Why Does SAS® Say That?

Report
Why Does SAS® Say That?
What Common DATA Step
and Macro Messages Are
Trying to Tell You
Charley Mullin and Kevin Russell
SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC USA
Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
Today You Will Learn to…
 Better understand the SAS log
 Debug your code more easily
 Work more efficiently
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Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
First, Let’s Discuss the DATA Step
The benefits of DATA step:
 Gives you the ability to read external files
into SAS data sets
 Enables you to manipulate data into a more
usable form
 Enables you combine data from various
sources
 And more…
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In the SAS Log, You Will Encounter:
 Notes
 Warnings
 Errors
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Variables with Multiple Definitions
ERROR: Variable VAR1 has been defined as both
character and numeric.
data one;
input var1 $ var2;
datalines;
1 2
;
run;
data two;
input var1 var2;
datalines;
3 4
;
run;
data three;
merge one two;
by var1 var2;
run;
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Variables with Multiple Definitions (continued)
ERROR: Variable VAR1 has been defined as both
character and numeric.
data one;
set one(rename=(var1=temp));
var1=input(temp,??8.);
drop temp;
run;
data two;
set two(rename=(var1=temp));
var1=put(temp,8.);
drop temp;
run;
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Input to Concatenation Functions
NOTE: Argument 1 to function CATS at line N column X is invalid.
NOTE: Further warning from this call to CATS will be suppressed.
WARNING: In a call to the CATS function, the buffer allocated for the
result was not long enough to contain the concatenation of all
the arguments. The correct result would contain 1040
characters, but the actual result may either be truncated to
200 character(s) or be completely blank, depending on the
calling environment. The following note indicates the left-most
argument that caused truncation.
NOTE: Argument 1 to function CATS at line N column 6 is invalid.
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Input to Concatenation Functions (continued)
data final;
merge group1(rename=(results=r1))
group2(rename=(results=r2))
group3(rename=(results=r3));
results=cats(r1,r2,r3);
run;
data final;
merge group1(rename=(results=r1))
group2(rename=(results=r2))
group3(rename=(results=r3));
length results $ 1040;
results=cats(r1,r2,r3);
run;
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Arguments to the Function SUBSTR
 NOTE: Invalid second argument to
function SUBSTR at line N column X.
 NOTE: Invalid third argument to function
SUBSTR at line N column X.
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Arguments to the Function SUBSTR (continued)
In typical usage, the three arguments to the
SUBSTR function are:
 The name of the variable from which to
extract characters
 The position in the variable to start
extracting characters
 The number of characters to extract
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Arguments to the Function SUBSTR (continued)
NOTE: Invalid second argument to function SUBSTR
at line N column X.
data lab_work;
infile datalines truncover;
input raw $char20.;
machine=substr(strip(raw),1,4);
test_id=substr(strip(raw),6,4);
results=substr(strip(raw),11,4);
datalines;
1234 5678
1234 5678 9012
;
run;
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Arguments to the Function SUBSTR (continued)
NOTE: Invalid second argument to function SUBSTR
at line N column X.
data lab_work;
infile datalines truncover;
input raw $char20.;
machine=substr(left(raw),1,4);
test_id=substr(left(raw),6,4);
results=substr(left(raw),11,4);
datalines;
1234 5678
1234 5678 9012
;
run;
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Arguments to the Function SUBSTR (continued)
NOTE: Invalid third argument to function SUBSTR at
line N column X.
data test;
date=‘24/04/2012’;
year=substr(date,7,10);
run;
data test;
date=‘24/04/2012’;
year=substr(date,7,4);
run;
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Automatic Variable Type Conversions
 NOTE: Numeric values have been
converted to character values at the places
given by: (Line):(Column).
 NOTE: Character values have been
converted to numeric values at the places
given by: (Line):(Column).
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Automatic Variable Type Conversions (continued)
NOTE: Numeric values have been converted to
character values at the places given by: (Line):(Column)
data test;
ssn=111223333;
first_three=substr(ssn,1,3);
run;
The SAS System
Obs
1
ssn
first_
three
111223333
proc print data=test;
run;
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Automatic Variable Type Conversions (continued)
NOTE: Numeric values have been converted to character
values at the places given by: (Line):(Column)
data test;
ssn=111223333;
first_three=substr(put(ssn,z9.),1,3);
run;
The SAS System
Obs
1
ssn
111223333
first_
three
111
proc print data=test;
run;
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Uninitialized Variable
NOTE: Variable FEMELE is uninitialized.
data two;
set one;
if sex=1 then gender=Femele;
run;
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Uninitialized Variable (continued)
SAS Log:
3652
3653
3654
3655
data two;
set one;
if sex=1 then gender=Femele;
run;
NOTE: Variable Femele is uninitialized.
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Uninitialized Variable (continued)
Correct syntax:
data two;
set one;
if sex=1 then gender=‘Female’;
run;
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Using a Function Name As an Array Name
NOTE: The array <name> has the same
name as a SAS-supplied or user-defined
function. Parentheses following this name
are treated as array references and not
function references.
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Using a Function Name As an Array Name
(continued)
SAS log:
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data test;
array max(3) max1-max3 (80 90 70);
NOTE: The array max has the same name as a SAS-supplied or
user-defined function. Parentheses following this name are
treated as array references and not function references.
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max_value=max(of max(*));
ERROR: Too many array subscripts specified for array max.
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run;
NOTE: The SAS System stopped processing this step because
of errors.
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Using a Function Name As an Array Name
(continued)
data test;
array max(3) max1-max3 (80 90 70);
max_value=max(of max(*));
run;
data test;
array maxx(3) max1-max3 (80 90 70);
max_value=max(of maxx(*));
run;
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Now Let’s Discuss the Macro Facility
The macro facility allows you to extend
and customize your code and reduce
the amount of text you must enter.
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When Using the Macro Facility, Use These
System Options:
 SYMBOLGEN
 MPRINT
 MLOGIC
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Masking Special Characters
ERROR: Macro function %substr has too many
arguments. The excess arguments will be ignored.
%let x=a,b,c;
%let y=%substr(&x,1,1);
%put &=y;
%let x=a,b,c;
%let y=%substr(a,b,c,1,1);
%put &=y;
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Masking Special Characters (continued)
Complete error in the SAS log:
189 %let x=a,b,c;
190 %let y=%substr(&x,1,1);
SYMBOLGEN: Macro variable X resolves to a,b,c
ERROR: Macro function %SUBSTR has too many arguments.
The excess arguments will be ignored.
ERROR: A character operand was found in the %EVAL function or
%IF condition where a numeric operand is required.
The condition was: b
ERROR: Argument 2 to macro function %SUBSTR is not a number.
ERROR: A character operand was found in the %EVAL function or
%IF condition where a numeric operand is required.
The condition was: c
ERROR: Argument 3 to macro function %SUBSTR is not a number.
191
&=y
%put &=y;
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Masking Special Characters (continued)
Corrected code:
%let x=a,b,c;
%let y=%substr(%bquote(&x),1,1);
%put &=y;
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Autocall Macros Used As Macro Functions
 %CMPRES and %QCMPRES
 %COMPSTOR
 %DATATYP
 %KVERIFY
 %LEFT and %QLEFT
 %LOWCASE and %QLOWCASE
 %TRIM and %QTRIM
 %VERIFY
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Autocall Macros Used As Macro Functions
(continued)
Example that illustrates a problem:
options mautosource sasautos=(‘c:\mymacs’);
%let x=%str(abc
);
%let y=%trim(&x);
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Autocall Macros Used As Macro Functions
(continued)
SAS log:
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options mautosource sasautos=('c:\mymacs');
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%let x=%str(abc
);
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%let y=%trim(&x);
WARNING: Apparent invocation of macro TRIM not
resolved.
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Autocall Macros Used As Macro Functions
(continued)
Correct setting for the SASAUTOS system
option:
options mautosource sasautos=(sasautos, 'c:\mymacs');
%let x=%str(abc
);
%let y=%trim(&x);
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Using Macro Variables in Filenames
ERROR: Physical file does not exist, c:\class2011csv.
%let year=2011;
proc import
datafile="C:\class&year.csv"
dbms=csv
out=myclass
replace;
getnames=yes;
run;
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Using Macro Variables in Filenames (continued)
ERROR: Physical file does not exist, c:\class2011csv.
datafile=“c:\class2011csv”;
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Using Macro Variables in Filenames (continued)
ERROR: Physical file does not exist, c:\class2011csv.
Here is the correct syntax:
%let year=2011;
proc import datafile=“C:\class&year..csv”
dbms=csv
out=myclass
replace;
getnames=yes;
run;
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Referencing Stored Compiled Macros
ERROR: A LOCK IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR LIBREF.SASMACR.CATALOG.
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Referencing Stored Compiled Macros
(continued)
ERROR: A lock is not available for MYMACS.SASMACR.CATALOG.
libname mymacs ‘C:\macros’;
options mstored sasmstore=mymacs;
%macro test / store;
<code>;
%mend test;
%test
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Referencing Stored Compiled Macros
(continued)
SAS log:
NOTE: The SAS System was unable to open the
macro library referenced by the
SASMSTORE = libref MYMACS.
ERROR: A lock is not available for
MYMACS.SASMACR.CATALOG.
ERROR: A dummy macro will be compiled.
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Referencing Stored Compiled Macros
(continued)
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Invoking a Macro with Parameters
Error: More positional parameters found than
defined.
%macro test(vals);
%put &=vals;
%mend test;
%test(x,y,z)
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Invoking a Macro with Parameters (continued)
SAS log:
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%macro test(vals);
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%put &=vals;
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%mend test;
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%test(x,y,z)
MLOGIC(TEST): Beginning execution.
MLOGIC(TEST): Parameter VALS has value x
ERROR: More positional parameters found than
defined.
MLOGIC(TEST): Ending execution.
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Invoking a Macro with Parameters (continued)
Corrected code:
%macro test(vals);
%put &=vals;
%mend test;
%test(%str(x,y,z))
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Questions?
[email protected]
(919) 677-8008
http://support.sas.com/techsup
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