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Tripoli: The Trigger of Change
ٌ‫أكارم‬
Nobles, the sky envies the earth for them,
Every city could not compete with Tripoli!
No king is to be feared, when they are on my side!
And no rival to me when they are my sword and my shield.
Al-Mutanabbi, Arabs’ Greatest Poet, Praising the city of Tripoli
and the knighthood and generosity of its people.
Tripoli - The State of Bani Ammar, 1070-1109
•Habitation of the site of Tripoli goes back to at least the 14th
century B.C.
•Around the 9th century B.C, it was home to a confederation of
the Phoenician city states of Sidon, Tyre and Arados Island.
•Under the successors of Alexander the Great during the
Hellenistic period, and later with the Seleucids, Tripoli was used
as a naval shipyard.
•Tripoli was destroyed with other Mediterranean coastal cities,
by an earthquake and tidal wave in 551.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
• With the Islamic Umayyad Dynasty 661 Tripoli became a
commercial and shipbuilding center.
• It achieved semi-independence 1070-1109 under the Fatimid
Shiaa Dynasty when it developed the largest library in the
region.
• During the Crusaders' 180-year rule the city was the capital of
the "County of Tripoli".
• Under the Mamluks (13th-14th century) and the ottomans
(1516-1918) Tripoli developed to a central city and a major
trading port between Syria and Europe .
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Borders from Jableh to Jounieh.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Historical
The ottoman Eyalet:
Main Harbor on the Mediterranean
to internal Syria and beyond.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
• In the 1830s Beirut started to develop again from
a small town to a capital. Europeans and
Americans helped the development of Beirut.
• In 1857 Beirut-Damascus Road opened after end
of works.
• In 1888-1920, Tripoli followed the Vilayet of
Beirut and then Greater Lebanon…And
disappointment in Tripoli about Joining Lebanon
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
• The Abu Ali river flooded in 1955
• Unrest in the old city (1958 conflict-1973 Outlaw State-1970 Robin
Hood Movement: Ali and later his brother Khalil Akkawi)
• 1976: -Civil War
-IPC ceased pumping crude oil to Tripoli (35000
barrel/day) (thousands of quality Jobs were lost)
-Closure of the Majority of industries in the southern
suburb of Tripoli (thousands of Jobs)
• 1982 Syrio-Palastenian , Tebbaneh-Jabal, and Islamic Tawhidd Militia
• By then the Majority of Christians has left the City
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Share of shipments through Port
of Tripoli compared to Beirut Port
6.5%
93.5%
Tripoli
Beirut
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
North
Lebanon
Lebanon Map Tripoli
Governorate
Capital
Tripoli
• Area
2,024.8 km
• Population
807,204
• Density
398/km
20.7% of the
Lebanese
population
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
2
2
Tripoli
Km2
Population
Density
Density of Metro Tripoli is estimated
City of Tripoli
14
192,572
at least by 12,500/Km²
Alfayha
29.66
330,000
13,755
11,126
Statistics: between 14 and 41 Km²
Metro
41
555,000
13,536
between 200,000 and 550,000
North Lebanon 2025
807,204
398
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Add to the density:
North Lebanon:
Registered Syrian Refugees
273,621
(Lebanon 1,053,000)
UNHCR April-May 2014
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Palestinian Refugees in North
Lebanon
• 33,223 in Baddawi camp*
• 16,000 remaining in Bared
North Lebanon total: around 50,000
*Baddawi camp is directly next to Tripoli
• 17,500 registered in Baddawi
• 15,723 displaced from Bared to Baddawi Waiting for reconstruction
of Bared since 2007 Fateh El Islam war.
UNRWA website
Tripoli Socio
• 51% of residents live with less than 4$/day
• 11% overall illiteracy
• 65% of students go to public schools
• 73% with no medical insurance
• 10% of births happen at home
• 25% of families make less than 500$/month
Escwa 2012
Basatin Tarablos
Basatin ElMina
Tal-Zihrieh
Tripoli
Mina
Kobbeh Jabal Mohsen
Abou Samra
Old City
Tebbaneh & Soueika
City of Tripoli Yearly Municipal Budget:
(around $20 millions) (average 200,000 residents)
Around
100$/resident
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Employment Akkar Minieh-Dinnieh
• Rate of Unemployment is 10.6% compared to
5.6% for Lebanon
• 14.1% Working women are 15.9% of Labor
Force
• The rate of women economically active is 66%
compared to the Lebanese rate
CAS 2009
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
The North has 20.7% of Lebanon’s population
but 46% of the extremely poor population
and 38% of the entire poor population
IPC UNDP 2008
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
SMEs in North Lebanon
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
92% Less than 4 employees
6% Less than 10 employees
76% not registered
17000 compared to 73000 in Beirut
12-13% of Kafalat Loans
Lack of access to finance
Brain drain due to emigration and in-migration
Main Source of employment
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
SME Government Policy
1.Simple procedures
5.Access to Markets
2.Education
6.Innovative companies
3.Improved skills
7.Business associations
4.Access to finance
8. Support Institutions
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Competitiveness
Context for
Firm Strategy
and Rivalry
Factor (Input )
Conditions
Demand
Conditions
Related and
Supporting
Industries
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Poorest
Areas in
Lebanon
North Lebanon
2025 Km²
Residents in
Urban areas in
Lebanon are 87%
Tripoli
67 km
Tripoli is no more
their capital
158 Km²
Mount Lebanon
and Beirut
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Severe Centralization / Governance
High Density and Birth Rates
Poverty
Illiteracy
Child Labor
Woman – Youth marginalization
Refugees
Fundamental deculturalisation
Image - Investment Climate
Security
Sectarianism: Christians and Alawites
Problems
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Greater Tripoli
• Unify and reorganize the master plan of the
Greater Tripoli Region: including green,
entertainment, industrial, and housing areas.
• Develop a comprehensive plan to revive the
downtown of Tripoli.
• Develop an urban rehabilitation program for the
deprived neighborhoods inside Tripoli, including
the touristic track in the old city.
• Establish a Development Plan for the urban
coastal zone.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Infrastructure and Equipment for Competitiveness
 Development of the harbor with a complementary
role to the Beirut Harbor
 Improvement and exploitation of technological
information network (E1)
 Tripoli Special Economic Zones:
-Klayaat (Akkar) Agro-food and Industrial facility
-Harbor: Car trade, dry-docks, industrial (mainly
recycling)
-Rachid Karame Fair: Technopole, ICT, Creative
industries, R&D, University
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Southern North Lebanon
• Invest in tourism: skiing, archeology, eco…
• Invest in agriculture and agro-food
• Create linkages with Tripoli
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Northern North Lebanon
•
•
•
•
Invest in Agriculture
Invest in ecotourism
Invest in Agro-food
Build a cluster of businesses around the Rene
Moawad Airpot and the special economic
zone in Akkar
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Education
• Strengthen technical schools and handcraft
professions based on the dual system
proposed by GIZ.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
SMEs and Business Clusters
• Develop Support Institutions for SMEs and
Entrepreneurs covering North Lebanon.
• Sectorial planning and support: Agriculture,
agro-food, ICT, eco-tourism, tourism,
manufacturing, recycling, construction,
education, health.
• Business and craft and professional
associations.
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
Strategy
Refugees??!!
• In Camps??
• Waiting for Godot? Lebanese ostrich strategy!
• If not could we integrate them in Public and
Private value creation??!!
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014
WHO????
• Central Government?
• Local Government / Decentralization??
• International Community?
• Civil Society?
• Mosques?
Tripoli an Environmental Scan and a Strategy, Fawaz Hamidi May, 2014

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