Report

Systems of Measurements used in Health Care METRIC SYSTEM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM METRIC TERM – ABBREVIATION – STANDARD SYSTEM COMPARISON Meter m Length/distance Gram g Weight/mass Liter L* Volume/capacity Metric system is more accurate than the household system. Metric is easier to convert between numbers because everything is based on a unit of 10. *Capital L is used for liter at all times, not lower case, can be confused with number 1 or l. TERM ABBREVIATION MEANING Conversion within the decimal system are calculated by multiplying by 10, 100, 1000 and so on 1kiloliter=1000 X1 liter=1000liters 1hectoliter= 100 X 1 liter= 100 liters 1 decaliter= 10 X 1 liter= 10liters 1deciliter= 0.1 X 1 liter= 0.1 liter 1 centiliter= 0.01 X1 liter= 0.01liter 1milliliter= 0.001 X1 liter= 0.001 liter ***Gram or meter can be used in place of liter depending on what unit of measurement is used** Less Than One Unit of Measure Length: • 1 decimeter (dm) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a meter • 1 centimeter (cm) = 1/1 00 or 0.01 of a meter • 1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1 000 or 0.001 of a meter Volume: • 1 deciliter (dL) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a liter • 1 milliliter (mL) = 1/1 000 or 0.001 of a liter More Than One Unit of Measure Weight: • 1 .0 hectogram = 100 grams • 1 .5 hectograms = 150 grams • 1.0 kilogram = 1000 grams • 1 .5 kilograms = 1500 grams Length: • 1 .0 hecto meter = 100 meters • 1.5 hectometers = 150 meters • 1.0 kilometer = 1000 meters • 1.5 kilometers = 1500 meters K H D B D C M KING=kilo Henry=hecto Died=deca By=base unit of measurement Drinking=deci Chocolate=centi Milk=milli The Metric Number Line: Another way to help you navigate inside the metric system. Kilo Hecto Deka * Deci 1000 100 10 1 0.1 Centi Milli .01 .001 To use the Metric Line: 1. You will decide what unit you are changing FROM and what unit you are changing TO. 2. Starting at the FROM unit, count over (keeping in mind- "left" or "right") to the TO unit. **This will be the number of places you will move the decimal in your answer. • EXAMPLE: 32 kilograms = ___________ grams (This means you want to change FROM kilograms TO grams.) Use the number line and count over, starting at Kilograms….move to grams. K H D (grams) D * -> 1 place- ->2 places- -> 3 places C M Now we use the number of places you moved (3 places to the "right") to find the answer. Move the decimal 3 places to the "right“ using a zero to hold each of the places 32 kilograms = 32000 grams Don’t forget that every whole number has a decimal to it’s right, so in our example 32kg is the same as saying 32.0 kg (We don’t always write the decimal to the right of a number but it is understood that it is there.) Converting units within the metric system is accomplished by moving the decimal point. Example: A physician orders 2000milligrams of a medication The medication is available in 2-gram tablets Milligrams must be converted to grams Milli is in the third place to the right of gram Move the decimal point three spaces to the left toward gram: 2000=2.000 , or 2. Change unit name to grams: 2grams The proper dose would be 2 grams, or one 2-gram tablet. **Converting from a larger to a smaller prefix or unit (kilo to milli): the answer will be larger. **Converting from a smaller to a larger prefix or unit (milli to kilo): the answer will be smaller. **Millimeters (mL) and cubic centinmeters (cc) represent the same amount. Both units measure volume, and they are often interchanged when dispensing liquids. **1mL=1cc. 1mL or 1cc has a weight of 1gram. Basic Rules for the Metric System 1. Numbers less than one unit are written in decimals. Examples: 0.1 0.01 0.001 2. If there is no number before the decimal point, always add a zero. Examples: .1 is 0.1 .5 is 0.5 .75 is 0.75 3. Abbreviations are always singular, never plural. Examples: Grams is abbreviated g, not gs. Liters is abbreviated L, not Ls. Liter is always shortened to capital L, not lowercase I. 4. Leave a space between the number and the abbreviation. Examples: 10 g not lOg. 1000 ml not l000ml. HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM • Method of measurement most familiar to US students. • Units of measurement are related to each other and can be converted among themselves. HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM • Volume/capacity measurements: – – – – – Tablespoons (T or tbsp): 2T=1oz Ounces (oz): 8oz=1C (cup) Cups (C or cp): 2C=1pt Pints (pt): 2pt=1qt Quarts (qt): 4qt=1gal HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM • Distance/length measurement – Inch(in or “) 12in =1ft – Foot (ft or ‘): 3ft=1yd – Yard (yd): 1,760yd=1mile HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM • Mass/weight measurements: – Ounce (oz): 16oz=1lb – Pound=lb Converting Systems of Measurement • Health Care work requires that units from one system of • measurement be converted to those of another. Requires knowledge of the equivalences between systems • Common approximate equivalents: – Distance/length Capacity/volume • 1in=2.5cm 1tsp=5ml=5cc • 39.4in=1m 1oz=30ml=30cc Mass/weight 2.2lb=1kg Frequently, there are no exact equivalents, and the answer is a close approximation when converting between systems. STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS • Identify an equivalent between two systems • Set up a proportion so unit measurements on each side • • • • of the equation are the same Use X for the unknown value being calculated Cross-multiply (multiply the means and then multiply the extremes) Solve for X Decide if the answer is reasonable STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS…CONT • If converting from a smaller unit to a larger unit, the answer will be smaller. – Example: How many tsp are in 10ml? • Known equivalent: 1tsp=5ml • 1tsp: 5ml= X tsp.: 10ml • X= 2tsp STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS….CONT • If converting from a larger unit to a smaller unit, the answer will be larger – Example: How many pounds are in 6.8kg? • Known equivalent: 2.2pd=1kg • 2.2pd: 1kg= Xpd: 6.8kg • X=14.96pounds YouTube • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tHpD zXP-lg Standard and Metric Units of Length Measuring Devices: Fluid Ounces and Cubic Centimeters Graduate Baby’s bottle Measuring cup Converting Pounds and Kilograms Converting pounds to kilograms Multiply weight in pounds by 0.45 Examples: 110 lb changed to kilograms: 110 x 0.45 = 49.5 kg 200 lb changed to kilograms: 200 x 0.45 =90 kg Converting kilograms to pounds Multiply weight in kilograms by 2.2 Examples: 50 kg changed to pounds: 50 x 2.2 = 110 lb 90 kg changed to pounds: 90 x 2.2 = 198 lb Converting Ounces to Metric Measurements •Converting ounces to cc/ml Multiply volume in ounces by 30 Examples: 1 oz medicine 1 × 30 = 30 ml = 30 cc 8 oz water 8 × 30 = 240 ml = 240 cc 6 oz soup 6 × 30 = 180 ml = 180 cc 4 oz juice 4 × 30 = 120 ml = 120 cc 12 oz soda pop 12 × 30 = 360 ml = 360 cc • Converting ounces to grams Multiply weight in ounces by 30 Examples: 1 oz changed to grams: 1 × 30 = 30 g 8 oz changed to grams: 8 × 30 = 240 g **Remember 1oz also equivalent to 1gram** Metric/Household Conversion Practice • • • • • • • • • 30ml/cc=____oz 20kg=______lbs 2000g=______kg 3.5L=______ml 10 tsp=______cc 5yd =______m 100F=______C 38C=______F 8qts=______L 32oz=______cups 40.5lbs=______oz 5T=______ml 30ml=______tsp 850ml=______L Metric/Household Conversion Practice • At the pediatrician’s office, Mr. Johnson observes you documenting his daughter’s weight as 30kilograms. Mr. Johnson asks you to tell him the weight in pounds. • Mrs. Bennerman has been instructed to drink a liter of water prior to her fetal ultrasound. She asks you how many cups of fluid she will have to drink. • The doctor has requested Mrs. Lim to give her toddler 30cc of Gatorade each hour after vomiting subsides. Mrs. Lim would like to use a spoon for administering the fluid. How many teaspoons/tablespoons will you tell her? Question for Wednesday • How many cc’s are in 1oz? Question for Friday • How many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length? Question for Thursday • How many milliliters are in four liters? Question for Monday • What is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm? Test Review • A resident is to receive 1milligram of medication per dose. If a solution has 8milligrams of medication in 40milliliters of solution, how much solution should the resident receive? Test Review • A radiology patient needs to drink one liter of contrast fluid prior to a procedure. How many 250cc containers will the patient need to drink? Test Review • Two yards of elastic bandage is needed to wrap an athlete’s ankle. How many meters of bandage will be used? Test Review • The number of ml that a 500cc container can hold is: Test Review • A premature infant weighing 650grams weighs how many milligrams? Test Review • How many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length? Test Review • The average adult brain weighs 4060ounces or how many kg? Test Review • Susie has been on a diet and has lost 4kilograms. How many pounds has she lost? Test Review • Johnny weighed 13lbs on his 2month check-up. How many kilograms did he weigh? Test Review • The capacity of the right atrium is approximately 1.9ounces. What does this equal in cc’s? Test Review • How many mL of liquid medication can a teaspoon hold? Test Review • Which kitchen utensil is BEST to use when measuring 15mL of cough syrup? Test Review • What is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm? Test Review • A surgical scar which measures 5.1cm is how many inches long? Test Review • A surgeon removes a 100gm tumor from a patient. How many ounces does this tumor weigh? Test Review • Approximately how many kilograms does a 225 pound patient weigh? Test Review • 10 milliliters is equal to 10…… Test Review • How many milliliters are in four liters? Test Review • How many cc’s are in one liter of fluid? Test Review • How many Kg are equal to 40lbs? Test Review • Patient has a temperature of 99degrees F. What is their temperature in Celsius? Test Review • How many mL of liquid medication can a teaspoon hold? Test Review • How many kg’s are equal to 40lbs? Test Review • 12,000L is equal to how many KL? Test Review • The capacity of the right atrium is approximately 1.9ounces. What does this equal in mL? 1ST Block Test ID • 8911012841 • When you are done, please shut your computer down, put it back in its appropriate place, plug it back up • Sit quietly and work independently until others are finished 2nd Block Test ID • 8922812841 • When you through with your test, please log off and shut computer down, plug it back in • Sit quietly and work independently until others are finished 3rd Block Test ID • 8903412841 • When you are through, please log off and shut your computer off, plug it back in. • Sit quietly and work independently until others are finished 4th Block Test ID • 8919512841 • When you are through, please log off and shut your computer off, plug it back in. • Sit quietly and work independently until others are finished