synthetic cannabinoids - Virginia Department of Health

Report
Capt. D. Byron Ashbrook, II
Washington County Virginia Sheriff’s Office
Criminal Investigation Division

Origin and History:
 The main ingredient was created in 1995 in the lab of organic chemist John W.
Huffman at Clemson University. Huffman was conducting medical research of
the effects of cannabinoids on the brain. He found no medical benefits -- only
negative side effects. Unfortunately, marijuana users reproduced the recipe,
creating (or attempting to create) a legal alternative to marijuana. 1
 K2 (and related products) contain synthetic chemicals (chemical compounds),
such as JWH-018 and JWH-073 (and many others), that mimic THC by acting
on the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. 1
 Synthetic Cannabinoids
▪ Street Names
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪

K2
SPICE
Kronic
Herbal Incense
Genie
Appearance and Makeup:

As Advertised:

Consists of a mixture of dried leaves from
traditional herbal plants. They are various
colors including green, brown, blonde and red.2

REALITY:

The packages of synthetic marijuana are simply
packages of common herbs sprayed down with
the synthetic cannabinoid chemicals. 3
1
2
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METHODS OF USE
 Smoking via various
smoking devices /
rolling papers.
MANY CONTAIN THE
LABELS
“NOT FOR HUMAN
CONSUMPTION”
3
“LEGAL HERBAL BLEND”
5
4
WHERE PURCHASED:
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COST TO CONSUMER:
Tobacco and Smoke Shops
Convenience Stores
Local Flea Markets
Internet

 Most all are packaged and

sold as Incense and labeled
“Not for human
Consumption”
$25 to $50 or higher
depending on local MarkUp
COST TO DEALER:
 Approximately $4.50 to
$8.00 per container
depending on size.

ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS:
 increased heart rate, loss of consciousness, heavy sedation,
paranoia, hallucinations, vomiting and psychotic episodes. 4
 NO STUDY HAS BEEN COMPLETED TO DETERMINE LONG
TERM HEALTH EFFECTS!
 THESE PRODUCTS ARE NOT REGULATED SO THERE IS NO
TELLING WHAT YOU ARE ACTUALLY PUTTING INTO YOUR
BODY. ACCORDING TO STUDIES MANY ADDITIONAL
DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THESE
PRODUCTS.

LEGAL ISSUES: Code of Virginia
 § 18.2-248.1:1. Penalties for possession, sale, gift, or distribution of
or possession with intent to sell, give, or distribute synthetic
cannabinoids; manufacturing.
 (NEW LANGUAGE)
 A. For the purposes of this title, synthetic cannabinoids means any
substance that contains one or more of the
following:cannabimimetic agents or that contains their salts,
isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts,
isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical
designation, and any preparation, mixture, or substance
containing, or mixed or infused with, any detectable amount of
one or more of the following cannabimimetic agents.: 5

1. "Cannabimimetic agents" means any substance that is within any of the following
structural classes:

a. 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring
by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent;
b. 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-napthyl)methane with substitution at the
nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to
any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent;
c. 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring,
whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not
substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent;
d. 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)indene with substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring,
whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not
substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent; or
e. 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the
indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or
not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent.
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5
§ 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: The term cannabimimetic agents includes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name:
CP 47,497);
5-(1,1-Dimethylhexyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP
47,497 C6 homolog);
5-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP
47,497 C8 homolog);
5-(1,1-Dimethylnonyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP
47,497 C9 homolog);
1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-018);
1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-073);
1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-250);
1-hexyl-3-(naphthalen-1-oyl)indole (other name: JWH-019);
1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH200);
(6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl) 6a,7,10,10a-te trahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (other name: HU-210). 5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
§ 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: Specifically Prohibited Compounds (ADDED 2012)
1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-081);
1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-122);
1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-203);
1-pentyl-3-(4-ethyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-210);
1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-398);
1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-694);
1-((N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-1220);
1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-2201);
1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-2233);
Pravadoline (4-methoxyphenyl)-[2-methyl-1-(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl)indol-3y]methanone (other name: WIN 48,098);
1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole (other name: RCS-4);
1-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other name: RCS-8).

§ 18.2-248.1:1. Continued:
 B. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly or
intentionally possess synthetic cannabinoids. Any
person who violates this subsection is guilty of a Class
1 misdemeanor.
 C. It is unlawful for any person to sell, give, distribute,
or possess with intent to sell, give, or distribute
synthetic cannabinoids. Any person who violates this
subsection is guilty of a Class 6 felony. 5

§ 18.2-248.1:1. Continued:
 F. Any drug not listed in this section or the Drug Control
Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.), which is privately compounded,
with the specific intent to circumvent the criminal
penalties for synthetic cannabinoids, to emulate or
simulate the effects of synthetic cannabinoids through
chemical changes such as the addition, subtraction or
rearranging of a radical or the addition, subtraction or
rearranging of a substituent, shall be subject to the same
criminal penalties as for synthetic cannabinoids. 5

MAJOR CHALLENGES:
 Chemists are changing the compounds at an
alarming rate which makes enforcement difficult.
11
9
10
ACTIVE COMPOUND(S)

The active compound(s)
contained in “Bath Salts” are:
EFFECTS:

 Methylenedioxypyrovalerone
(MDPV)
 and ; or
 Mephedrone
▪ Both are synthetic
stimulants and fall into
the
AMPHETAMINE class
of Narcotics.
**Note: There are many other variations of the above
compounds used in Bath Salts i.e. Methylone,
Flephedrone, Ethylone, and Butylone.
The effects are similar to
that of cocaine,
amphetamines, and
ecstasy (MDMA). 8
6
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Street Names:





Vanilla Sky
White Lightning
Scarface
Cloud Nine
Ivory Wave 6
14
Also marketed as
“PLANT FOOD” and
“INSECT REPELLENT” 7
7
8

Methods of Use:
 Ingestion
 Smoking
 Inhaling
 Injecting
12
Labels often contain the
Disclaimer:
“Not for Human
Consumption.”
13
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Where Purchased:

 Smoke Shops
 Some Convenience
Cost to Consumer:
 $ 25 to $50
▪ Depending on Local MarkUp.
Stores
 Local Flea Markets
 Internet
•Cost to Dealer:
$ 4.50 to $ 10.00
depending on quantity.
14

ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS:
 Dizziness and vomiting
Profuse sweating
Agitation and paranoia
Insomnia
Hallucinations
Seizures
Increased heart rate and chest pains
Suicidal thoughts
Panic attacks and psychosis
Death 10
Man high on bath salts kills
neighbor's goat, police say
Source: The Charleston
Gazette 11
CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- Police say an Alum Creek man
high on bath salts killed his neighbor's pygmy goat and
that neighbors found him in his bedroom, dressed in a bra
and panties, next to the dead animal, said Lt. Bryan
Stover of the Kanawha County Sheriff's Department.
Mark Thompson, 19, of Greenview Road, is charged with
animal cruelty after police got a call from a woman who
said he stole her goat at about 3:15 a.m. Monday, Stover
said.
Thompson allegedly told police he was on bath salts for
about three days. 11

LEGAL ISSUES Code of Virginia:
 The active compounds in Bath Salts;
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and Mephedrone,
as well as twenty four (24) derivatives and related
compounds are classified as SCHEDULE I per
§ 54.1-3446

§ 54.1-3446. Schedule I.
1.
2.
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (other name: MDPV);
4-methylmethcathinone (other names: mephedrone, 4-MMC);
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (other name: methylone);
Naphthylpyrovalerone (other name: naphyrone);
4-fluoromethcathinone (other name: flephedrone, 4-FMC);
4-methoxymethcathinone (other names: methedrone; bk-PMMA);
Ethcathinone (other name: N-ethylcathinone);
3,4-methylenedioxyethcathinone (other name: ethylone);
Beta-keto-N-methyl-3,4-benzodioxyolybutanamine (other name:
butylone);
N,N-dimethylcathinone (other name: metamfepramone);
Alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: alpha-PPP);
10.
11.

§ 54.1-3446. Schedule I. continued….
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
4-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MOPPP);
3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MDPPP);
Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (other name: alpha-PVP);
6,7-dihydro-5H-indeno-(5,6-d)-1,3-dioxol-6-amine (other name: MDAI);
3-fluoromethcathinone (other name: 3-FMC)
4-Ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-E);
4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-I);
4-Methylethcathinone (other name: 4-MEC);
4-Ethylmethcathinone (other name: 4-EMC);
N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-DALT);
Beta-keto-methylbenzodioxolylpentanamine (other name: Pentylone, bk-MBDP);
Alpha-methylamino-butyrophenone (other name: Buphedrone);
Alpha-methylamino-valerophenone (other name: Pentedrone);
3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone (other name: 3.4-DMMC);
4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MPPP); 4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other names: 25-I, 25I-NBOMe);
Methoxetamine (other names: MXE, 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE); 4-Fluoromethamphetamine (other
name: 4-FMA); 4-Fluoroamphetamine (other name: 4-FA).

§ 18.2-250. Possession of controlled substances unlawful.
 (a) Any person who violates this section with
respect to any controlled substance classified in
Schedule I or II of the Drug Control Act shall be
guilty of a Class 5 felony.

§ 18.2-248. Manufacturing, selling, giving, distributing…..
 C. Except as provided in subsection C1, any person
who violates this section with respect to a
controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II
shall upon conviction be imprisoned for not less
than five nor more than 40 years and fined not
more than $500,000.

Bath Salts…..Generation 2 :
 Generation 2 of Bath Salts have been hitting the internet
market already, with the DEA's temporary ban of MDPV,
Mephedrone.
 Naphyrone has been found in samples of what is being labeled
online as "Cosmic Blast" a "jewelry cleaner". There are products
(of substances unknown) that are on the internet labeled as
"IPOD/Phone Screen Cleaner" and other various covers, as it
appears that "bath salts" became too viral of a product name
and drug dealers have now moved on to other, more obscure
product naming schemes. 8
 Some are calling this product
“SYNTHETIC COCAINE.” 9
15

Generation 2 continued…..
 Naphyrone SideEffects: Is in the stimulant family
and can inhibit seratonin uptake which can effect
the body’s ability to regulate temperature. Long
term effects are not known.
8
 Dr. Christopher Long stated in reference to Naphyrone Side Effects: “There’s
no stop to it, so your body temperature goes up well over 100, maybe 106, 7,
108 — in which case you’d fry your own brains.” 9

MAJOR CHALLENGES:
 Chemists are changing the compounds at an
alarming rate which makes enforcement difficult.
 Dealers are changing the product names, today’s
Bath Salts will be marketed as tomorrow’s Screen
Cleaner, Air Freshener etc.
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PHOTOS
Photo #1: http://stopthedrugwar.org/topics/drug_war_issues/specific_drugs/synthetic_cannabinoids
Photo # 2: http://californiaexaminer.net/2011/11/18/beware-of-k2-new-potent-drug-on-the-market/
Photo # 3 : http://www.myspace.com/mrspiceguyincense
Photo # 4: http://pimabeddo.mobie.in/index?__xtblog_entry=4fa895b28e21066a4b000000
Photo # 5: http://www.wmicentral.com/news_premium/synthetic-marijuana---bad-behavior-bynavajo-county-parolees/article_cabc9498-3b14-11e1-9b25-001871e3ce6c.html/
Photo # 6: http://www.wbrz.com/news/banned-bath-salts-rounded-up-by-authorities
Photo # 7: http://www.independentmail.com/news/2011/oct/21/federal-drug-agency-ban-makes-bath-salts-illegal-n/
Photo # 8 : http://gothamist.com/2011/06/29/dea_bath_salt_bust_takes_2_million.php
Photo # 9: http://www.accessrx.com/blog/current-health-news/bath-salts-cocaine-meth-mdpv-b0124
Photo # 10: http://www.care2.com/news/member/556653422/2707228
Photo # 11: http://lacrossetribune.com/news/local/article_aa2edc6a-d12c-11e0-bf91-001cc4c002e0.html
Photo # 12: http://www.talberthouse.org/blog/the-dangers-of-bath-salts/
Photo # 13: http://www.finlandiaroar.org/community/marijuana-cocaine-and-bath-salts/
Photos # 14: http://www.stsfirst.com/blog/index.asp?offset=-1
Photo # 15: http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/assets_c/2011/08/cosmic%20blast-thumb-214x202.jpg
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-03-02/opinion/fay.ban.k2_1_thc-k2-marijuana?_s=PM:OPINION
2: http://alcoholism.about.com/od/tipsforparents/a/legal_bud.htm
3: http://www.plg-pllc.com/resources/articles/a-parents-guide-to-synthetic-marijuana-kent-injury-lawyer/
4: http://weatherforddemocrat.com/x176916707/K2-causes-health-problems-with-use
5: http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+18.2-248.1C1
6: http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/directors-page/messages-director/2011/02/bath-salts-emerging-dangerous-products
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7: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/dangerous-high-ivory-wave-street-drug-sold-bath/story?id=12600896
8: http://www.hdap.org/mdpv.html
9: http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/assets_c/2011/08/cosmic%20blast-thumb-214x202.jpg
10: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_side_effects_of_snorting_bath_salt
11: http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201105020871
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