizer applied in tones % of area covered by fertilizer 1994/95 7889510 7689580.9 1.03 0.61 184126 27.70 1995/96 11857800 9037957.32 1.31 0.71 1996/97 10605100 8822878.54 1.20 1.87 264579 32.23 1997/98 ------- -------- ------- 1.98 235882 34.47 1998/99 10529181 8811030.13 1.20 2.68 1999/2000 11067566 9131655.12 1.21 3.61 432966 38.81 2000/01 12848106 10437129.2 1.23 4.22 341493 37.85 2001/02 12168406 8697931.38 1.40 2.99 258178 8.4 2002/03 8024093 7866757.84 1.02 ------- ------ ------- 2003/04 12810689 9653872.65 1.33 3.67 388251 40.22 2004/05 ------- --------- ------- 3.18 454966 41.79 CSA, 2005 256217 389104 31.43 38.60 • However, the very critical point to be raised here is whether these changes are really sufficient to significantly increase agricultural productivity and production levels • About 40% of the total population is still undernourished • Effectiveness of PADETES has been largely measured in terms of the number of farmers participating in the extension program. • Number of annual target beneficiaries is compared against accomplishments to evaluate the effectiveness/ performance of the extension package program. • Fulfillment of quotas still remained a criterion in DAs performance evaluation. 6. Impact of the Program on Poverty in Tigrai (by Kidu, 2010) o ATT= Expenditure of participants minus that of non-participants Table 2: ATT Estimation Results of Food and Total Expenditures Table 3: ATT Estimation Results of household Investment on human capital Table 4: ATT Estimation Results of Household Productive assets 7. Problems that Need attention Performance measures are largely input based, not output/outcome based Still top-down and non-participatory approach dominates Predominantly supply driven approach Limitations in infrastructure facilities, marketing chain and inputs Limited participation by women farmers DAs use coercion to involve farmers to fulfill quota DAs are involved in several non-extension activities, including credit distribution and collection of repayments THANK YOU!!