14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades

The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched
Crusades against Muslims.
Learning Goals:
Explore how the Catholic Church underwent reform
and launched crusades (holy wars) against Muslims
and others.
Why it matters now: The Crusades resulted in trade
and exploration between Christians and Muslims but
left a legacy of distrust.
The Age of Faith
Spiritual Revival
 Starting
in the 900s,
monasteries help bring
about a spiritual revival
 Reformers help restore
and expand Church
Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keys
in saltire the wards upwards and outwards or
overall a sword in pale argent".
Founded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey of
Cluny as it looked in 2004.
Problems in the Church
Some Church officials
marry even though the
Church objects
Some officials practice
religious offices
Kings use lay investiture
to appoint bishops
Reformers believe only
the Church should
appoint bishops
Reform and Church Organization
Starting in the 1100s,
popes reorganize the
Church like a kingdom
Pope’s advisors make
Church laws; diplomats
travel throughout
Church collects tithes;
uses money to care for
sick or poor
“Peasants paying tithes” (17th century)
school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger
New Religious Orders
Dominican and
Franciscan orders form
Friars in these orders
vow poverty; travel
and preach to the
Some new orders for
women are founded
Cathedrals—Cities of God
Between 8001100, churches
are built in
 Style includes
thick walls and
pillars, small
windows, round
A New Style of Church Architecture
Gothic style evolves
around 1100; term from
Germanic tribe, Goths
Gothic style has large, tall
windows for more light;
pointed arches
Churches have stained
glass windows, many
About 500 Gothic
churches are built from
1170 to 1270
Gothic Architecture
The master builders in France,
where the Gothic style
originated, developed
techniques of structural
engineering that were key to
Gothic architecture:
1. ribbed vaults that
supported the roof’s
2. flying buttresses that
transferred weight to
thick, exterior walls
3. pointed arches that
framed huge stained
glass windows
4. tall spires that seemed to
be pointing to heaven
Traditional Church Floor Plan
“Liturgical East”
Source: (http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm) a website explaining church architecture.
Typical “Chancel” Layout
Notice that the “apse” is
“fenced off” by a communion
rail. Only the clergy attending
the altar or table are allowed
past this point. The sacrament
is dispensed only through the
clergy bringing it to the rail.
“Liturgical East”
Source: (http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm) a website explaining church architecture.
The Crusades
Between 1095 and 1291, the Catholic Church
launched the Crusades against the Muslims for
supremacy in the Holy Land
The Crusades: The Beginning
In 1093, the
Byzantine emperor
Alexis Comnenus
sent an appeal to
Robert, Count of
Flanders and to Pope
Urban II.
The plea was to send
soldiers to help
defend his capital city
of Constantinople
against waves of
invading Muslim
Byzantine Emperor
Alexios I Komnenos
who asked Pope
Urban II for help (left)
Artistic depiction of Pope
Urban II (left), and him
preaching the First
Crusade (right)
Urban II Declares a Holy War
After the pope had read this
appeal, he declared a holy
war, a crusade, to regain
control of the Holy Lands
from the Muslims.
“God Wills It!”
Did You Bring the Map?
In 1096, between 50,000 and
60,000 knights joined the
Crusades. Mostly Frenchmen
and Normans.
Pope Urban promised the
knights that if they died in
battle, they were assured a
place in heaven.
Goals of the Crusades
Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite
Kings use Crusades to send away knights who cause
Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by
Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth
through trade.
Why Knights Joined
Many of the knights thought it was an
opportunity to better their place in
society. They believed that they might
acquire land and property through
Leave the manor, see the world,
participate in an incredible
adventure… sure beats being a serf!
Religious motives – liberate the Holy
Land from the Muslims.
First Crusade: 1096-1099 Recipe for
1097, three armies of
European knights gathered in
Constantinople but were not
equipped to fight in the
desert environment or
familiar with the geography
or culture of the Holy Land.
Due to supply line problems,
only 12,000 of the original
60,000 were able to fight.
Muslims were not the best
Victory is Ours! Um, er… kinda
In 1099, Christians concentrate
their forces on Jerusalem and
take the city after weeks of a
vicious seige. Plunder away!
The crusaders won Jerusalem and
a narrow strip of land, called
Edessa, where four feudal
crusader estates were
Muslims easily conquer everything
outside of Edessa, and by 1144,
take that too (setting up the
Second Crusade).
The Second Crusade
A Second Crusade was organized in
1147 to recapture Edessa with the
scraps of troops that were left, plus
35,000 reinforcement troops from
Western Europe.
These Crusaders were unsuccessful.
Only about 30% of the defeated
army returned to Europe (but they
had some cool relics).
For those of you keeping score:
Muslims 2, Christians 0
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192
The Third Crusade was led by three powerful rulers
The Third Crusade:
This time it’s Personal
Europe reacts with wild enthusiasm. “We
must regain the Holy Land!”
The Third Crusade was launched in 1187
by three of Europe’s most powerful kings:
 Philip
Augustus (France)
 Frederick I Barbarossa (Germany)
 Richard III the Lion-hearted (England)
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192
One is Richard
the LionHearted—king
of England
The Robin Hood
stories and
legends often
Richard I
returning from
the Third
19th-century portrait
of Richard by
Survivor: Jerusalem?
Barbarossa drowned on the
journey. How sad.
Philip Augustus had a falling out
with Richard and went home.
Richard is left to regain
Jerusalem from the great Muslim
leader, Saladin. This would be no
easy task.
Deal or No Deal?
After the armies of Richard and
Saladin had fought many battles,
the two leaders, who respected
each other a great deal, agreed
on a truce.
The agreement was that
Jerusalem would remain under
Muslim control, but that Christian
pilgrims could freely visit the holy
city in safety.
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192
Phillip II of
Crusade after
arguing with
The argument
was over
breaking off
with Phillip’s
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192
In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after
many battles
Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian
pilgrims to enter the city
The Fourth Crusade
In 1198, Pope Innocent III, appealed
for yet another crusade to capture
The knights met in Italy to prepare for
war, however, during their stay they
became entangled in the politics of
the Church.
Sore Losers: The Sack of Constantinople
Instead of going to the Holy
Lands, they ended up
attacking the city of
This attack solidified the
permanent split between the
western and eastern
branches of Christianity.
Victory: Islam (by default)
Later Crusades: More of the S(h)ame
Other Crusades were launched to the
Holy Lands and North Africa.
Children’s Crusade- in 1212, thousands
of children from Europe marched to the
Holy Lands to fight the Muslims. God
would turn Jerusalem over to them!
(Muslims fight to hold back laughter).
5th Crusade: Loss
6th Crusade: Loss
7th Crusade: Loss
8th Crusade: Do you see a pattern here?
Final Record: Christians 0-8-1
Impact of the Crusades
Literature: Sinbad the Sailor, Ali
Baba, Aladdin, Arabian Nights
Food: sugar cane, syrup, nutmeg,
saffron, pepper
Cosmetics: rouge, henna, glass
Music: guitar and violin introduced
Art: stained glass windows
Math: Arabic numbers, decimals,
algebra, sine and tangent

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