Dropout Prevention () - State Support Team Region 11

Dropout Prevention Resources
Risk Factors
Prevention and Intervention Programs
Dropout Rates
Dropout Effects
Every school day, nearly 7,000 students become
dropouts. Annually, that adds up to about 1.2
million students who will not graduate from high
school with their peers as scheduled. Lacking a
high school diploma, these individuals will be far
more likely than graduates to spend their lives
periodically unemployed, on government
assistance, or cycling in and out of the prison
Average Income by Education
Positive Effects of Earning a
High School Diploma
Earn higher wages
Live longer
Less likely to be a teen parents
More likely to raise healthy, educated children
Less likely to commit crime
Less likely to rely on government health care, financial
and housing assistance
7. More likely to engage in civic activities: volunteering,
Unemployment Rates
Why Dropout?
 Dropping out is often described as a process,
not an event, with factors building and
compounding over time.
 Dropping out of school is often the result of a
long process of disengagement that may begin
before a child enters school.
The Three Rs
There are almost as many reasons or
combinations of reasons why students report that
they drop out as there are programs
to address them.
The majority of the reasons fall into the 3 Rs:
Relevancy, Relationships, and Resiliency.
Relevance, Relationships, & Resiliency
In a recent survey, students indicated these top
three reasons for dropping out of school:
1. They felt alienated at school and no one noticed
if they failed to show up for class.
2. School did not reflect real-world challenges.
3. Classes were uninteresting and irrelevant.
Most Common Reasons for Dropping Out
Poor relationships with teachers
(Institute of Education Sciences, 2005)
Lack of social and academic support in school
(Croninger & Lee, 2001)
Classes were not interesting; felt unchallenged
(Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006; Dalton,
Glennie & Ingels, 2009)
Significant Risk Factors for School Dropout
Individual Background
• Has a learning disability or
emotional disturbance
Early Adult
• High number of work hours
• Parenthood
Family Background
• Low socioeconomic status
• High family mobility
• Low education level of
• Large number of siblings
• Not living with both natural
• Family disruption
School Performance
• Low achievement
• Retention/over-age for grade
School Engagement
• Poor attendance
• Low educational expectations
• Lack of effort
• Low commitment to school
• No extracurricular participation
School Behavior
• Misbehavior
• Early aggression
Social Attitudes, Values, &
• High-risk peer group
• High-risk social behavior
• Highly socially active outside of
Engagement/Commitment to
• Lack of conversations about
• Low educational expectations
• Sibling has dropped out
• Low contact with school
National Dropout Prevention Center at Clemson University and Communities In Schools, Inc., 2007
Academic Reasons
Only 30 percent of entering high school
freshmen read proficiently.
National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2009
Ways to Engage Students
Providing opportunities for students to experience
Expressing high expectations to students
Building relationships with students
Creating a family-like classroom atmosphere
Making the curriculum relevant to students’ lives
College and Career Ready
High schools must be improved to give all
students the excellent education that will
prepare them for college and a career,
and to be productive members of society.
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012
IES Recommended Dropout
Prevention Practices
• Diagnostic Practices (early warning system) – Data
system and use
– Screening
• Targeted Interventions
– Adult advocates
– Academic supports
– Social/behavioral supports
• School-wide Practices
– Learning environment
– Rigorous and relevant instruction
Dynarski, et.al., 2008. www.betterhighschools.org
Diagnostic Practices
1. Early Warning System (EWS)
2. Data Collection—Teacher Based Teams
3. Screening/Interviewing
Early Warning System (EWS)
Identifies students exhibiting early warning signs
that they are at risk for dropping out of high school.
The enhanced EWS Tool v2.0 and accompanying
guides are available free-of-charge on the
National High School Center’s Web site.
Targeted Interventions
Targeted interventions involve matching research
based interventions to student specific need
to assist in eliminating issues contributing
to student dropout.
Targeted Interventions
Research Based Examples:
• Programs to improve students’ classroom behavior and
social skills, including Positive Behavioral Intervention
Supports (PBIS), behavioral contracts and training in
problem-solving skills.
• Targeted models, such as Service Learning, Check and
Connect, ALAS, that provide multiple strategies to help
students bond with school.
• During IEP meetings, discuss critical risk factors that
place students at risk for school dropout and impact the
delivery of FAPE.
Positive Behavioral Intervention and
Supports (PBIS)
Improving student academic and behavior outcomes
is about ensuring all students have access to the
most effective and accurately implemented instructional
and behavioral practices and interventions possible.
PBIS provides an operational framework for
achieving these outcomes.
Service Learning
Service-Learning is a teaching and learning strategy that
integrates meaningful community service with instruction
and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic
responsibility, and strengthen communities.
This enables students to see the meaning and make real
world connections to their instruction, thus allowing them to
see the relevance of their school activities.
Check and Connect
Check & Connect is a comprehensive
intervention designed to enhance student
engagement at school and with learning for
marginalized, disengaged students in grades K-12,
through relationship building, problem solving and
capacity building, and persistence.
ALAS is an evidence-based comprehensive dropout
prevention program specifically designed for at-risk youth.
The goals of ALAS are to:
• build the capacity of schools to eliminate student
underperformance or dropout
• raise the academic achievement of all students
• raise post-secondary achievement of every student
• teach schools how to build the capacity of families and
community to serve youth effectively
School Wide Practices
• Safe and orderly school climate where students feel
welcome and supported.
• Extra curricula activities and programs to promote school
bonding for marginalized students.
• Support to students who enter critical transitions without
adequate skills in reading, math, and other core content.
•Diagnostic processes for identifying state, district, school-wide
and student-level dropout problems.
•Ongoing professional development to teachers/other core team
members to expand knowledge and skills in design and delivery
of instruction in critical content areas.
School-Wide Interventions
Promote and facilitate the implementation of
evidence-based strategies:
Promote a positive school climate
Increase school attendance
Promote pro-social behaviors
Promote academic success
Increase family engagement
Increase student engagement
Promoting Positive School Climate
Students must universally:
• Feel physically safe.
• Feel social and emotional security.
• Believe they are supported in their learning and
goals (both short & long term).
• Believe their social and civic learning and
activities are important and supported.
• Believe they are respected, trusted, and
connected to the adults and the learning
Strategies to Increase Attendance
• Create culture which says attending school
everyday matters
• Every absence brings a response
• Positive social incentives for good attendance
• Data tracking at teacher based team (TBT) level
Promote Pro-social Behaviors
• Students learn appropriate behavior in the same
way they learn to read – through instruction,
practice, feedback, and encouragement.
• Enhancements that increase school-wide social
competence and positive behavioral supports
decrease disciplinary actions that lead to
Promote Academic Success: Provide
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction
Effective Teachers:
• Manage an organized and efficient learning environment
• Maximize time on academic tasks
• Minimize time on non-instructional activities
• Provide students with tasks that allow them to be
• Maximize use of active or direct teaching procedures
with groups of students
Increase Family Engagement
Increase communication between
home and school (i.e., family outreach)
 Home visits
 Inviting parents to be part of school teams and
 Hold parent conferences or support groups
 Provide feedback to parents on student progress more
 Report more than just negative behavior
Increase Student Engagement
Four Types of Engagement & Associated Factors:
1. Academic engagement refers to time on task, academically
engaged time, or credit accrual.
2. Behavioral engagement includes attendance, avoidance of
suspension, classroom participation, and involvement in
extracurricular activities.
3. Cognitive engagement involves internal indicators including
processing academic information or becoming a self-regulated
4. Psychological engagement includes identification with
school or a sense of belonging.
Christenson, 2002
The following slides describe resources for dropout
prevention and for your school’s programming.
Dropout Prevention Guide
Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide (NCEE 2008-4025).
Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R.,
and Smink, J. (2008). Washington, DC: National Center for
Education and Evaluation and Regional Assistance,
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
This guide provides practical, clear information on critical
topics related to dropout prevention and is based on the
best available evidence as judged by the review panel.
National Dropout Prevention
The mission of the National Dropout Prevention
Center/Network is to increase high school graduation rates
through research and evidence-based solutions.
They have identified 15 effective strategies that have the
most positive impact on the dropout rate, and have
developed a database of research-based programs and
information available on the website.
National Dropout Prevention Center for
Students with Disabilities (NDPC-SD)
A national technical assistance center funded by
OSEP to support states in designing evidence
based interventions that decrease dropout rates,
increase school completion rates and improve
reentry/recovery for students with disabilities.
Alliance for Excellent Education. Issue Brief, November 2011.
Chapman, C., Laird, J., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Trends in High
School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2008
(NCES 2011-012). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
C. Hammond, J. Smink, & S. Drew: National Dropout Prevention
Center. D. Linton: Communities In Schools, Inc. (May 2007). Dropout
Risk Factors and Exemplary Programs: A Technical Report.
Institute of Education Sciences [IES]. (2005). Facts from NLTS2. High
school completion for students with disabilities. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, ―Labor Force
Statistics from the Current Population Survey. (accessed September 7,
2011). http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2009 (NCES 2010–458).
(Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).
State Support Team 11 Contacts
Kim Fausnaugh
[email protected]
Barb Knipe
[email protected]

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