Unit 6b class - PollocksUSHistoryClass

The French and Indian War / Pre
Revolutionary War
North America in 1750
1. Petition
Definition- A written request to
someone signed by a group of people
2. Boycott
Definition – refuse to buy certain
goods and services
3. Repeal
Definition – to take back; cancel
4. Militia
Definition – an army of untrained,
citizen, soldiers
5. Intolerable
Definition – something you can’t stand
6. Delegates
Definition – representatives
7. Duties
Definition – taxes on goods
8. Parliament
Definition – the British Law makers
(like our Congress)
9. Blockade
Definition – to prevent things from
getting through
10. Mercantilism
Definition – a system of economy
where a country exports more than it
11. Effigies
Definition – a representation of a
disliked person (dolls)
12. Turmoil
Definition – a state of extreme
13. Proprietor
Definition - Owner
14. Minutemen
Definition – army that could be
assembled very quickly
15. Martyr
Definition – someone who dies for a
cause or a belief.
16. Synonym
Definition – word that means the same
17. Antonym
Definition – word that means the
18. Rivals
Definition – people or groups that
compete against each other.
Vocabulary Quiz
Today…..Have your
sentences ready to
hand in!!!
1753 - 1763
North America in 1750
Cause of French
& Indian War
Study the map
and describe
one cause of
the French and
Indian War?
I. French and Indian War
A. 3 European Rivals in North America
1. England, France, and Spain
a. England controlled the most important land, the
biggest threat was from France
b. France built Forts to prevent Westward Expansion
2. Native Americans choose sides
a. French were friends of Indians; adopted some of their
ways and built alliances
b. English settlers took their land, ignored their rights,
and cleared their forests.
B. The War Begins
1. The French and British fought 3 times between
2. 1754 – 4th time = French and Indian War
a. Great Britain vs French and the Indian Allies
3. George Washington led the opening battles
a. 22 years old
b. Sent by government of VA to build a fort in
Ohio but Fort Duquesne is already there
c. Washington attacked the fort but lost the battle
and was captured and released.
Objective: To analyze the importance
of the Albany Plan of Union and the
causes and effects of the French and
Indian War.
Do Now: Which European countries
were competing for land in North
- Great Britain
- France
- Spain
French and Indian War (1754 – 1763)
Causes: Britain began to compete with France over the fur
trade in the Ohio Valley.
Some French people
began moving to the
American colonies
from Canada.
were at
England did not want to lose the
colonies to the French, so the English
asked the colonists to help them fight
against the French. The French asked
some American Indians to help them
fight against England and the colonists.
The Maryland people did many things to protect their colony. The
governor asked the citizens to build three forts along the western
frontier. Fort Frederick was the largest of these forts. The fort’s
walls were made of stone. The settlers built houses inside for
soldiers to use. General Braddock, along with George Washington,
trained soldiers at Fort Cumberland.
1754  The First Clash
Ohio Valley
Fort Necessity
* George Washington
Fort Duquesne
* Delaware & Shawnee
• A combined force of French soldiers and their native
allies overwhelmed Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754,
marking the start of the “French and Indian War” in North
America. The French permitted Washington and his men
to return to Virginia safely, but made them promise they
would not build another fort west of the Appalachian
Mountains for at least a year. England did not officially
declare war until 1756, although the conflict had actually
begun two years earlier at Fort Necessity.
(French and Indian War Hero Example)
Come up with a creative Title (top of the page)
It was July 9, 1755 and I was preparing myself for battle against
the French and Indian armies located at Fort Duquesne.
King George III
• King of Great Britain
from 1760 to 1820.
Under his guidance,
Britain won the French
and Indian War but lost
the Revolutionary War.
He was mentally unstable
because of a disease
called porphyria, and he
was given to bouts of
madness and
unpredictability. He also
didn't like his
government officials very
C. Albany Congress
1. Delegates from 7 colonies meet to plan a
Colonial defense
2. Ben Franklin and the Albany Plan of Union
a. Wanted a colonial Government
b. Plan failed when none of the colonies
would give up power
D. A string of British Defeats
1. Britain attacked first but France had
sharpshooters who picked off the British
(Bright Red Uniforms)
2. Britain had a two year losing streak
E. Turn of Events
1. General Pitt is elected as leader of Britain
2. Sends over the best generals and weapons
3. 1759 – Britain attacks the capital of New France
a. In any war, the capital is the most important
city to take over
4. Treaty of Paris – 1763
a. Signed by France and Britain
b. Officially puts an end to the war
c. Britain gets all the land East of the Mississippi
River and Canada
d. Spain gives up Florida but gets all land West of
the Miss. River and keeps New Orleans
Albany Plan of Union
• The Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin
and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, called for
colonial unity in the face of the coming war with
1754  Albany Plan of
Ben Franklin  representatives from
New England, NY, MD, PA
Albany Congress  failed Iroquois
broke off relations with
Britain & threatened to
trade with the French.
• The Albany Plan of Union called for a Grand Council with
representatives from each colony.
• The Grand Council would:
- make laws
- raise taxes
- defend the colonies
• None
of the colonies approved the plan out of fear of losing
* The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would
later be followed by such gatherings as the First and Second
Continental Congress.
William Pitt
The right man, at the right time, and in
the right place can make all the
 Secretary of State
 Prime Minister
 Military Logistician
 Excellent Judge of Military
Global Thinker
North America in 1763
1. England and the Colonists beat
the French and the Indians.
2. The Treaty of Paris was formed
between the opponents.
3. This war was very costly to
England. The British decided
to tax the Colonists to pay for
the war!
King George III
• King of Great Britain
from 1760 to 1820.
Under his guidance,
Britain won the French
and Indian War but lost
the Revolutionary War.
He was mentally unstable
because of a disease
called porphyria, and he
was given to bouts of
madness and
unpredictability. He also
didn't like his
government officials very
Objective: To examine how and why Britain raised taxes in the
Do Now:
1) What was the Proclamation of 1763?
Proclamation of 1763 – forbade British settlers from settling
west of the Appalachian Mountains.
2) Why did Great Britain create it?
The Proclamation of 1763 was created in order to protect
settlers from Native American attack.
3) How did most American settlers respond to the law?
Many settlers ignored the law.
British  Proclamation
Line of 1763.
Colonials  Paxton Boys (PA)
Sugar Act (1764)
Taxes put on…
Rethinking Their Empire
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent
1761  writs of assistance
 James Otis’ case
 Protection of a citizen’s
private property must be
held in higher regard
than a parliamentary
 He lost  parliamentary
law and custom had equal
Stamp Act Crisis
The French and Indian War put Britain deeply in debt.
British Prime Minister George Grenville persuaded Parliament
to pass the Sugar Act and Stamp Act.
(New York Gazetteer, Feb. 15, 1775)
Stamp Act (1765)
Taxes put on…
The Stamp Act ignited an
angry response from the
colonists, To the right, a tax
collector is tied to a pole by
an unruly crowd. A British
loyalist is secured at the
bottom of pole.
Tar and Feathering
United Kingdom
(Ireland, except for the North, received
their independence from Britain in 1921)
The Scots are represented in
is tyranny!”
- James Otis
are as
Hey, the Irish
don’t have
either! (not until
1800, anyway)
So are the
• The colonists protested and were angry about “taxation
without representation”.
Irony - The use of words to express something different from
and often opposite to their literal meaning.
What is ironic about this license plate?
One of the major complaints of the American colonists was
“taxation without representation”. Yet, residents of
Washington, D.C. are currently taxed without being
represented in Congress.
Stamp Act Congress
The colonists…
• rejected the Stamp Act.
• declared their loyalty
to Britain.
• asserted that
Parliament had no right
to tax the colonies.
* Slogan Example: ‘No Taxation Without Representation!’
Visual Example 
Description Example  Use
your notes and the book to
describe the cause and effect
of the tax/act.
* In 1766, Parliament
repealed the Stamp Act.
Alright, alright!
We’ll repeal the
Stamp Act! Will
that make you
bloody American
hooligans happy!
Now, end your
boycott already!
King George III
- funeral procession to the tomb of the Stamp Act;
- principal proponent, Treasury Secretary George Grenville, carries a
child's coffin marked "Miss Ame-Stamp born 1765 died 1766."
Townshend Acts (1767)
• Items such
as glass,
paper, paint,
lead, and tea
were taxed.
• Writs of
were used to
search for
• Colonists signed nonimportation agreements, continuing
their boycott of British goods.
• More people joined the Sons and Daughters of Liberty. –
groups which protested against British policies.
Here Lies Buried
James Otis
Orator and Patriot of the
Famous for his argument
Against Writs of Assistance
Born 1725 Died 1783
Massachusetts Society
Sons of the Revolution
• The British repealed
the Townshend Acts,
except for the tax on
Quartering Act
• The colonists had to provide candles, bedding, and beverages
to British soldiers.
• Because the New York assembly refused to obey the law,
Britain dismissed the assembly.
Gracie Mansion
Late 18th Century
Federal style Mansion,
Official Residence of
Mayor of New York.
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)
Boston Massacre
1) Boys began to throw ice at a British guard.
Hey kid, I
wouldn’t do that
again if I were
Boston Massacre
2) A crowd soon grew large and rowdy.
3) The British soldiers opened fire, killing five colonists,
including Crispus Attucks, a black sailor active in the Sons of
– Boston
Crispus Attucks, the First Martyr of the American Revolution,
King (now State) Street, Boston, March 5th, 1770
* On the same day as the Boston Massacre, the Townshend
Acts were repealed, except for the tax on tea!
II. Turmoil Over Taxation
A. Proclamation of 1763
1. Draw an imaginary line along the Appalachian
a. Colonists could not go West of this line
b. Protected the Indians
c. 10,000 troops were sent to enforce
B. Britain enforces new taxes
1. French and Indian War caused debt
2. In a Mercantilist system, the colonies were expected
to serve the main country (England)
3. The Sugar Act 1764
a. Tax on Molasses
b. Colonists smuggle it in
4. Stamp Act – 1765
a. Duties on all paper goods
b. Colonists protested
c. Threw rocks and tarred and feathered tax collectors
d. No Taxation without representation
e. 1765 – petitions drawn up
f. Boycott paper goods
g. 1766 - Act repealed
5. Townshend Act – 1767
a. Britain taxes glass, paint, tea, etc.
b. Still no representation for the colonists
c. Allowed for Writs of Assistance
d. Merchants stopped importing goods from Britain
e. Formed the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
* Hung effigies of British tax collectors
C. New Colonial Leaders
1. Samuel Adams – Boston, Mass.
a. Against the British
b. Arranged protests
2. John Adams – lawyer who took a careful approach
3. Mercy Otis Warren – wrote plays to make fun of the British
4. George Washington and Patrick Henry
a. Both in House of Burgesses
b. Both protested
D. Boston Massacre
1. Quartering Act – colonists had to provide housing for British
soldiers in the colonies
2. March 1770
a. Bostonians are sick of British officials and start throwing things
at them
b. Soldiers fired into the crowd and 5 people died
c. Paul Revere made an engraving to remind people
d. John Adams defended the soldiers at the trial
E. Temporary Calm
1. Most of the acts were repealed
1. How did the colonists react to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773?
They boycotted tea and made other things like coffee or liberty tea (made from
2. Describe the Boston Tea Party in four or more complete sentences.
On December 16th, Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty dressed up like Native
Americans. They went to the Boston harbor and got on the British Ships. They
broke open the tea chests and dumped them into the water. When it was
done, over 300 chests of tea were in the water.
3. What did the four parts of the Intolerable Acts state?
First, Parliament shut down the Port of Boston
Second, only one town meeting was allowed per year in Boston
Third, any soldiers living in the colonies and charged with crimes were tried in
Fourth, a new Quartering Act was passed.
Here we are, the
British East India
Company, with
your tea
Ye Old Tea Shoppe
Boy, oh boy,
this tea
boycott is
killing my
Before the Tea Act
Tea $8
Ye Old Tea Shoppe
Tea $5
After the Tea Act
Ye Old Tea Shoppe
Tea $5
Tea Act (1773)
• The British East India Company was allowed to sell tea
directly to the colonists, bypassing the tea merchants.
* Although they still paid the tea tax, the price of tea decreased.
• If the price of tea decreased, why were the colonists angry?
They were angry because…
…tea merchants had been cut out of the tea trade.
…they thought it was a trick to make the colonists
accept the tea tax.
• In order to protest against the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty
organized the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
• Approximately 50 or 60 men, dressed as Native Americans,
boarded three ships loaded with tea.
• All of the tea was thrown overboard into the water.
Colonial Tensions
Methods of
• Indian-style guerilla
• Col. militias served
under own captains.
• Br. officers wanted to
take charge of colonials.
• No mil. deference or
protocols observed.
• Drills & tough
• Resistance to rising
• Colonists should pay
for their own defense.
• Casual,
• Prima Donna Br.
officers with servants
& tea settings.
• March in formation or
bayonet charge.
Final Essay Starter…..
Introductions should be ‘attention grabbers.’ It can either
be a question or some interesting fact that draws in the
reader. Here is an example….
Did you know that Colonists used to pour hot tar on
people and then cover them with feathers? Do you know
why? In the following paragraphs I will be covering

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