E-Gov Imperatives and Future of Nigeria

Report
IMPERATIVES OF E-GOVERNMENT
AND THE FUTURE OF NIGERIA
Prof. Chigozie C. Asiabaka, Ph.D., KSM, JP
Vice-Chancellor
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI
(FUTO) NIGERIA
OUTLINE
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Introduction.
E-Government Evolution & Framework.
Global Trends in E-Government.
UN 2012 E-Government survey result.
E-Governance in Nigeria - successes & challenges.
E-Administration in Tertiary Institutions.
Survey Results and Discussion.
Recommendations & Imperatives Actions.
Conclusions.
INTRODUCTION
• The day-to-day business of government is built on Information.
• Information is a critical resource, ranks 4th after land, labour and capital.
• The advances in ICT have given us Internet, WWW, mobile phones and
Cloud computing, etc.
• All these have changed business, education, research, etc
– Businesses can compete globally in a way we could not have dreamt of many years ago.
• This e-Technology is driving the new economy but unfortunately, not
everyone is benefiting.
– There is a growing split or digital divide.
• Today no business, whether big or small, can afford to ignore e-Technology.
• E-governance has become imperative for sustainable economic
development of any nation.
• The future of our country therefore depends on how fast & how well we
can employ e-governance.
E-GOVERNMENT?
• E-Government is the use of ICT (Internet) in delivering government
services.
• The major benefits of e-government include
– improved efficiency,
– increase in transparency and accountability of government functions,
– faster access to government services,
– lower costs of administrative services,
• Presently, true democracy and good governance is characterized by:
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Citizen participation, rule of law,
transparency, responsiveness, consensus orientation,
equity, effectiveness and efficiency, accountability
and strategic vision .
• All these are natural functionalities of ICT Applications (E-Gov
applications).
• This is confirmed by experience reports from developed countries
– that E-Government is an enabler for achieving true democracy and good governance.
E-GOVERNMENT EVOLUTION
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e-Government emerged in late 1990s,
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but the history of computing in government organizations can be traced back to the 1970s.
Then the focus was on office automation, later the advances in microelectronics
and telecoms, led to the emergence of Internet, cloud computing, social networks,
wikis, etc.
The Internet and WWW technologies facilitated online businesses (e-commerce) in
an unimaginable way.
e-business phenomenon produced billionaires-entrepreneurs in a very short
period;
– Amazon, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, etc.
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The successes of e-commerce subsequently motivated e-government.
Initially, it started by government entities having websites (static).
As Internet penetration grew, many sites began to focus on delivering information
and services to citizens and businesses.
With more advances, online transactions were introduced.
Subsequently, it progressed to online participation,
–
citizens can connect with public administrators, decision-makers, and perhaps elected officials.
E-GOVERNMENT MODELS
• As e-Government continues to evolve, the following
relationships models have been identified:
– Government-to-Citizen (G2C) - making information accessible to
citizens online.
– Government-to-Business (G2B) – for private sector to procure goods
and services.
– Government-to-Employee (G2E) - for coordination of internal
operations
– Government-to-Government (G2G) – for intergovernmental relations.
national, state/provincial, and local government as in the case of
humanitarian or crisis response.
• With the various combinations of the above models United
Nations has proposed a 4- stage framework for
benchmarking the different stages in the evolution of egovernment services of countries.
THE 4- STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT
Stage 1 -
Stage 2 –
Emerging presence
Enhanced
presence
• Few static websites
with basic info on
about services,
hours of operation,
contact.
• Visitors can access
information,
download
documents
• More official websites
with dynamic &
specialised content
that is frequently
updated.
• Interaction is still
unidirectional from
government to
citizens.
Stage 4 Transactional
presence
• Increase in number
of country
websites with
inclusion of
interactive mode.
• Introduction of
Web portals with a
wide variety of
services, e-voting,
job applications,
etc.
Stage 5 Connected
presence
• government
ministries operate
with a fully integrated
ICT infrastructure and
centralised database..
• Governments
measure the
performance &
quality of service
using software to
enhance the user
experience for
citizens.
• Web 2.0 features
such as blogs, wikis,
and RSS feeds
integrated to for info
sharing &
collaboration.
GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT
• Many countries have adopted E-governance.
• Evidence has shown that E-government programmes boost
productivity in areas such as
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entrepreneurship,
innovation,
research and development,
promoting distance learning,
e-health, e-agriculture, e-trade and other fields.
• The United Nations has published 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010
and 2012 global survey of e-government readiness index of
its 192 countries.
• The e-government readiness index is a measurement of the
capacity and willingness of countries to use e-government.
• e-government readiness index is used for ranking the
performance of countries.
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It helps for policy making and agenda setting.
And also for monitoring progress.
E-GOVERNMENT READINESS INDEX
• E-government readiness index is calculated from
– Web Measure Index: countries are ranked according to
what they provide online.
– Telecommunication Infrastructure Index :
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PCs/1000 persons;
Internet users/1000 persons;
Telephone lines/1000 persons;
online population;
mobile phones/1000 persons;
and TV’s/1000 persons.
– Human Capital Index
• adult literacy rate
• primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio.
TOP 20 LEADERS OF E-GOVERNANCE
Rank
Country
E-Government
Development
Index
Rank
Country
E-Government
Development
Index
1
Republic of Korea
0.9283
11
Canada
0.843
2
Netherlands
0.9125
12
Australia
0.839
3
United Kingdom
0.896
13
New Zealand
0.8381
4
Denmark
0.8889
14
Liechtenstein
0.8264
5
United States
0.8687
15
Switzerland
0.8134
6
France
0.8635
16
Israel
7
Sweden
0.8599
17
Germany
0.8079
8
Norway
0.8593
18
Japan
0.8019
9
Finland
0.8505
19
Luxembourg
0.8014
10
Singapore
0.8474
20
Estonia
0.7987
0.81
The Republic of Korea is the world leader (0.9283), followed by the Netherlands (0.9125), the
E-Government Development Index for
Top 20 Countries
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
25 Emerging Countries E-Governance Ranking
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Regional comparison- Western African, Southern Asia , Western Asia countries &
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Western Europe .
West African
Countries
Cape Verde
2012 EGov. Dev Southern Asia
Index Countries
0.430 Maldives
2012 EGov. Dev
Index
0.499
Ghana
0.316
Iran
0.488
West Asia
Countries
Isreal
United Arab
Emirates
Gambia
0.269
Sri Lanka
0.436
Nigeria
Senegal
Cote d'Ivoire
Liberia
Togo
0.268
0.267
0.258
0.241
0.214
India
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Pakistan
Nepal
Benin
Mauritania
Guinea Bissau
Sierra Leone
Niger
0.206
0.200
0.195
0.156
0.112
Afghanistan
Guinea
Sub Regional
N/A
Sub Regional
West Africa is still
far below the world
average of 0.488.
Western
2012 E-Gov. Europe
Dev Index Countries
0.810
Netherland
2012 E-Gov. Dev
Index
0.913
0.734
France
0.864
Bahrain
0.695
Liechtenstein
0.826
0.383
0.299
0.294
0.282
0.266
Saudi Arabia
Cyprus
Qatar
Kuwait
Oman
0.666
0.651
0.641
0.596
0.594
Switzerland
Germany
Luxembourg
Austria
Belgium
0.813
0.808
0.801
0.784
0.772
0.170
Georgia
Turkey
Lebanon
Armenia
Azerhaijan
0.556
0.528
0.514
0.500
0.498
Monaco
0.747
Jordan
Iraq
Yemen
Syrian Arab
Republic
Sub Regional
0.488
0.341
0.247
0.371
Sub Regional
AN OVERVIEW OF E-GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
• A lot has happened in Nigeria since the advent of mobile
communication, Internet and WWW tech.
• The Federal Government of Nigeria laid the foundation for ICT
development by
– privatization of telecom sector and auctioning GSM licenses.
• With the liberalization of the telecom sector in 2000 and
establishment of the sector regulator- NCC,
– the teledensity increased from 0.4 lines per 100 inhabitant to more than 82
lines per 100 inhabitants in 2013.
• The GSM companies as they stabilised, started offering Internet
bandwidth,
– this increased Internet penetration and many new business.
AN OVERVIEW OF E-GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA CTD
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FGN established National Information Technology Development Agency, (NITDA) in 2001.
– Commendably, NITDA has several initiatives geared at accelerating e-government at
vital agencies, institutions of government and educational institutions.
• computer acquisition scheme for undergraduates, etc.
– NITDA has also published some guidelines;
• National Information Systems and Network Security Standards & Guidelines
• Framework Architecture & Standards for e-Government Applications.
• Some other laudable National ICT projects include
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training of Civil servants and lecturers,
communication satellite launch,
the most recent Broadband policy,
the NgREN to interconnect all tertiary institutions for education & research
• Government organs with online services
– West Africa Examination Council (WAEC),
– National Examination Council (NECO)
– Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB)
• Organised Private Sector with online services
– All banks, oil companies, airlines, etc.
The story is not the same for all government offices.
A brief survey of the 3 tier of government is reported in the next section.
ACTIVE WEBSITES FOR 3 TIERS OF GOVERNMENT
A web survey on the 3 tiers of
government was carried out -
• Presidency, Senate &
House of Represent.
have active websites.
• 36 states websites have.
• For Judiciary, only
Supreme, Court of
Appeal, Federal High
Court, High Court of FCT
have websites
Entity
Active
Website
Entity
Active Website
Presidency
Yes
Local
Governments
No
Federal Ministries
Yes
State House of
Assemblies
No
States (36)
Yes
High Court of a
State
No
Senate
Yes
Sharia Court of
Appeal of FCT
No
House of
Representative
Yes
Sharia Court of
Appeal of a State
No
Supreme Court of
Nigeria
Yes
Customary Court
of Appeal of
FCT
No
Court of Appeal
Yes
Customary Court
of Appeal of a
State
No
Federal High Court
High Court of FCT
Yes
Yes
• The others did not have.
E-ADMINISTRATION IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
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Many universities in Nigeria have moved from static websites to interactive
Portals to improve educational delivery.
The NUC has also established a one-stop shop Portal for all Universities.
For FUTO, my mantra is “The Quest for Excellence” and one of my focus areas is
– the provision and use of ICT for full computerization of University functions.
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For now, we have deployed
– Campus-wide Wi-Fi for Internet access,
– Redesigned University Website,
– Portal for academic activities for staff and students.
– Online Transcript Processing system.
– Online undergraduate and postgraduate admissions.
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The University Senate, school boards all have e-meetings,
– this has reduced cost of paper.
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My ultimate target is to have a paperless office.
A lot more can be done with the availability of more financial resources.
DISCUSSION
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Although, many government organs are enthusiastic about e-Government,
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This is because of several reasons;
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one of which is that because of scarce financial resources, expenditure on provision of safe water,
rural health and basic educational services are usually preferred to that of ICT infrastructure.
Another reason is the fear that the project may fail, because many e-government projects
fail, even in developed countries.
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it still remains a challenge for them to implement.
Nevertheless, there are many successful e-government projects to learn lessons from.
Another obstacle is that human beings resist change,
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deployment of e-Government involves computer-based technologies and human-based
administrative processes to create new ways of serving the citizens.
This requires learning and changing the usual way of working, this is difficult for the ageing
population in government offices who are not computer literate.
This situation arose because of the government embargo on employment for many years.
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From the UN surveys, 2004 - 2012, Nigeria is in Stage 1- Emerging Presence, and we rank 163 out of
192 countries.
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This situation can be reversed, it depends on the priority Federal and State governments place on it.
The LGAs have to be pulled on board too,
because they have key roles to play in providing grass-root information on basic items such as:
– numbering of houses, taxes on shops,
– cleaning and maintenance of roads,
– health care, primary and adult education,
– birth, death and marriage certificates.
DISCUSSION CTD: E-GOVERNANCE AND THE FUTURE OF NIGERIA
very bright - huge market- large population, baby boom is continuing!
E-Government Applications for Nigeria.
• The future of Nigeria is very
bright.
• Several potential applications
• Few Nigerian companies
practicing e-commerce are
reaping huge profits &
delivering improved quality of
service.
– Before 1999, people had to
take one whole day off to go to
bank,
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With online & mobile
banking, ATMs, queues have
virtually disappeared.
Issuance of
Registration of
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National Passport- not fully
implemented
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Driver’s License - not fully
implemented
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Tax Clearance
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Industry license, permit and
authorization.
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Vehicle Number Plate
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C-of-O
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Birth, Marriage & Death
certificates
Payment of
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Tax
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Import Duty
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Government Fines and
Sanctions
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Electricity & Water bills
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Voters
Land Acquisition
Vehicle Ownership
Companies
Cooperatives
Associations & Town
Unions
Legal Entities
Delivery of
 Educational services
 Health
 Justice administration
 Law and order
BENEFITS OF E-GOVERMENT
REDUCTION IN
COST OF
GOVERNANCE
INCREASED
ACCOUNTABITLITY
& TRANSPARENCY
EQUALITY OF
ACCESS TO
INFORMATION
BENEFITS OF
E-GOVERNMENT
INCREASED
ECONOMIC
GROWTH
ELIMINATION OF
BUREAUCRACY
REDUCTION IN
CORRUPTION
EFFICIENT
SERVICE
DELIVERY
RECOMMENDATIONS & IMPERATIVES FOR GOVERNMENT
• Provision of enabling legislation:
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adequate laws should be made to ensure all government institution migrate to e-government on or
before a given date.
Cybercrime should be punished according to the Law.
• Greater interactivity with government officials & centralised
database system:
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it should be noted that the government is for the people.
“Government should place greater emphasis on institutional linkages among the tiered government
structures in a bid to create synergy for inclusive sustainable development.”
Centralized databases and standards should become available to government agencies to remove
duplication.
Bureaucratic structures need to be transformed into horizontal integrated systems for transparency
and accountability.
• Provision of steady power supply:
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Adequate power supply should be ensured Ict systems cannot function without power.
• Provision of affordable broadband infrastructure :
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Broadband infrastructure is an enabler for economic and social growth in the digital economy
The recent FGN National Broadband is highly commended and implementation should be given top
priority.
THE IMPERATIVES FOR GOVERNMENT
• Proper financing of ICT:
– cost of ICT infrastructure is usually high, it must be put in the budget.
– It is also very import to budget for support and maintenance costs.
• Appropriate staffing and establishment of ICT units in
Organisations:
– The establishment of ICT departments in all ministries and parastatals at the
Federal, State and Local government levels should be made mandatory.
• Use of Established System Development Practices:
– E-governance is an ICT project and many ICT projects fail because standard
processes for System development life cycle have not been followed.
– All Government organs should have strategic plans and ICT Policies well
aligned with organizational operations.
• Provide a Secure Experience for Web Visitors:
– Any computer connected to the Internet is vulnerable to virus/worm infection
or attack, as a result appropriate firewalls and information security system
must be put in place.
– This is in addition to back up and recovery procedures.
CONCLUSIONS
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It cannot be disputed that e-governance is the right way to go.
Nigeria has started moving towards this direction, and the relevant organs of
government in charge of ICT and e-governance are commended for what they
have achieved so far.
It is vital for our government to learn from global best practices and collaborate
internationally to develop a harmonized framework with indigenous ICT content.
The UN ranking on e-governance development in 2012, placed Nigeria, 163 out of
192 countries.
This position can be reversed if the imperative actions recommended are given
priority by all tiers of government.
This will strengthen good governance with broad based public participation,
improve quality of life for the entire citizenry, more jobs opportunities will emerge
for the youth and poverty and crime will naturally reduce.
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
• Q&A

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