Differentiation Isn*t... - Differentiated instruction, curriculum

Report
Leading Implementation of
Differentiated Instruction:
Practical Strategies to
Accelerate the Change
Susan Demirsky Allan
Assistant Superintendent
Grosse Pointe Public School System
www.differentiatedinstruction.net
http://differentiatinglearning.blogspot.com/
[email protected]
Goal

The purpose of professional
development for leadership in
differentiated instruction is to
help school leaders support and
encourage teachers to develop
responsive, personalized, and
classrooms that lead to optimal
student growth.
2
Questions for the day

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What differentiation is and isn’t
Coaching – What do you look for
in the classroom?
Tools for providing effective
feedback
The continuum of learners
Using assessment results
Recommendations for resources
3
“Hot Button Issues”
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Grading at the secondary level
Classroom management in a
differentiated classroom
Research basis
Getting to the implementation
plan and follow-up
4
Hot Button Issues
(con’t)

Struggling with not having a
core curriculum that gets close
to 80% proficiency before
people start looking at
interventions. So how can
differentiation help build that
core?
5

The fact that students differ may be
inconvenient, but it is inescapable.
Adapting to that diversity is the
inevitable price of productivity, high
standards, and fairness to kids.

Theodore Sizer, Brown University
6
-- Howard Gardner
Differentiation is...
...the recognition of and
commitment to plan for student
differences. A differentiated
classroom provides different
avenues to acquire content, to
process or make sense of
information and ideas, and to
develop products.
The Purpose...
... of a differentiated
classroom are to maximize
student growth and to
promote individual student
success.
Basic
Understandings


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The increasing diversity of students
requires an alternative to the one-size-fitsall approach to heterogeneous classrooms.
Educating all our students requires clear
commitment to gifted and special
education students, as well as those
students whose performance is more
“typical”.
There should be no walls and no ceilings to
learning.
Clearing Up a Common
Misunderstanding
Differentiation uses flexible grouping.
 Teachers implement flexible grouping
strategies that cluster students by
achievement in a particular subject
area, interest, learning style, personal
choice, and/or ability.
 The key is flexible. Teachers move
students in and out of groups after
assessing students’ instructional
needs.
Some Basic Principles


We differentiate instruction when
we use a variety of instructional
techniques that enable us to meet
the diverse learning needs of our
students.
It is not the cumbersome
technique of individualization. It
can be thought of as grouped
individualization.
Differentiation is…

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Providing multiple assignments
within each unit, tailored for
students of different levels of
readiness, interest, and/or
learning style
Having high expectations for all
students. Aim high and
differentiate down as
necessary.
Differentiation is…

Permitting students to opt out
of material they can
demonstrate they know and to
progress at their own pace
through new material.
Differentiation is…
Allowing students to choose,
with the teacher’s guidance,
ways to learn and to demonstrate
what they have learned.
(Keep in mind, it’s with the
teacher’s guidance. The teacher
has the final word!)

Differentiation is…


Providing students with
opportunities to explore topics in
which they have strong interest and
find personal meaning.
Implementing flexible grouping
strategies that cluster students by
achievement in a particular subject
area, interest, learning style,
personal choice, and/or ability.
Differentiation isn’t...

Individualization. It isn’t a
different lesson plan for each
student each day. (This is a
major misunderstanding to clear up
for teachers and parents!)

Giving all students the same
work most of the time, even in
achievement or ability grouped
classes.
Differentiation isn’t...



Assigning more math problems or
more reading at the same level to
high achieving students.
Requiring students to teach material
that they have already mastered to
others who have not yet obtained
mastery.
Focusing on student weaknesses
and ignoring student strengths.
Where to Start
Helping teachers understand the
rationale for differentiating
instruction.
Touch the rational and the
emotional: The Animal School
19
How Would You
Respond?
Respond to common teacher concerns
and thoughts about differentiation:
 Work in pairs
 Take turns playing the role of a
teacher discussing differentiation
with an administrator.
 Switch roles with a new comment
card.
 Debrief using the reflection sheet.
20
What Are the Forces that
Create Stumbling Blocks?

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Inertia!
Myths about education
There are other demands
• test scores, legal issues, safety,
management of schools, NCLB

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It requires too much support: many
central offices have been downsized
Some teachers need basic skills:
what comes first?
21
What Forces Might Support
Differentiation?
The biggest one: Parents Love
Differentiation!
What would you say if someone
told you I want to respond to
your child’s talents and needs and
provide an education that
maximizes his or her potential?
22
Best Practices that “fit”
differentiation

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The use of assessment to inform
instruction
Pre-assessment
Teaching for understanding
Flexible grouping
Danielson’s Frameworks for Teaching
Special education and gifted education –
both inclusion and support programs
Challenge and accountability
Acceleration – yes, acceleration!
Response to Intervention
23
Special note: Response to
Intervention
Differentiated
Instruction
Response to
Intervention
Within Classroom
Differentiation (including
accommodations)
Tier 1
Structural Differentiation
Tier 2
Combination of the above and Tier 3
some modifications that may
be beyond usual
differentiation
24
The Change Process:
Six Secrets of Change
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Love your employees.
Connect peers with purpose.
Capacity building prevails.
Learning is the work.
Transparency rules.
Systems learn.
Michael Fullan
25
Secret #2: Connect
Peers with Purpose

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Begin with key administrative support
Solicit grass roots support of members of a
significant stakeholder group (teachers,
parents)
Focus on development of a core group of
subscribers who have opportunities to interact
Provide time for teacher planning and
collaboration
Develop internal expertise and make use of it!
Provide access to external expertise
26
The School Board Can
Join in the Purpose!
Grosse Pointe Public Schools : PHILOSOPHY
The Board shall attempt to balance its educational
program to provide for the varied needs and
interests of the students in its schools. The
Board accepts the premise that the student is the
center of the school curriculum and that a
program of differentiated instruction should be
tailored to fit a child-centered program of
education.
Approved:
August 14 1995
27
Secret #3: Capacity
Building Prevails
“Capacity building concerns the
knowledge, skills and dispositions of
people individually but especially
collectively.”
M. Fullan
28
Hiring the Right Teachers
for the Future


Are some teachers predisposed to
differentiate instruction?
Is it possible – using Gallup and
Strengthfinder type materials – to
screen applicants for those
characteristics?
29
Hiring the Right
Teachers
Key Characteristic: Student
Centeredness
Differentiates effectively, considering
and responding to the needs and
abilities of each student individually
and supporting students in becoming
confident and competent independent
learners.
This research was conducted in partnership with
Polaris Assessment systems (Dr. John Arnold) and
Mr. Larry Lobert
30
Student Centeredness
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Characteristic rated “very important”
by high school students (N=206 m=
3.91) and successful teachers (N=74
m= 3.99) on a 5 point scale from 1 =
helpful to 5 = critical.
There were some differences among
teachers by level but not statistically
significant.
• Elementary = 4.13
• Middle School = 4.06
• High School = 3.61
31
Additional Related
Traits
Liking Kids
Enjoys working with they types of kids
taught. Appreciates the developmental
level they are at, and is willing to
tolerate and take pleasure in the ways
they are different from adults.
• Ranked No. 2 by students (m=4.33) and No.
2 by teachers (m=4.41)
• Rated as “Critical” by elementary teachers
(m=4.59)
32
Additional Related
Traits
Fairness and Trustworthiness
Recognizes the value of fairness and
that treating others “fairly” does not
always mean “equally” (individual
circumstances need to be taken into
account). Ensures that fairness is
central to all interactions. Acts with
integrity and keeps own word.
• Rated very important by both
teachers (m=4.07) and students
(m=4.20)
33
Additional Related
Traits
Perseverance
Unwilling to give up when students have
difficult time learning. Tenacious in trying
different methods and approaches over time
to ensure learning objectives are met.
• Rated very important by students m = 4.29
but less important by teachers m = 3.85
• Difference is statistically significant p <.01
• Rated as more important by elementary
teachers, less by high school teachers
• Best indicator: Past performance
34
Staff Development
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Differentiate for teachers’ levels of
readiness (information,
comprehension, skills, commitment),
interest, and preferred learning styles
Have varied foci – grade levels,
subject areas
Mandate introductory level -- if not at
first, at least after an early buy-in
group has been established
35
Staff Development
(con’t)
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Make additional levels optional but
accompanied by clear expectations as a
part of the teacher evaluation system
Include incentives where possible such
as step increase, release time,
recognition
Include building administrators who will
work with teachers and increase their
own expertise in order to be able to
support and evaluate teachers’ growth
36
Effects of Educational Investments:
Size of Increase in Student Achievement
for Every $500 Spent on Four Teacher Variables
0.25
Achievement
Gains *
(Standard
Deviation
Units)
Achievement gains were
calculated as standard
deviation units on a range
of achievement tests in the
60 studies reviewed.
Source: Greewald, R,
Hedges, L.V. & Laine,
R.D.(1996). The effects
of school resources on
student achievement.
Review of Educational
Research, 66(3), 361-393.
Type of Educational Investment
0.22
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.04
Lowering
Pupil/Teacher
Ratio
Increasing
Teachers'
Salaries
Increasing
Teacher
Experience
Increasing
Teacher
Education
37
Influence of Teacher Qualifications
on Student Achievement
Influence of Teacher
Qualifications on
Student Achievement
Proportion of Explained
Variance in Math Test
Score Gains (from Grades
3 to 5) due to:
Developed from the data presented in Ronald F. Ferguson, Paying for Public Education: New Evidence on How and
Why Money Matters, Harvard Journal on Legislation, 28 (Summer 1991): pp. 465-98.
38
Differentiated Mini-Grant
Application
Name of Teacher:
School and grade level/subject:
The learning needs of the students in my
classroom that I want to address:
The project I’d like to do:
How I plan to differentiate the instruction:
What I’ll need and a proposed budget:
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Secret #4: Learning is
the Work
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People behave themselves into belief.
Use data to inform instruction.
Inform and educate parents to provide
support for teachers and to raise the level
of parent expectations
Align district goals and systems so that
staff development, curriculum,
instructional supports, textbooks, hiring
etc. incorporate differentiation
40
Secret #6: Systems
Learn

“Some people I’ve encountered seem
more certain about everything than I
am about anything.”
Rubin 2003

“Wisdom is using your knowledge
while doubting what you know.”
Pfeffer & Sutton, 2006

“Hell, Ed, I don’t know. I’m making it
up as I go along.”
Allan, 1995
41
Teacher evaluation
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Importance of inclusion of
differentiation in evaluations
Some factors that appear to
matter:
• Grade level
• Use of an example or expanded
discussion
• Use of the term
42
Video – Assessing the
Teacher

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As you watch Rick Wormeli, put
yourself in the position of being
his principal or a peer evaluator.
Use Differentiated English/
Language Arts Classrooms:
What Do They Look Like? or the
general chart for providing
evaluation feedback to reflect
with Rick about his teaching
performance.
43
Video – Assessing the
Teacher
Share with others:
 Which differentiation components
were evident in Rick’s lesson?
 Your reactions and thoughts about
Rick’s teaching performance
 The suitability of your district
evaluation plan to reflect on
classroom differentiated
instruction
44
Assessment and
Accountability: The Power
of Data
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Data is sometimes used as a
classroom instruction and/or
accountability check.
If used to evaluate, “learning
gains” approach is crucial.
Data systems can provide rich
information regarding individual
students’ areas of need and
areas of mastery.
45
Assessment and
Accountability: The Power
of Data

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Important caveat: Not everything
that matters can be measured.
Data is sometimes used as a
classroom instruction and/or
accountability check
Some data systems can provide rich
information regarding individual
students’ areas of need and areas of
mastery.
Not all data is equal
• Quality and relevance is key
46
Using a Data System to
Analyze Classroom Needs

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Data systems can democratize
information – the information can be
delivered to each teacher and
administrator’s desktop.
Systems can provide teachers with
the data that is most relevant –
about their own students.
The professional development and
use of data systems can encourage
teachers to be introspective about
their own practice.
47
Going Where the Data
Leads Us
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Targeted and judicious use of
data can cause us to reexamine
our assumptions and develop
new solutions.
Example: The failure of Math
Essentials and the search for a
solution
48
Grading

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Fair isn’t always equal.
The more standards based the
reporting system, the better the
fit with differentiated
instruction.
Grading systems can
acknowledge that there is more
than one path to learning.
Avoid group grades.
49
Grading: Secondary
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Differentiating by learning
styles and interests.
Earning an honors designation.
Support classes for struggling
learners while maintaining
inclusion in regular classes.
Choices on exams and
assessments.
50
Does Differentiation work?

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Results in student learning from
differentiation are difficult to
separate out from other good
practices.
However, there has long been
research evidence that
components of differentiation
indeed correlate to student
achievement.
51
Does Differentiation
Work?

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Typically in place in quality
districts that show student
learning gains. However, there
can be compounding factors.
Anecdotal studies
Tomlinson research review
provides support for factors
within differentiation.
52
Review of Base and
Components
Tomlinson, C.A., Brighton, C.,
Hertberg, H., Callahan, C., Moon, T.,
Brimijohn, K., Conover, L. and
Reynolds, T. (2003), Differentiating
Instruction in response to Student
Readiness, Interest and Learning
Profile in Academically Diverse
Classrooms: A Review of Literature.
Journal for the Education of the
Gifted. Vol. 27, no.2/3 pp. 119-145
53
Does Differentiation work?


A 2007 research study found a more
direct link between differentiation
and student achievement.
The level of differentiated
instruction reported by 4th grade
teachers was positively and
significantly associated with student
achievement in both reading and
mathematics on high stakes state
assessments when other factors
were held constant.
54
Best recent evidence

Goddard, Y. L., & Goddard, R. D.
(2007, November). A statewide study
of the effects of differentiated
instruction on fourth grade students’
mathematics and reading
achievement. Paper presented at the
University Council for Educational
Administration annual conference,
Washington, DC.
55
Where are we?
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Next steps in planning
How are we doing as leaders?
What are the next steps?
56

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