Close Reading and Text Dependent Questions

Report
CLOSE READING AND TEXT
DEPENDENT QUESTIONS
Presented by:
Kelly Philbeck
Instructional Shifts Required
by the Common Core
 Increasing rigor and relevance
 Sharing responsibility of teaching reading and writing across
content areas
 Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and
informational text
 Reading, writing, speaking and listening grounded in evidence
from texts
 Practicing regularly with complex text and its academic
vocabulary
 Emphasizing 3 modes of academic writing
05/30/13
2
What is Close Reading?
Methodical investigation of a complex text
through…
Answering text-dependent questions
 Unpacking the text’s meaning
 Directing students to:

examine and analyze text at a deep level of critical
thinking
 focus on word/sentence meaning
 focus on development of events and ideas
 extract evidence from the text
 make non-trivial inferences based on what they have
read

Close Reading and the CCSS

Anchor Standards for Reading

Prioritize close reading skills of:
Extracting evidence (Standard 1)
 Making inferences (Standard 1)
 Reading complex text (Standard 10)
 Determining central idea/theme (Standard 2)
 Building knowledge by comparing two or more texts
(Standard 9)
 Citing evidence to support conclusions (1 & 10)

Close Reading
Dr. Douglas Fisher
Close Reading and the CCSS, Part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5w9v6zUg3Y&feature=relmfu
Close Reading
Dr. Douglas Fisher
Close Reading and the CCSS, Part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=JhGI5zdjp
vc&feature=endscreen
Why Depth through
“Close Reading” Matters
Close reading instruction:
Requires careful attention to how
the text unfolds through asking
text-dependent questions.
Focuses on building knowledge
through the strategic use of textdependent questions.
Can prepare students for the kinds
of reading tasks they will
encounter after graduation.
Despite its name, close reading
has a lot more to do with writing
than reading! (Fisher)
What Makes Text Complex?
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Vocabulary: Knowledge of word meaning
Sentence Structure: How the words operate together
Coherence: How particular words, ideas, and
sentences in text connect with one another
Organization: The patterns authors use to
communicate complex information
Background Knowledge: The reader’s prior
knowledge
Educational Leadership, March 2012
The Challenge of Challenging Text
Timothy Shanahan, Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey
Key Shift in CCSS from 4.1
A
Text
Dependent
Approach
Elements of Close Reading Instruction
Instruction should…
 Focus on words, sentences, paragraphs that pose
the biggest challenge to confidence, comprehension,
and stamina
 Ask text dependent questions that require students
to closely examine the text
 Ask students to make inferences based on evidence
beyond what is explicitly stated
 Pay close attention to a variety of text structures
Elements of Close Reading Instruction
A teacher should…
 Focus on a sequential/integrated line of inquiry
 Synthesize and organize evidence, demonstrating
understanding both orally and through writing
 Become aware of nuances in word meaning
AND
 Acquire knowledge of general academic
vocabulary to understand a range of complex
texts
What are Text-Dependent Questions?
Text-dependent questions:
Draw the reader back to the
text to discover what it
says.
Have concrete and explicit
answers rooted in the text.
Frame inquiries in ways
that do not rely on a mix of
personal opinion,
background information,
and imaginative
speculation.
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
Text Dependent Questions

Characteristics:
 Questions
must originate from the text itself
 Questions focus on a word, sentence, paragraph(s)
 Open, not leading questions
 Provide learning opportunity for students
 Require thought/discussion about the question (no right
answer immediately provided)
 Cause students to linger over portions of the text,
looking for specific answers, not just “getting the gist”
Which of these books would you rather
read? Why?
Rigorous Text-Dependent Questions
should not be…
Low-level, literal, or recall questions
“right there” questions
Focused on comprehension strategies
Just questions…
Text Dependent Questions…
Can be used to…
 Identify key ideas in complex text
Should cause students to think at higher levels by…
 Make logical inferences
 Draw conclusions
 Engage in arguments based on what the text syas
Non-Examples and Examples
Not Text-Dependent
In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes
out. Describe a time when you failed at
something.
In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr.
King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss,
in writing, a time when you wanted to
fight against something that you felt was
unfair.
In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln
says the nation is dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created
equal. Why is equality an important
value to promote?
Text-Dependent
What makes Casey’s experiences at bat
humorous?
What can you infer from King’s letter
about the letter that he received?

“The Gettysburg Address” mentions the
year 1776. According to Lincoln’s
speech, why is this year significant to the
events described in the speech?

Close Reading of a Sample Text
What did you do as a “Close Reader”
when you read the excerpt from
?
Reflect on this question then explain to
an elbow partner how you could teach
this skill to your students.
Moves from
literal to
interpretive
Requires students to
return to the text to
formulate responses
Text-dependent Questioning
(Another Specialized Piece of Equipment)
Why Ask Text Dependent Questions

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80 to 90% of the ELA Reading Standards in each grade level
require text dependent analysis
One of the first and most important steps to implementing the
ELA Common Core Standards is to focus on identifying,
evaluating, and creating text-dependent questions
Deep Reading, the kind encouraged by the common core
standards, asks students to “read like a detective”, looking
closely for details
Rather than asking students questions about their prior
knowledge or experiences, the standards expect students to
struggle with text-dependent questions
www.achievethecore.org/steal-these-tools/text-dependent-questions
80-90% of (CCSS) reading
standards require text-dependent
analysis yet over 30% of questions
in major textbooks do not.
Sue Pimentel, Lead Author of Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy
22
Inferences
Probe each argument in persuasive
each idea in informational
text,
text, each
key detail in literary text, and observe
how these build to a whole.
Non-Text Dependent Questions
Examples from Alice in Wonderland:
 Are books without pictures or conversations useful?
 How would you react if you saw a talking rabbit?
 Would Alice have followed the rabbit down the hole
if she had not seen it look at a watch?
 What do you know about Lewis Carroll?
Text Dependent Questions

What kind of books does Alice find useful?

How did Alice react when she saw a talking rabbit?

Why did Alice follow the rabbit down the hole?

What does the reader know about the rabbit?
Differences in Depth:
Text versus Non-Text-Dependent Questions
Non-Text-Dependent
Questions
Are books without pictures or
conversations useful?
How would you react if you
saw a talking rabbit?
Would Alice have followed the
rabbit down the hole had she
not seen it look at a watch?
What do you know about
Lewis Carroll?
Text-Dependent Questions
What kind of books does Alice
find useful?
How did Alice react when she
saw a talking rabbit?
Why did Alice follow the
rabbit down the rabbit-hole?
What does the reader know
about the rabbit?
Text Dependent Questions

Do NOT rely on…
Personal opinion
Background information
Imaginative speculation
Text Dependent Questions…
Require students to engage with text at
higher levels.
 Discover answers by extracting evidence
from the text.
 Are CCSS aligned questions (mirror CCSS
aligned assessments).

Text Dependent Questions
Level of Text Specificity
Word/Phrase
Sentence
Paragraph
CCSS Anchor Standard
Close Reading Skill
Analyze how specific word
choices shape tone
(Standard 4)
Assess how point of view
shapes content
(Standard 6)
Summarize key supporting
details (Standard 2)
Text Dependent Question
Why wasn’t Alice “burning
with curiosity” when she
initially saw the rabbit?
What events led her to
feeling this way?
In the opening paragraph,
Alice states “what is the use
of a book…without pictures
or conversation?” What
does that sentence reveal
about her?
Around which word or
phrase does the meaning
of the third paragraph
pivot? Explain w/evidence.
Text Dependent Questions and CCSS
• Determine ideas or themes and analyze their development(Standard 2)
• Summarize key supporting details and ideas (Standard 2)
• Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and
interact (Standard 3)
• Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone (Standard 4)
• Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and
phrases (Standard 4)
• Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics
(Standard 9)
• Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style
(Standard 6)
• Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats
(Standard 7)
• Assess the validity of the reasoning (Standard 8)
• Assess the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence (Standard 8)
9-10
6-8
4-5
2-3
K-1
Standard Ten
Standards Two through Nine
Increasing Range and Complexity
11CCR
Standard One
Increased Ability to Use Text Evidence
Bands
Bands
11CCR
9-10
6-8
4-5
2-3
K-1
31
Progression of
Text-dependent Questions
Whole
Across texts
Opinions, Arguments,
Intertextual Connections
Inferences
Entire text
Author’s Purpose
Segments
Vocab & Text Structure
Paragraph
Key Details
Sentence
Word
General Understandings
Part
Framing Text Dependent
Questions
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Why did the author choose a particular word?
Analyze the impact of syntax of a sentence
Collect evidence
Test comprehension of key ideas/arguments
Analyze how portions of the text relate to each
other and the whole
Look for pivot points in a paragraph
Track down patterns in a text
Notice what is missing or understood
Investigate beginnings and endings of a text
Guidelines for Creating
Text-Dependent Questions
Step One: Identify the core understandings and key ideas of
the text. (with standards/learning targets in mind)
Step Two: Start small to build confidence.
Step Three: Target vocabulary and text structure.
Step Four: Tackle tough sections head-on.
Step Five: Create coherent sequences of text-dependent
questions.
Step Six: Identify the standards that are being addressed.
Step Seven: Create the culminating assessment.
“Close Reading” of a Stand-Alone Text
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
Tools for Creating Text-Dependent Questions:
Text-Dependent Question Worksheet
A systematic
approach to
creating textdependent
questions for
complex texts
while aligning
them with the
demands of the
CCSS.
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
Activity
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Read the opening of Brian Lies’ Bats at the Beach
With a partner, write one Text-Dependent Question for
each stanza aligned to a CCSS anchor standard
Share your question with others at your table
Evaluate your TDQ based on the samples provided
Creating Text-Dependent Questions for
Informational Text
From Martin Luther
King’s author’s
note “Letter from
Birmingham Jail”
What words gave you some
meaning to this text?
Creating Text-Dependent Questions for
Informational Text
From Martin Luther King’s note
to “Letter from Birmingham Jail”:
Begun on the margins of the
newspaper in which the
statement appeared while I was
in jail, the letter was continued
on scraps of writing paper
supplied by a friendly Negro
trusty, and concluded on a pad
my attorneys were eventually
permitted to leave me.
Creating Text-Dependent Questions for
Informational Text
From Martin Luther King’s note
to “Letter from Birmingham Jail”:
Begun on the margins of the
newspaper in which the
statement appeared while I was
in jail, the letter was continued
on scraps of writing paper
supplied by a friendly Negro
trusty, and concluded on a pad
my attorneys were eventually
permitted to leave me.
Creating Text-Dependent Questions for
Informational Text
From Martin Luther King’s note to
“Letter from Birmingham Jail”:
Begun on the margins of the
newspaper in which the statement
appeared while I was in jail, the
letter was continued on scraps of
writing paper supplied by a
friendly Negro trusty, and
concluded on a pad my attorneys
were eventually permitted to leave
me.
“Letter from Birmingham Jail”
demonstrates that:
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An effective text dependent question delves into a
text to guide students in extracting the key meanings
or ideas and events found there.
Text dependent questions begin by exploring specific
words, details, explanations and arguments.
Teachers investigate the text through utilizing the
Anchor and/or Grade-level Reading Standards to
generate the question.
Text Dependent Question
Write your own Text-Dependent
Question for the MKL piece.
Writing Text Dependent Questions

Practice with your own texts.
Beware of Basals!!
Text-Dependent Questions and Basal Readers
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Basal reading programs by the four major
publishers comprise 80% of all the texts used in
elementary and middle school
Most of these texts rely heavily on non-text based
pre-reading activities that “digest and regurgitate”
the primary text and eliminate the need for close
reading…
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
Text-Dependent Questions and Basal
Readers


… which wouldn’t be necessary anyway since
most of these basal readers include a high
proportion of non-text dependent questions
(including the writing prompts for basal texts)…
… and required students to perform multiple
tasks that are irrelevant to understanding the text
being read (i.e. focus on using comprehension
strategies as an end in themselves)
Because of Winn Dixie—Examples of
Non-Text Dependent Questions
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Was there ever a time where an animal scared
you? (Personal experience)
Can bears really eat people? (Imaginative
speculation)
Will Opal and Amanda ever be friends? (Opinion)
Explain how reading this story made you feel
about visiting a library? (Background knowledge
and personal experience)
TDQ: Beware of Basals

As you read this story, what do you think about plants and animals in Florida?
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How can an older woman make her library safe from unwanted visitors?
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This author has won prizes for her books. Why? Find a part of this story you think
could win a prize. –- This of course asks the student to have a grasp of the criteria
that publishers use in awarding prizes
In Because of Winn-Dixie, Opal tells about her experiences after moving to a new
town. Think about a time that you were a newcomer to a place or situation. Now use
vivid words to write a memoir about that experience. --- In addition to having very
little to do with the selection this question assumes that all 4th or 5th graders have
had that experience. More insidiously and as with all these questions it privileges
students who have discussed these types of questions with adults- usually children
from more educated families.
Tools for Creating Text-Dependent Questions:
Basal Reader Review Worksheet
A systematic
approach to
revising Basal
reader
questions to
align them with
the demands of
the CCSS.
© 2012 The Aspen Institute
Text Dependent Questions
Looking at Pictures and Graphics
What does “Fix-it-up” mean?
Based on the picture? What is BB
Wolf planning to do?
Why was Stellaluna embarrassed?
Which of these books would you rather
read? Why?
Based on the covers of the books, what
is the mood/tone of each book?
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www.kellyphilbeck.com
[email protected]

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