Romanesque and Gothic Art (ppt

Report
What Do I Turn in before Midterm?
The best drawings you have from each
section:
Shading - pedestals, single or multi-day still lives
Self portrait
Where Have We Been?
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Prehistoric
Egyptian
Mesopotamian (near-eastern)
Greek
Roman
Early Christian / Byzantine /
Middle Ages
• Romanesque
• Gothic
The Romanesque Period
1050-1200
The “Romanesque” Period
(1050-1200)
• Tremendous creative explosion
– Church reasserts itself
• Crusades begin in 1095
– Return of urban life
– Economic reform
– Barbarians settle down (convert)
• “Romanesque”
– Architectural forms and cultural atmosphere
reminiscent of the Roman Empire
What’s so Roman about it?
Apse
Aisle
Colonnade
Nave
Aisle
Atrium
Narthex
The Basilica
St. Sernin, Toulouse
(1078-1125)
Early Christian Basilica
What’s so Roman about it?
Apse
Aisle
Colonnade
The Barrel Vault
The Groin Vault
Nave
Aisle
Atrium
Narthex
The Basilica
St. Sernin, Toulouse
(1078-1125)
Ribbed Groin Vault
The Transept
and Westwork
Apse
Transept
Aisle
Colonnade
Nave
Aisle
Atrium
Narthex
The Basilica
St. Sernin, Toulouse
(1078-1125)
Westwork - St. Etienne, Caen
(1068)
Interiors
St. Savin-sur-Gartempe
Durham Cathedral (1093-1226)
Pisa Cathedral and Campanile
11thC-12thC
Architectural Sculpture
• Designed to put
the “Fear of
God” into you
• Like manuscript
illuminations in
three dimensions
St. Paul
South Portal, St. Pierre, Moissac (early 1100’s)
Jeremiah
The Tympaneum
• Popular themes
– Christ Enthroned – The Last Judgement
Abbey of Mary Magdalene,
Vezelay
South Portal, Moissac
Christ Enthroned
The Mission of the Apostles – Vezelay
The Last
Judgement
The Weighing of Souls – Autun Cathedral (1130-35)
Gothic Art and Architecture
The Gothic Period
The Gothic Period
• The Age of Faith
The Gothic Period
• The Age of Faith
• “The Age of the Great Cathedrals”
– (1150-1250)
The Gothic Period
• The Age of Faith
• “The Age of the Great Cathedrals”
– (1150-1250)
• The Age of Chivalry
Abbot Suger
• The inventor of the “Gothic” style (1137-1144)
– Abbot of royal Abbey Church of St.-Denis
– Advisor to Louis VI
• Combined several things to produce change
– Political power
– Religious zeal
– Civic pride
• New philosophy about art and architecture
• “We can only appreciate beauty and truth by first being
able to appreciate beautiful works of art.”
• “The dull mind rises to truth through that which is
beautiful.”
Notre Dame
Paris (1163ff)
Nave, looking
toward apse
• Verticality
• “Miraculous”
light
• Stained glass
Note:
Pointed
Arch
Notre Dame
“God as the Ultimate Mathematician”
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Geometry
Beauty
Harmony
Balance
Flying
buttresses!
Notre Dame
“God as the Ultimate Mathematician”
•
•
•
•
Geometry
Beauty
Harmony
Balance
Flying
buttresses!
Autun Cathedral (1120ff)
Amiens Cathedral (1220ff)
100 Years
“Gothic”
“High Gothic”
San Chapelle, Paris (1243-48)
Milan Cathedral, Italy (1386 ff)
“Flamboyant Gothic”
Gothic Sculpture
Romanesque
Jamb sculptures
Chartres Cathedral (1205)
Gothic Sculpture
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Realism
Dignity
Serenity
Elegance
Pathos
Classicism
Jamb sculptures
Chartres Cathedral (1205)
Gothic Sculpture
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Realism
Dignity
Serenity
Elegance
Pathos
Classicism
Jamb sculptures
Chartres Cathedral (1205)
Moses Well, by Claus Sluter
Detail, sculpture by
Giovanni Pisano
The Return of Painting!
• Return to fresco, panel painting (encaustic), and
murals
• Flourishes first in Italy
• NEW MEDIA:
– Tempera: Pigment is suspended in egg yolk
and water. Applied to a wood panel with an
underpainting of gold leaf covered with green
or brown
• Combines:
– Byzantine style with classical Greek and
Roman
Duccio (1255/60-1315/18)
Egg Tempera
Annunciation
Christ Entering Jerusalem
Giotto (1267?-1336/7)
“The Father of Modern Painting”
Jesus’ Entry into Jerusalem
Resurrection of Lazarus
Fresco/Composition!
Giotto – Madonna Enthroned
Gentile da Fabriano Nativity
Note: treatment of light
“Chiaroscuro” (light and shade)
Contrast
with
Byzantine
Icons
Vladimir Virgin, Russian
Madonna Enthroned
late 1200’s
Manuscript
Illumination
The Limbourg Brothers
February
The Book of Hours
1413-16
Thursday:
Midterm review session
Meet here at 1:30

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