Volume Shadow Copy

Report
作業系統鑑識
Windows
蔡一郎
2010/11/23
大綱

Vista, Windows 2008 (R2), Windows 7
 MBR and VBR
 NTFS Reparse Points
 Change Journal
 Transactional NTFS
 Last Access Dates
 ExFAT
 Windows Event Logs
 Directory Structure Changes
 Public Folders
 File Virtualization
 Registry Virtualization
 Registry Changes and Additions
 Recycle Bin.
 Superfetch
 Volume Shadow Copy
 BitLocker.
 Appendix – Lots more.
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Disk
Partitions
Volume
BitLocker
Fvevol.sys
File Systems
NTFS, FAT32, EXFAT
OS
Artifacts
www.nchc.org.tw
2
VBR & NTFS
Both VBR &
NTFS partition
is now located
at sector 2048,
not sector 63.
Common location for VBR
using a hard drive with 63SPT.
(PS63)
New location of VBR (PS2048)
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3
NTFS - Reparse Points

Volume mount points - similar to Unix mount points, where the root of another file
system is attached to a directory. This allows additional file systems to be mounted
without requiring a separate drive letter (like C: or D:) for each.

Directory Junctions - similar to Volume Mount Points, however directory junctions
reference other directories in the file system instead of other volumes.

Hard Link - Allows a user to create multiple links to the same data.

Symbolic Link – is different than a hard link because it can point to files & folders and
objects on other volumes or network shares.


A symbolic links is resolved differently than a directory junction.

Windows processes symbolic links on the local system, even when they
reference a location on a remote file server.

Windows processes directory junctions that reference a remote file server on the
server itself.
Symbolic links on a server can therefore refer to locations that are only accessible
from a client, like other client volumes, whereas directory junctions cannot.
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4
Change Journal - $USNJRNL

The USN Journal is a NTFS logging mechanism that logs various transactions
that occur on the file system.

This feature is available in Windows 2000, Windows XP and
Windows Server 2003, but it is disabled by default.

In Vista, Server 2008 (R2), Windows 7 this feature in enabled by default, thus
causing a verbose log to be created of various file system changes.

These changes are written to an internal NTFS metadata file named
“$USNJRNL” and specifically into an alternate data stream of that file.

Various artifacts such as filenames, date stamps an MFT record numbers can
be located in this journal and it should be inspected and or searched in
Unicode when looking for specific filenames.
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5
Transactional NTFS - $TxF

$TxF works on top of NTFS to provides transaction logging.

“Transactional NTFS (TxF) allows file operations on an NTFS file system volume
to be performed in a transaction. TxF transactions increase application reliability
by protecting data integrity across failures and simplify application development
by greatly reducing the amount of error handling code.”

Allows a related series of file system changes to be treated and logged as a
“transaction.”

NTFS can then commit if the changes are completed successfully, or abort and
roll back if they are not.
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6
Last Access Dates

The last access dates are no longer updated when a file is accessed.


This feature can be turned off via a registry key.


Microsoft explains that with all the new file system transactional journaling, it was
somewhat of a performance hit, so they have disabled them by default.
This default setting obviously has a severe impact on how some types of
cases are analyzed and examiners should take great care when using
these date stamps as part of their analysis.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\FileSystem\

Default NOT tracking

Change to tracking ON
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ExFAT ***New Windows 7 & 2008 R2 ***

Extended FAT file system

“a new file system that is better adapted to the growing needs of mobile personal
storage. The EXFAT file system not only handles large files, such as those used for
media storage, it enables seamless interoperability between desktop PCs and
devices such as portable media devices so that files can easily be copied between
desktop and device.”

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa914353.aspx

The volume header of an EXFAT volume.
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8
Windows Event Logs

No more .EVT files now they are .EVTX
— Event logs are not stored in
— \Windows\System32\config
 Old View
Event
log files Event logs are stored in
 \Windows\System32\winevt\Logs.
 New View
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Windows Event Logs
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Windows Event Logs
Windows Server 2003
Vista, Server 2008 (R2), Windows
7
Application and System log event id DID NOT change.
Security Log event id DID change.
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Directory Structure Changes




Vista, Server 2008 (R2) and Window 7 have new directory
structures.
In Windows 2000, XP & 2003
 C:\Documents and Settings folder is where each users
profile is stored along with all their personal documents.
In Vista, Windows Server 2008 (R2), Windows 7
 C:\Users is where each users profile is stored.
In the figure to the left you can see several Junctions are now
used to redirect information to a different location, such as
Documents and Settings folder and the Default User folder.
 C:\Documents & Settings ----------------> C:\Users
(Junction)
 C:\Users\All Users
-------------------> C:\ProgramData
(Symbolic Link)
 C:\Users\Default Users --------------------> C:\Users\Default
(Junction)
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Public Folders

In Windows Server 2003 Server, a folder named All Users was located under
the Documents & Settings folder which served as a structure that was
accessible by all users.

Changed and is called ”Public”. Any files or folders located under the “public”
folder are accessible by everyone. Note that the structure in a live machine is
different that what is seen from a forensic view.
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13
File Virtualization

File virtualization is an application compatibility technology that redirects file writes from protected
storage to per-user locations. This redirection is transparent to applications reading from or writing to
the per-user location.


Part of User Access Control—Standard user cannot write to certain protected folders.

C:\Windows

C:\Program Files

C:\Program Data
To allow standard user to function, any writes to protected folders are “virtualized” and written to:

C:\Users\[user]\AppData\Local\VirtualStore
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File Virtualization

When Files Do and Do Not get Virtualized





32-bit apps using administrative privileges do Not get virtualized.
32-bit applications written following new Windows application
guidelines do not need to be virtualized.
64-bit applications must be written and signed following new
Windows application guidelines and do not need to be virtualized
Otherwise and attempt to write a file in C:\Program Files, it is
silently redirected to a Virtual Store directory for the located inside
the current user's account.
 To the application, things proceed as normal
 Application does not need knowledge of the redirection occurring.
Multi-user systems, each user will have isolated, local copies of
redirected files.
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Registry Virtualization

Registry virtualization is an application compatibility technology that enables registry
write operations that have global impact to be redirected to per-user locations. This
redirection is transparent to applications reading from or writing to the registry.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE - Non-administrator writes are redirect to:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\VirtualStore\MACHINE\SOFTWARE\

Location of the registry hive file for the VirtualStore

Is NOT the user’s NTUSER.DAT

It is stored in the user’s UsrClass.dat
\Users\[user]\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\UsrClass.dat

Investigation requires the investigator to examine at least two account specific registry
hive files for each user account.

NTUSER.DAT

UsrClass.dat
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Registry Virtualization

Disabled for the following:

64-bit process.

Non interactive process, such as services

Process that impersonate a user

Kernel Mode process such as drivers

Keys excluded from virtualization

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Classes

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \Software\Microsoft\Windows

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \Software\Microsoft\Windows NT
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17
Registry Changes and Additions

New Registry Hive files:

BCD in \Boot.

Components in \Windows\System32\config.

Transaction support for the registry (TxR).
 Registry Transaction Logs allows applications to perform registry operations in a
transactional manner.
 Stored in the TxR subfolder in \Windows\System32\config with the system registry
hives.
 Typical scenario: software installation.
 Files copied to file system and information to the registry as a single operation.
 In the event of failure, registry modification rolled back or discarded.
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Recycle Bin

[Volume]:\$Recycle.Bin





$Recycle.Bin is visible in Explorer (view hidden files).
Per user store in a subfolder named with account SID.
No more Info2 files.
When a file is deleted—moved to the Recycle Bin—it generates two files in
the Recycle Bin.
$I and $R files.
 $I
or $R followed by several random characters, then
original extension. The random characters are the
same for each $I/$R pair.
 $I file maintains the original name and path, as well as
the deleted date.
 $R file retains the original file data stream and other
attributes. The name attribute is changed to
$R******.ext.
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Recycle Bin
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Recycle Bin

Holding down shift key while pressing Delete will by pass Recycling Bin.

Can still be configured to be bypassed:

HKEY_USER\”USER
SID”\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Current
Version\Explorer\BitBucket\volume\GUID\NukeOnDelete\o1h
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21
Superfetch

The existence of a prefetch file indicates that the
application named by the prefetch file was run.

The creation date of a prefetch file can indicate when the
named application was first run.

The modification date of a prefetch file can indicate when
the named application was last run.
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Superfetch
\Windows\Prefetch
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Volume Shadow Copy

Volume shadow copies are bit level differential backups of
a volume.





16 KB blocks.
Copy on write.
Volume Shadow copy files are “difference” files.
The shadow copy service is enabled by default on Vista
and Windows 7, but not on Windows 2008 or 2008 R2.
Shadow copies reside in the System Volume Information
folder.
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Volume Shadow Copy






Shadow copies are the source data for Restore Points and
the Restore Previous Versions features. Also used in can
backup operations.
Shadow copies do not contain a complete image of
everything that was on the volume at the time the shadow
copy was made.
Shadow copies provide a “snapshot” of a volume at a
particular time.
Shadow copies can show how files have been altered.
Shadow copies can retain data that has later been deleted,
wiped, or encrypted.
vssadmin list shadows /for=[volume]:
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Volume Shadow Copy
\System Volume Information\Syscache.hve
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Volume Shadow Copy
The Volume Shadow
Copy difference files
are maintained in
“\System Volume
Information” along
with other VSS data
files, including a new
registry hive.
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Volume Shadow Copy
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Volume Shadow Copy
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BitLocker



System Volume NOT encrypted:

Boot Sector

Boot Manager (bootmgr)

Boot Configuration Data (BCD)

MUI Files

Font Files

Boot Utilities
OS Volume Contains:

Encrypted OS

Encrypted Page File

Encrypted Temp Files

Encrypted Data

Encrypted Hibernation File

Encrypted Crash Dump Files
During installation, Windows 7 creates a “system reserved” volume, which allow you to
setup BitLocker. In Vista you had to create a separate 1.5 GB system volume.
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BitLocker

During installation, Windows 7 creates a “system reserved” volume, which
allow you to setup BitLocker. In Vista you had to create a separate 1.5 GB
system volume before enabling BitLocker

Vista & Windows 2008 cannot unlock BitLocker volumes created with
Windows 7 or 2008 R2.

Must use Windows 7 or 2008 R2 to open (and image) BitLocker volumes from
Windows 7 or 2008 R2.
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31
BitLocker

Physical level view of the header of the boot sector of the second partition, the
BitLocker protected volume:
 ëR•
-FVE-FS (EB 52 90 4E 54 46 53)- Vista & Windows 2008
 ëX•
-FVE-FS- (EB 58 90 2D 46 56 45 2D 46 53 2D) Windows 7

Logical level view of the header of the boot sector of the BitLocker protected
volume (same physical sector):

Approached at a PHYSICAL level, the BitLocker protected volume will be
ENCRYPTED.

While on-line and approached at the LOGICAL level, the BitLocker protected
volume will unlocked—that is, appear DECRYPTED
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BitLocker
Viewed or imaged as part of a physical disk, BitLocker
volumes appear encrypted.
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BitLocker
To view a BitLocker volume as it appears in its
unlocked state, address it as a logical volume.
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BitLocker
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BitLocker
Image the logical
volume to obtain
an image of the
unlocked volume.
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
Selecting the “I
forgot my password”
will bring up a
window to enter the
recovery key.
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
As with the BitLocker
unlock window, selecting
“More information” will
display the BitLocker
recovery key identification.
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
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BitLocker To Go
The BitLocker To Go
device is unlocked and
ready for review or
imaging.
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45
NTFS Internals Information

In NTFS, all file data—file name, creation date, access permissions, and contents—are
stored as metadata.


NTFS allows any sequence of 16-bit values for name encoding (file names, stream
names, index names, etc.).


This means UTF-16 codepoints are supported, but the file system does not check whether a
sequence is valid UTF-16 (it allows any sequence of short values, not restricted to those in the
Unicode standard).
Internally, NTFS uses B+ trees to index file system data. Although complex to
implement, this allows faster file look up times in most cases.


This abstract approach allowed easy addition of file system features during Windows NT's
development — an interesting example is the addition of fields for indexing used by the Active
Directory software.
A file system journal is used to guarantee the integrity of the file system—but not individual files'
content. Systems using NTFS are known to have improved reliability compared to FAT file
systems.
The Master File Table (MFT) contains metadata about every file, directory, and metafile
on an NTFS volume.




It includes filenames, locations, size, and permissions. Its structure supports algorithms which
minimize disk fragmentation.
A directory entry consists of a filename and a "file ID" which is the record number representing
the file in the Master File Table.
The file ID also contains a reuse count to detect stale references.
While this strongly resembles the W_FID of Files-11, other NTFS structures radically differ.
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NTFS Metafiles Information
NTFS contains several files which define and organize the file system. These metafiles define files,
back up critical file system data, buffer file system changes, manage free space allocation, satisfy
BIOS expectations, track bad allocation units, and store security and disk space usage information.

fid
filename
purpose
0
$MFT
describes all files on the volume, including file names, timestamps, stream names and lists of cluster numbers where data streams reside,
indexes, security identifiers, and file attributes like "read only", "compressed", "encrypted", etc.
1
$MFTMirr
duplicate of the first vital entries of $MFT, usually 4 entries (4 KiB)
2
$LogFile
transaction log of file system changes
3
$Volume
contains the volume object identifier, volume label, file system version, and volume flags: mounted, chkdsk requested, requested $LogFile
resize, mounted on NT 4, volume serial number updating, structure upgrade request. (The volume serial number is in $Boot, fid 7.)
4
$AttrDef
describes the record types of $MFT entries; unclear how NTFS uses this
5
.
root directory
6
$Bitmap
volume cluster allocation bitmap
7
$Boot
contains a Volume boot record including level 2 bootloader, a BIOS parameter block including volume serial number. This file is always located
at the volume beginning. It also contains the cluster numbers where $MFT and $MFTMirr begin.
8
$BadClus
A file which contains all the clusters marked as having bad sectors. This file simplifies cluster management by the chkdsk utility, both as a place
to put newly discovered bad sectors, and for identifying unreferenced clusters.
9
$Secure
access control list database, contains two indices ($SII: perhaps
[12]
the data stream named $SDS.
10
$UpCase
speculated to be a case mapping to upper case for case insensitivity by Win32
11
$Extend
a filesystem directory containing files 24, 25, 26
[citation needed]
security ID index, and $SDH: security descriptor hash) which index
12..23 reserved for $MFT extension entries
24
$Extend\$Quota
space quota management
25
$Extend\$ObjId
security context identifier
26
$Extend\$Reparse reparse point directory, a symbolic link database
27..
pagefile.sys
[not metafiles] beginning of regular file entries
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NTFS Resident vs. non-resident files

To optimize storage for the common case of small data files, NTFS prefers to
place file data within the master file table—if it fits, instead of using MFT space
to list clusters containing the data.




The former is called "resident data" by computer forensics workers.
The amount of data which fits is highly dependent on the file's characteristics, but
700 to 800 bytes is common in single-stream files with non-lengthy filenames and no
ACLs.
Encrypted-by-NTFS, sparse, or compressed files cannot be resident.
Since resident files do not directly occupy clusters ("allocation units"), it is
possible for an NTFS volume to contain more files on a volume than there are
clusters.


For example, an 80 GB (74.5 GiB) partition NTFS formats with 19,543,064 clusters
of 4 KiB. Subtracting system files (64 MiB log file, a 2,442,888-byte $Bitmap file, and
about 25 clusters of fixed overhead) leaves 19,526,158 clusters free for files and
indices.
Since there are four MFT records per cluster, this volume theoretically could hold
almost 4 × 19,526,158 = 78,104,632 resident files.
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Volume Shadow Copy
vssadmin list shadows /for=[volume]:
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Volume Shadow Copy
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Volume Shadow Copy
Shadow copies can be exposed through symbolic links.
Mklink /d C:\{test-shadow} \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy3\
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Volume Shadow Copy
Volume Shadows can be mounted directly as network shares.
net share testshadow=\\.\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy11\
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Volume Shadow Copy
Data that has been deleted can be captured by shadow copies and
available for retrieval in shadow copy images.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
Forensic
review or
imaging
begins with
attaching the
hard drive or
USB drive to
a Windows 7
or 2008 R2
system and
unlocking it.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
Manage-bde.exe is a
command line tool for
managing BitLocker
volumes—including
unlocking BitLocker
volumes.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
Unlocking
BitLocker with
the GUI.
Windows 7 will
recognize an
added BitLocker
volume and
prompt for the
recovery key.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
The “More/Less
information” button
will provide the
BitLocker volume
recovery key
identification.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging

BitLocker Recovery Key 783F5FF9-18D4-4C64-AD4ACD3075CB8335.txt:
BitLocker Drive Encryption Recovery Key The recovery key is
used to recover the data on a BitLocker protected drive.
To verify that this is the correct recovery key compare the
identification with what is presented on the recovery screen.
Recovery key identification: 783F5FF9-18D4-4C
Full recovery key identification: 783F5FF9-18D4-4C64-AD4ACD3075CB8335
BitLocker Recovery Key:
528748-036938-506726-199056-621005-314512-037290524293
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
Enter the recovery
key exactly.
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
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BitLocker Review or Imaging
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Q&A
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