world history Chapter 9 section 3

10.4.2. Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England,
France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and
the United States.
10.5.5 Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman
government’s actions against Armenian citizens
How did European nations extend their
power into Muslim regions of the world?
By the 1700s, all of
the Muslim empires
in decline.
 Ottomans in Middle
 Safavids in Iran
 Mughals in India
Corruption were
In northern Africa, Usman dan
Fodio led the struggle to reform
Muslim practices
In the Sudan, Muhammad
Ahmad declared himself the
Mahdi, a religious savior
In Arabia, the Wahhabi wanted
to recapture purity and
simplicity of Islam’s original
Ottoman Empire
 Economic problems
 corruption
Ethnic revolts.
As the Ottoman
Empire crumbled,
Russia seized the
Dardanelles in order to
gain access to the
Mediterranean Sea.
 Britain tried to stop
1. As the Ottoman empire crumbled, Russia
plotted to seize the Bosporus and
Dardanelles in order to
 a. build a Berlin-to-Baghdad railway.
 b. gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.
 c. build a canal through Egypt.
 d. gain control of the Red Sea.
b. gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.
1. Young men were sent to the West to study,
they Western political ideas about democracy
and equality.
2. The reforms brought improved medical
care and revitalized farming
3. Several of the sultans, or rulers, of the
Ottoman Turkish Empire rejected the reforms
because they threatened their power.
1. In 1908, the Young
Turks overthrew the
sultan but were unable
to achieve their
reforms because of
WWI in 1914.
The Muslim Turks
accused Christian
Armenians of
supporting the Russian
plans against the
Ottoman empire.
 3. Over 25 years,
between 600,000 and
1.5 million Armenians
were killed
A. Muhammad Ali Introduces
 He is sometimes called the “father of
modern Egypt”
2. He made economic and
farming reforms
 3. Ali built a well-trained, modern
Ali successors were not
as successful
 Loans were taken out by
Ali successors to build
the Suez Canal.
 They were unable to pay
back the loans and
Britain eventually gained
control of the canal.
 Egypt Became a British
Persia (Iran) faced
several challenges in
the 1800s.
 It was an absolute
 Russian and Britain took
over their oil fields
 Persian nationalists were
outraged and wanted
them to leave
The End

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