CERC Presentation L

Facilitating Research by
Undergraduate Students
Lynette M. Gibson Ph.D., RN
Associate Professor
Mary Black School of Nursing
University of South Carolina Upstate
1. Describe the rationale for undergraduate
2. Describe the rationale for undergraduate
research by African-American nursing
3. Discuss a philosophy of mentorship with
undergraduate research students.
4. Describe results of engagement with
undergraduate students in research.
Rationale for
Undergraduate Student Research
Nursing students, faculty, nurse researchers
Greater numbers
Better preparation
More diversity
Rationale for Diversity
 12.6% of full-time nursing school faculty from
minority backgrounds (AACN, 2010).
 Healthcare professionals from racial and ethnic
minority groups more successful in recruiting minority
patients to participate in clinical research (IOM, 2003).
 “The rationale for increasing diversity in the health
workforce is evident: increased diversity will improve
the overall health of the nation”
(Sullivan Commission 2004, page 3).
Rationale for Diversity
• The need to attract diverse nursing students is
paralleled by the need to recruit more faculty from
minority populations. Few nurses from racial/ethnic
minority groups with advanced nursing degrees
pursue faculty careers (AACN, 2011a).
Rationale for Terminal Degree
• Although 13% of nurses hold a graduate degree,
fewer than 1% (28,369 nurses) have a doctoral degree
in nursing or a nursing-related field (AACN, 2010).
• Only 555 students graduated with a PhD in nursing in
2009, has remained constant for the past decade
(AACN, 2009).
• Key roles for PhD nurses include teaching future
generations of nurses and conducting research that
becomes the basis for improvements in nursing
practice (AACN, 2011b).
Boyer Commission (1998; 2003)
 Opportunities to participate in research and creative
activities are an established component of
undergraduate programs.
 Research-based learning not limited to completion of
specific projects; can take place whenever faculty and
students share the act of discovery
 Should be available to all students; not just honors or
special students (The Boyer Commission, 2003)
The Case for
Undergraduate Nursing Research
BSN students understand the basic elements of
evidence-based practice, can work with others
to identify potential research problems, and can
collaborate on research teams (AACN, 2008).
Creating Research Opportunities…
 Research work/mentorship programs combine aspects
of honors programs and research assistant
 Create synergistic opportunities.
 In exchange for receiving extra help from bright
students, faculty are responsible to create an
infrastructure designed to help students develop
researcher behaviors.
(Vessey & Demarco, 2008)
Undergraduate Nursing Research
Developing Passion
 Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of
the research process and models for applying evidence
to clinical practice.
(AACN, 2008).
 “The research attitude begins on the undergraduate
level” (Carnegie, 1974).
Undergraduate Research
Developing Passion…
Undergraduate research programs are necessary
for undergraduate students to develop a
passion, for the discovery of new knowledge
and its application to practice
(Vessey & Demarco, 2008)
Undergraduate Research Students
 Engage students and faculty as partners in the discovery
of new knowledge (Vessey & Demarco, 2008).
 All students should participate regardless of academic
course loads or financial need (Vessey & Demarco,
 Help undergraduates begin to see key aspects of the
researcher role through real participation through
individualized engaged development. (Vessey &
Demarco, 2008).
Undergraduate Research Students
The research enterprise can thrive only when certain
prerequisites are in place, including a culture
supportive of research and scholarship; strong
mentoring in the intellectual work of the discipline
(AACN Position on Nursing Research, 2006).
Philosophy of Mentorship
“Crab theory”
Reach back and pull forward
Sharing of self with other
Mutual, synergistic relationship
Goal oriented
Profile: USC Upstate
Mary Black School of Nursing
Largest baccalaureate nursing program in SC
440 pre-licensure students
102 RN-BSN students
Spring 2012
Admission rate for African-American students – 9%
Matriculation rate for African-American students - 9.9%
 Three African-American undergraduate senior
nursing students
 Invited to participate after completing nursing
research course
 Community-based participatory research (CBPR)
with African-American women
Research Study
1. Quasi-experimental pre and post-test longitudinal
design with African-American women over 35 from
churches and community organizations
2. “Save Our Breasts” Forum - culturally specific
intervention with information on key
epidemiological factors, myths, barriers to, and
facilitators of breast cancer screening
Research Study
3. Surveys on breast health knowledge, beliefs, fear,
mammography self-efficacy, fatalism, and
mammography intention measured prior to,
immediately after, and three to six months after
“Save Our Breasts”
4. Spiritual/religiosity measured before the forum
The Students…
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN
Danielle Harris, RN, BSN
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Developed recruitment questionnaire
Award-winning poster at the USC Upstate
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Legrand, H., & Gibson, L.
(2010). Communitybased participatory
recruitment methods for
women. University of
South Carolina Upstate
Undergraduate Research
Journal, 3, 61-64.
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Legrand, H., & Gibson, L. Social Networking as a Means of
Community-Based Participatory Recruitment of AfricanAmerican women. Symposium Presented at the Southern
Nursing Research Society Conference, February 2011
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN
University of South Carolina
Magellan Scholar
 Research opportunities in all disciplines
 Faculty mentoring relationships & professional
research experience
 Students can creatively explore interests at a more indepth level than can be attained in the classroom
Crystal Humbert, Magellan Scholar
Crystal Humbert, Fourth Year, Nursing, USC Upstate
Mentor: Dr. Lynette Gibson, Nursing, USC Upstate
Breast cancer beliefs and mammography screening
intentions in African-American women
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN
USC System Magellan Scholar
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN
USC Upstate Office of Sponsored
Programs Mini-Grants for Undergraduate
Research Students
Breast Cancer Beliefs and Mammography Screening
Intention In African American Women
The Effect of the “Save Our Breasts” Forum on
Breast Cancer Beliefs, Fear, and Fatalism in AfricanAmerican Women
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN…
“Save Our Breasts” Forum
“I am more
speaking in
public…I feel as
though I have
made a positive
difference in the
women’s lives”
(Crystal Humbert,
Magellan Scholar)
“Save Our Breasts” Forum
“The Magellan
Scholar Program has
enabled me
to do research that I
otherwise might not
have done”
(Crystal Humbert,
Magellan Scholar)
Crystal Humbert RN, BSN
Humbert, C., & Gibson, L. The Effect of the "Save Our
Breasts" Forum on Breast Cancer Beliefs, Fear, and
Fatalism in African-American Women. Oncology Nursing
Society Biennial Research Conference, Los Angeles, CA,
February 2011.
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN
 Discovery Day Poster Presentation – USC System, Columbia, SC
 Culturally Appropriate Interventions and Recruitment Strategies to Promote
Mammography in African American Women Crystal Humbert, Student
Nurse, Research Assistant, Lynette Gibson, Ph.D., RN, Research Advisor
 Humbert, C. (2009). Breast cancer beliefs and mammography screening
intention by African-American women (2009). Upstate Research
Symposium, September 2009, Greenville, SC.
Danielle Harris, RN, BSN
Harris, D., & Gibson, L.
(2011). Breast cancer
fear, fatalism, and
spirituality in AfricanAmerican women,
Seventh Annual SC
Upstate Research
Symposium, March
Danielle Harris, RN, BSN
Harris, D., & Gibson, L.
(2011). Breast cancer
fear, fatalism, and
spirituality in AfricanAmerican women, USC
Upstate Undergraduate
Research Journal, IV,
Continued Dissemination
Manuscripts being completed
 Social networking Social Networking as a Means
of Community-Based Participatory Recruitment
of African-American women
(Legrand & Gibson)
 Breast cancer beliefs and mammography
intention of African-American women
(Humbert & Gibson)
Future Career Plans
Hadassa Legrand, RN, BSN, CCRN, awaiting
decision for Nurse Anesthetist Program
Danielle Harris, RN, BSN, awaiting decision
for Master’s Degree Program in Nursing
Crystal Humbert, RN, BSN, continuing to gain
clinical experience; plans for graduate school
Faculty Should…
Entice undergraduate African-American
students to conduct CBPR
Eliminate health disparities
Promote health in a culturally appropriate manner
Increase number of African-American nurses
with the terminal degree
Add to cadre of African-American nurse
researchers and scholars
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2006). AACN position statement on nursing
research. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/NsgResearch.pdf
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2008). The essentials of baccalaureate education
for professional nursing practice. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2009). The Institute of Medicine committee on
institutional and policy-level strategies for increasing the diversity of the U.S. health care
workforce. Retrieved from
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2011a). Enhancing Diversity in the Workforce.
Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2011b). The future of higher education in nursing:
Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/IDS/pdf/EthnicityTbl.pdf.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2012). AACN’s Institutional Data Systems and
Research Center (IDS). Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/research-data
Carnegie, M. E. (1974). The research attitude begins on the undergraduate level. Nursing
Research, 23, 99.
Institute of Medicine (2003). Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in
health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
The Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University (2003).
Reinventing undergraduate education: Three years after the Boyer Report. Retrieved from
The Sullivan Commission (2004). The Sullivan Commission’s Report on Health Profession
Diversity. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Sullivan Commission (2004). Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions.
Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). The registered nurse population, 2010.
Retrieved from http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/rnsurveys/rnsurveyfinal.pdf
Vessey, J. A., & Demarco, R. F. (2008). The undergraduate research fellows program: A unique
model to promote engagement in research. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(6), 358–363.

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