Anthropo

Report
Lauren Dawson & Gabrielle Kosziwka
Anthropometry
Lecture Overview
• Use of anthropometric measurements
• Direct Measurements
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Height (Standing and Sitting)
Weight (mass)
Head Circumference
Mid-Upper Arm Circumference
Waist to Hip Circumference
Skinfold Measurements
• Triceps skin-fold
• Computational Approach (2D & 3D)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
What is Anthropometry?
• The theory of anthropometrics comes from the study of
anthropology and is derived from greek ‘anthropo’
meaning human and ‘metron’ meaning measure
• It is the measurement of the human anatomy in terms
of the dimensions of the bone, muscle and adipose
tissue (CDC, 1988)
• Anthopology is used for determining a persons size,
form, and functional capabilities
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Use of Anthropometric measurements
• Forensics and Criminology
•Use anthropometry as a form of identity analysis through
skeletal measurements to determine biological facts such as
age, race and gender (Reichs, 1988).
• Ergonomics
• Make more functional work spaces
• Create safe machinery and protective equipment
• Biometrics
•Security surveillance used to describe individuals (Hong, 2000)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements
• Direct measurements are used to describe the
dimensions of the body.
• Age is a key factor in determining which
anthropometric measures are appropriate to
use
– Age groups are 2mo+, 2yr+, 4yr+, 20yr+, and 60+
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Body Measurements by Age
2mo+
2yr+
4yr+
20yr+
60yr+
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Weight
Recumbent
length (2mo3yr)
Triceps
skinfold
Subscapular
skinfold
Upper arm
length
Arm
circumference
Head
circumference
(to 6mo*)
-
Weight
Stature
Sitting height
Recumbent length
(To 3yr*)
Triceps skinfold
Subscapular
skinfold
Upper arm length
Arm circumference
Waist
circumference
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Weight
Stature
Sitting height
Triceps skinfold
Subscapular
skinfold
Upper arm length
Arm circumference
Waist
circumference
-
Weight
Stature
Sitting height
Triceps skinfold
Subscapular
skinfold
Upper arm length
Arm circumference
Upper leg length
Thigh
circumference
Waist
circumference
Buttocks
circumference
Suprailliac skinfold
Thigh skinfold
Biilliac breadth
Elbow breadth
Wrist breadth
Biacromial breadth
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Weight
Stature
Sitting height
Triceps skinfold
Subscapular
skinfold
Upper arm length
Arm circumference
Upper leg length
Thigh
circumference
Waist
circumference
Buttocks
circumference
Suprailliac skinfold
Thigh skinfold
Biilliac breadth
Elbow breadth
Wrist breadth
Biacromial breadth
Knee Height
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1988 and 2007)
Direct Measurements-Standing Height
• Subject must be
standing with weight
distributed on both
feet with heels
touching the base of
the vertical board
•
• Instruct patient to:
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–
–
–
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Look straight ahead
Relax shoulders
Arms at sides
Legs straight
Feet flat and heels almost
touching
– Head kept in Frankfurt
plane
Measurement
is taken from
crown to floor
to nearest mm
Position for Standing Height
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements-Sitting
Height
– Sitting measurements are taken by
having the patient sit on a
measurement box.
– The back and buttocks need to be
against the backboard of the
statiometer with knees straight ahead
and hands resting on the sides
– Measurement is taken from the crown
of the head to the measurement box
to nearest mm.
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurement- Recumbent
Length
• This technique is used for infants
aged 2mo to 3yrs.
• Infants are placed supine on the
measuring board. The board
measures from the crown to the
heels of the child
Infant being measured on an infantometer
• The measurement is taken to the
nearest 0.1cm
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurement- Weight
• Basic weight measurements can be done using a scale
in which the patient stands barefoot with minimal
clothing.
– Arms placed at sides
– Weight evenly placed between both feet
– Palms facing thighs
• Measurement is taken to nearest 0.1kg
• Other weight measurement techniques include under
water weighing and body imaging.
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurement- Head
Circumference
• Head circumference is measured in infants up to 6
months as a predictor of disease and genetic
abnormalities
• Measurement technique
– flexible non-stretchable tape
– Take out all clips, braids, etc.
– Measure across the frontal bones of the skull slightly
above eyebrows and ears and around the occipital
prominence at the back of the head.
– Find largest circumference, measure to closest 0.1cm
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Mid-Upper Arm Circumference
• Used on patients 2 months and older
• Measurement technique:
– Surface of arm at the upper arm mid-point mark
– Take measurement from lateral side
– Measure to the nearest 0.1cm
• Practical use for this data is to determine the
appropriate sizes for blood pressure cuffs (CDC, 2007)
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements- Waist Circumference
• This measurement has been shown to be correlated
with many health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and
heart conditions
• Measurement Technique:
– Measure horizontally around waist
– Tape must sit parallel to floor
– Do not compress skin
– Take measurement to closest 0.1cm
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements- Skinfold Technique
• Skinfold measurements are used to determine the
amount of adipose tissue at multiple sites of the body
(CDC, 2007)
• Measurement Techniques:
• Mark spots to be measured
• Grasp skin 2cm above marking with thumb and index
finger
• Pull skinfold away from body to release muscle
• Place calipers perpendicular to the skinfold and wait for 3
seconds before reading measurement
• Read at eye level to nearest 0.1mm
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements- Skinfold Sites
• Skinfold Sites include: triceps, subscapular, suprailliac,
thigh
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
VBJuVfiKrbY
(CDC, 2007)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements- Breath
• Breadth measurements are taken to nearest 0.1cm at 4
sites which include: biilliac, biacromial, elbow, and wrist
• Biiliac: with patient sitting, measure between lateral
borders of iliac crest (the highest point of crest)
• Biacromial: with patient sitting, maximal breadth across
the lateral boarders of the acromial processes
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Direct Measurements- Breath cont’d
• Elbow: patient standing, right arm perpendicular to
body, flex elbows to 90 degrees with posterior wrist
facing out. Measurements are taken at a 45 degree
angle across the greatest breadth between epicondyles
• Wrist: patient standing with extended right arm.
Measurement is taken by the most prominent part of
the ulnar and radial styloid process.
(CDC, 1988)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
New Methodology
• Direct measurements are useful and cost-effective
• However…
– Observer subjectivity and not perfectly reproducible
– Not perfectly accurate
– Physical contact is necessary
• So…
– New techniques were developed
– More accurate and reproducible
– Physical contact is unnecessary
Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory
2D Anthropometry
•
•
•
•
2-Dimensional digital picture.
Against a background with calibration criteria
Computer software extracts silhouette
Software identifies landmarks (either automated or
manual)
• Software uses landmarks to calculate segment lengths
(Lin, et al. 2011)
http://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/sections/section03.htm
Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory
2D Anthropometry
• Potential difficulties
– Calibration. If initial measurement is not accurate,
no analyzed measurement will be accurate
– Landmark detection
– Posture. Calculations are based of only 2 dimensions
so the software will not pick up on any point in the
3rd dimension. (eg, slight bend in arm)
– Clothing. Alters accuracy (Kohlschütter et al., 2012)
Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory
3D Anthropometry
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NSnukvZPuQQ
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
3D Anthropometry
Applications:
• Functional anthropometry
• Motion capture
• Medical and fitness management
• Body composition
• Understanding body shape
• Postural intervention
• 3-Dimentional equipment design
• Apparel industry
• One size does not fit all
• Video games, movies
• Avatar creation (Lu, et al.
2008)
http://www.flcmidwest.org/200606_02.html
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
3D Anthropometry-Body Shape
https://www.graphics.rwth-aachen.de/publications/1999
How it works:
• Project straight line grids onto the
human body
• Curves in the body result in
distortions to the grid
• Cameras capture the distortions and
compute the 3-dimentional shape of
the human body
• In a full body scan, several hundred
thousand points are produced, each
with a x,y,z coordinate.
– Automated landmarking
• Coordinates can be fused together
digitally to create polygonal meshes.
(Simmonds, et al. 2003)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
3D Anthropometry-Body Volumes
• Variety of programs
• Biomechanics requires known limb volumes to calculate
moments of inertia, power etc…
• Fluid immersion is a technique used to estimate these values
• A 3D body scan can add precision to this measurement by
calculating cross-sectional areas and volumes.
• A measure of whole body volume and density can be used to
estimate percentage of body fat (Rogers, et al. 2004)
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
Advantages/Limitations
Advantages:
• Accurate
• Reproducible
Limitations:
• Expensive- cameras, software,
• Extensive set up compared to direct measurments
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory
References
1. Reichs KJ, Bass WM. Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification. of Human Remains (2nd Edition).
Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A. Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd, 1998.
2. Jain, A., Hong, L., & Pankanti, S. (2000). "Biometric Identification". Communications of the ACM, 43(2), p. 9198. doi:10.1145/328236.328110
3. Centre of Disease Control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III: Body Measurements
(Anthropometry). 1988
4. Centre of Disease Control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III: Anthropometry Procedure
Manual. 2007
5. Rogers, M and Olds, T. 3D anthropometry - applications to health and exercise science [online]. Sport Health,
Vol. 22, No. 3, 2004 Spring: 21-3. Availability:
<http://search.informit.com.au.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/documentSummary;dn=479377119363866;res=IELHEA>
ISSN: 1032-5662. [cited 27 Oct 14].
6. Lin, Y.L., Wang, M.J.: Automated body feature extraction from 2D images. Expert Systems with
Applications 38, 2585–2591 (2011)
Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory
References
7. Simmons, K.P., Istook, C.L.: Body measurement techniques: A comparison of threedimensional body scanning and physical anthropometric methods for apparel application. Journal
of Fashion Marketing and Management 7(3), 306–332 (2003)
8. American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM). (2009). Standard terminology relating
to body dimensions for apparel sizing. (Vol. 07-02, Designation: D5219-09).
9. Kohlschütter T., Herout P. (2012). Automatic Human Body Parts Detection in a 2D
Anthropometric System. Proceedings of ISVC 2012, Part II, LNCS 7432, pp. 536- 544.
10. Lu, J.-M., Wang, M.-J. J. (2008). Automated anthropometric data collection using 3D whole
body scanners. Expert Systems with Applications, 35(1–2), pp. 407–414.
Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory
Thank You
Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

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