PPT - IPDAE

Report
WRITING ABOUT READING:
PREPARING FOR THE 2014 GED® TEST
Presenters: Bonnie Goonen
Susan Pittman-Shetler
Objectives
• Discuss the next generation GED® assessment with
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emphasis on Reasoning through Language Arts and
extended and short answer responses
Recognize the need for integrating reading and writing
Use graphic organizers to develop constructed responses
Discuss need for standard English conventions
Understand where adult education writing instruction is
today and where it must be to meet the challenges of the
college and career ready standards
3
A Quick Update
New Realities
What will the 2014 GED® test look like?
• Reasoning through Language Arts: 3 hours – including
10 minute break (1 extended responses; 2 short
answer responses)
• Mathematical Reasoning: 1.25 hours
• Science: 1.25 hours (2 short answer responses)
• Social Studies : 1.5 hours (1 extended response
answer)
A Quick Update
The Next Generation GED® Assessment
• Format
• Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 1
• Assessment targets
• Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 2
• Information on writing rubric and scoring
• Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 3
GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They may not be
used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED® and GED Testing
Service® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American Council on Education..
2014 GED® test Item Types
• Extended Response
• Short Answer
• Technology-Enhanced Items
• Drag-and-drop
• Drop-down selection items
• Hot spot
• Cloze
• Fill-in-the-blank
• Multiple choice
Reasoning through Language Arts
A focus on:
• 75% informational texts, 25% literature
• Academic, workforce, and literary contexts
• A range of text complexity, including texts at the CCR
level
• Text length of 450 to 900 words
• Vocabulary, with emphasis on words that appear
frequently in a wide variety of disciplines
• (e.g., relative, vary, formulate, specificity, accumulate, calibrate, itemize,
periphery, misfortune, dignified, faltered, unabashedly)
• Shift towards “writing about reading” tasks
Then . . .
and Now
2002 Essay Prompt
2014 Extended Response
What is one important goal
you would like to achieve in
the next few years?
While Dr. Silverton’s speech
outlines the benefits of cloud
seeding, the editorial identifies
drawbacks of this process.
In your essay, identify that one
goal and explain how you plan
to achieve it. Use your
personal observations,
experience, and knowledge to
support your essay.
In your response, analyze both
the speech and the editorial to
determine which position is
best supported. Use relevant
and specific evidence from
both sources to support your
response.
Multi-trait Scoring Rubric
Candidate responses will be scored
based on three elements:
• Trait 1: Analysis of arguments and
use of evidence
• Trait 2: Development of ideas and
structure
• Trait 3: Clarity and command of
standard English conventions
Reasoning through Language Arts
What students will need to do
• Read closely multiple text(s)
• Determine what is explicitly stated
• Make logical inferences based on evidence
• Assess and present valid argument(s) with evidence from
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the source text(s)
Cite relevant, specific, and sufficient evidence
Establish effective organizational structure
Include appropriate ideas and word choice to support the
main ideas
Demonstrate clarity and command of standard English
conventions
Reasoning through Language Arts
What students will need to do
• Read closely text that
• Is more complex
• Is greater in length
• Determine what is explicitly stated
• Make logical inferences based on evidence
• Make inferences about characters
Reasoning through Language Arts
What students will need to do
• Demonstrate command of conventions of
standard English
• Recognize the errors in the responses that are
not correct
• Identify option that is grammatically correct
• Edit to eliminate run-on sentences, fused
sentences, or sentence fragments
The Task Ahead – Integrating Writing and Reading
What Am I
Teaching Now?
My Concerns
Steps I Can Take
Recognizing the Challenges Ahead
• Rigorous content
• Based on college and career ready skills
• Evidence-based writing
• Two extended responses (Reasoning through English Language Arts
and Social Studies)
• Four short answer responses (Reasoning through English Language
Arts and Science)
• Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model
• Cognitive complexity vs. difficulty
• Integration of technology
• Use of word processing for writing
What We Know
• The better a student understands the text
structure, the better the reading comprehension
• Reading & writing are integrally related
• Writing cements knowledge
• Comprehension and learning increase in
collaborative settings
Evidence-based practices for teaching
writing include:
• Teaching strategies for planning, revising,
and editing
• Having students write summaries of texts
• Permitting students to write collaboratively with
peers
• Setting goals for student writing
• Allowing students to use a word processor
Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011)
Evidence-based practices for teaching
writing include:
• Teaching sentence combining skills
• Using the process writing approach
• Having students participate in inquiry activities
for writing
• Involving students in prewriting activities
• Providing models of good writing
Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011)
Strategy Instruction
Summarization (6 Rules)
• Delete unnecessary material
• Delete redundant material
• Compose a word to replace a list of items
• Compose a word to replace individual parts of an action
• Select a topic sentence
• Invent a topic sentence if need be
Peer Assistance/Collaboration
Have students work together to plan, draft, and/or revise
their compositions.
Setting Product Goals
Assign students specific goals for the written product they
are to complete.
Word Processing
Have students use word processing and related software to
write.
Sentence Combining
Teach students to construct more complex and
sophisticated sentences through exercises where two or
more basic sentences are combined into a single sentence.
Process Approach
Provide students with
• extended opportunities for writing
• cycles of planning, translating, and reviewing
• personal responsibility and ownership
• high levels of student interactions
• a supportive writing environment
• self-reflection and evaluation
• personalized individual assistance and
instruction, as well as a systematic approach
to writing when needed.
Inquiry
Engage students in activities that help them develop ideas
and content for a particular writing task by analyzing
immediate and concrete data (e.g., comparing and
contrasting cases or collecting and evaluating evidence).
Example of Inquiry:
• Goal – Describe the action of people
• Analyze Data – Observe one or more peers during
specific activities
• Specific Strategies – Ask the people observed why they
did what they did
• Apply – Write based on insights
Pre-Writing Activities
Engage students in
activities (such as using a
semantic web or
brainstorming ideas)
designed to help them
generate or organize ideas
for their composition.
Writing as a Tool for Learning
Have students use writing as a tool for learning content
material.
Study of Models
Provide students with good writing examples and have
them examine one or more specific types of text and
attempt to emulate the patterns or forms in these examples
in their own writing.
Don’t Forget That Once Is Not Enough!
When teaching a new strategy, it is important to
• Activate background knowledge
• Discuss the strategy
• Model the strategy
• Have students memorize the steps for the strategy
• Support students are learning to implement (scaffolding)
• Establish independent practice to gain mastery (practice
makes perfect)
Let’s Start with the Sentence!
What is sentence combining?
• It is the act of making one smoother, more
detailed sentence out of two or more short,
choppy sentences.
• Example:
• There was silence.
• The silence was awkward.
• The silence was long.
Combined: There was a long, awkward silence.
A Few Ways to Combine Sentences
• Use a series of words or phrases
• Use compound subjects and compound verbs
• Use a key word (move a word between sentences)
• Ex. I am going to meet the president. I will meet him tomorrow.
Tomorrow, I am going to meet the president.
• Use phrases (prepositional, participle, infinitive, and
appositive phrases)
• Use compound sentences
• Use complex sentences
It’s Your Turn!
• A sports car screamed around the corner.
• The sports car was red.
• It screeched to a stop in front of the doors.
• The doors led into the hospital.
• The fire-red sports car screamed around the corner and
screeched to a stop in front of the hospital emergency
room.
• Screaming around the corner, the fire-red sports car
screeched to a stop in front of the hospital’s emergency
room door.
It’s Your Turn!
Sentence 1
• Meditation can help you relax.
• Meditation is a technique.
• The technique can be learned.
Sentence 2
• Nina applied for a job.
• Nina needed to earn money.
• Nina is a hard worker.
It’s Your Turn!
• Drunkenness leads to 30 to 50 percent of all arrests
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made.
The arrests are on the average.
The average is national.
Cirrhosis ranks sixth.
The ranking is causes of death.
Cirrhosis is a disease.
The disease affects the liver.
Alcohol causes cirrhosis.
How About an Essay?
I have a unique experience in teaching. I am a driving school instructor. I
present life saving information. I present this information to people who
would rather not be taught. This situation provides unique challenges.
In teaching, I have a standardized curriculum. In order to present the
material effectively, I must tailor it to the class. I speak to each class
member. I do this in an attempt to put them at ease. I have found that the
more comfortable the student is, the more willing they are to learn.
The material I present is invaluable. The information can be lifesaving. I
present various laws and customs. Most importantly, I show how the
violation of the traffic laws can end the driver’s life. My goal is not to scare
my students. My goal is to educate my students. I show them how a simple
traffic citation could prevent disaster.
Finally, I learn a great deal teaching. I learn how to organize and present a
lesson plan. I take notice and use students’ attitudes and movements. I use
this to present the information in a way that the student will be interested. If
they are interested, they will learn.
Writing about Reading
Students must be able to . . .
Discern the most important ideas, events, or
information, and summarize them accurately
and concisely.
Determine when, where, and why events unfold
in the text, and explain how they relate to
one another.
GED® 2002 Sample Writing Prompt
If you could make one positive change in your
daily life, what would that change be?
In your response, identify the change that you
would make and the reasons for making that
change. In your response include evidence that
supports the reason for your selection.
What-Why-How
What? This is the author’s opinion/point-of-view. (What does the author think about the topic?)
_______________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why?
How?
This is the author’s reasons/rationale for thinking a
certain way.
This is the author’s support, evidence, and/or examples for
each reason.
What-Why-How
What? This is the author’s opinion/point-of-view. (What does the author think about the topic?)
_______________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why?
How?
This is the author’s reasons/rationale for thinking a
certain way.
This is the author’s support, evidence, and/or examples for
each reason.
What Do You Think?
What do you think? This is the your opinion based on
your personal knowledge, as well as what you have read.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why do you think it?
How do you know?
Why do you think it?
Examples, explanations, evidence
Different Settings – Same Practice
Cancel that gymnastics class, mom and dad. And think twice about those evening karate
lessons. Signing your kids up for everything under the sun may seem like a smart move. But
chances are that little Johnny and Janey are over-scheduled.
In a recent study, researchers at the University of Minnesota analyzed how kids spend their
time and discovered that today’s youngsters are significantly busier—as much as 57% busier in
some cases— than their parents were at the same age a generation ago. Of course, there’s
nothing wrong with getting kids out of the house to burn off energy. It’s also great for kids to try
new activities and learn new skills. However, today’s parents tend to overdo it.
Raising an active and engaged child may seem like good parenting. But many parents put too
much structure on kids’ activities. And kids miss out on unstructured play as a result. “Play is a
key element in how children learn about themselves and the world,” said Dr. Martin Applebaum,
noted child psychologist, in his recent book entitled The Health of America’s Children.
Play helps children grow intellectually and socially. But kids today are so busy, many have only
a few hours a week to partake of this essential activity. More importantly, Applebaum says, “If
we don’t restore some balance to our children’s lives, we may see future increases in mental
health issues like depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.” There’s no doubt that
children benefit from structured activities. But when we fill every hour of their lives with an
endless string of commitments, we may be taking something from them they’ll never get back:
their childhood.
What Do You Think?
What do you think? This is the your opinion based on
your personal knowledge, as well as what you have read.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why do you think it?
How do you know?
Why do you think it?
Examples, explanations, evidence
Let’s Revisit the Task Ahead – Integrating
Writing and Reading
What Am I
Teaching Now
My Concerns
The Difference Begins with Me! I will . . .
1.
2.
3.
Steps I Can Take
Upcoming Events:
Go to http://www.floridatechnet.org for future
professional development opportunities:
• Regional Trainings in the areas of
• Reasoning through Language Arts
• Mathematical Reasoning
• Webinars
• Videos on Instructional Strategies
• Materials and more!
Thank you for your participation!
Presenters: Bonnie Goonen – [email protected]
Susan Pittman-Shetler – [email protected]
GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They
may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED®
and GED Testing Service® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American
Council on Education.

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