WRITING ABOUT READING: PREPARING FOR THE 2014 GED® TEST Presenters: Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman-Shetler Objectives • Discuss the next generation GED® assessment with • • • • emphasis on Reasoning through Language Arts and extended and short answer responses Recognize the need for integrating reading and writing Use graphic organizers to develop constructed responses Discuss need for standard English conventions Understand where adult education writing instruction is today and where it must be to meet the challenges of the college and career ready standards 3 A Quick Update New Realities What will the 2014 GED® test look like? • Reasoning through Language Arts: 3 hours – including 10 minute break (1 extended responses; 2 short answer responses) • Mathematical Reasoning: 1.25 hours • Science: 1.25 hours (2 short answer responses) • Social Studies : 1.5 hours (1 extended response answer) A Quick Update The Next Generation GED® Assessment • Format • Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 1 • Assessment targets • Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 2 • Information on writing rubric and scoring • Assessment Guide for Educators, Chapter 3 GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED® and GED Testing Service® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American Council on Education.. 2014 GED® test Item Types • Extended Response • Short Answer • Technology-Enhanced Items • Drag-and-drop • Drop-down selection items • Hot spot • Cloze • Fill-in-the-blank • Multiple choice Reasoning through Language Arts A focus on: • 75% informational texts, 25% literature • Academic, workforce, and literary contexts • A range of text complexity, including texts at the CCR level • Text length of 450 to 900 words • Vocabulary, with emphasis on words that appear frequently in a wide variety of disciplines • (e.g., relative, vary, formulate, specificity, accumulate, calibrate, itemize, periphery, misfortune, dignified, faltered, unabashedly) • Shift towards “writing about reading” tasks Then . . . and Now 2002 Essay Prompt 2014 Extended Response What is one important goal you would like to achieve in the next few years? While Dr. Silverton’s speech outlines the benefits of cloud seeding, the editorial identifies drawbacks of this process. In your essay, identify that one goal and explain how you plan to achieve it. Use your personal observations, experience, and knowledge to support your essay. In your response, analyze both the speech and the editorial to determine which position is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from both sources to support your response. Multi-trait Scoring Rubric Candidate responses will be scored based on three elements: • Trait 1: Analysis of arguments and use of evidence • Trait 2: Development of ideas and structure • Trait 3: Clarity and command of standard English conventions Reasoning through Language Arts What students will need to do • Read closely multiple text(s) • Determine what is explicitly stated • Make logical inferences based on evidence • Assess and present valid argument(s) with evidence from • • • • the source text(s) Cite relevant, specific, and sufficient evidence Establish effective organizational structure Include appropriate ideas and word choice to support the main ideas Demonstrate clarity and command of standard English conventions Reasoning through Language Arts What students will need to do • Read closely text that • Is more complex • Is greater in length • Determine what is explicitly stated • Make logical inferences based on evidence • Make inferences about characters Reasoning through Language Arts What students will need to do • Demonstrate command of conventions of standard English • Recognize the errors in the responses that are not correct • Identify option that is grammatically correct • Edit to eliminate run-on sentences, fused sentences, or sentence fragments The Task Ahead – Integrating Writing and Reading What Am I Teaching Now? My Concerns Steps I Can Take Recognizing the Challenges Ahead • Rigorous content • Based on college and career ready skills • Evidence-based writing • Two extended responses (Reasoning through English Language Arts and Social Studies) • Four short answer responses (Reasoning through English Language Arts and Science) • Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model • Cognitive complexity vs. difficulty • Integration of technology • Use of word processing for writing What We Know • The better a student understands the text structure, the better the reading comprehension • Reading & writing are integrally related • Writing cements knowledge • Comprehension and learning increase in collaborative settings Evidence-based practices for teaching writing include: • Teaching strategies for planning, revising, and editing • Having students write summaries of texts • Permitting students to write collaboratively with peers • Setting goals for student writing • Allowing students to use a word processor Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011) Evidence-based practices for teaching writing include: • Teaching sentence combining skills • Using the process writing approach • Having students participate in inquiry activities for writing • Involving students in prewriting activities • Providing models of good writing Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011) Strategy Instruction Summarization (6 Rules) • Delete unnecessary material • Delete redundant material • Compose a word to replace a list of items • Compose a word to replace individual parts of an action • Select a topic sentence • Invent a topic sentence if need be Peer Assistance/Collaboration Have students work together to plan, draft, and/or revise their compositions. Setting Product Goals Assign students specific goals for the written product they are to complete. Word Processing Have students use word processing and related software to write. Sentence Combining Teach students to construct more complex and sophisticated sentences through exercises where two or more basic sentences are combined into a single sentence. Process Approach Provide students with • extended opportunities for writing • cycles of planning, translating, and reviewing • personal responsibility and ownership • high levels of student interactions • a supportive writing environment • self-reflection and evaluation • personalized individual assistance and instruction, as well as a systematic approach to writing when needed. Inquiry Engage students in activities that help them develop ideas and content for a particular writing task by analyzing immediate and concrete data (e.g., comparing and contrasting cases or collecting and evaluating evidence). Example of Inquiry: • Goal – Describe the action of people • Analyze Data – Observe one or more peers during specific activities • Specific Strategies – Ask the people observed why they did what they did • Apply – Write based on insights Pre-Writing Activities Engage students in activities (such as using a semantic web or brainstorming ideas) designed to help them generate or organize ideas for their composition. Writing as a Tool for Learning Have students use writing as a tool for learning content material. Study of Models Provide students with good writing examples and have them examine one or more specific types of text and attempt to emulate the patterns or forms in these examples in their own writing. Don’t Forget That Once Is Not Enough! When teaching a new strategy, it is important to • Activate background knowledge • Discuss the strategy • Model the strategy • Have students memorize the steps for the strategy • Support students are learning to implement (scaffolding) • Establish independent practice to gain mastery (practice makes perfect) Let’s Start with the Sentence! What is sentence combining? • It is the act of making one smoother, more detailed sentence out of two or more short, choppy sentences. • Example: • There was silence. • The silence was awkward. • The silence was long. Combined: There was a long, awkward silence. A Few Ways to Combine Sentences • Use a series of words or phrases • Use compound subjects and compound verbs • Use a key word (move a word between sentences) • Ex. I am going to meet the president. I will meet him tomorrow. Tomorrow, I am going to meet the president. • Use phrases (prepositional, participle, infinitive, and appositive phrases) • Use compound sentences • Use complex sentences It’s Your Turn! • A sports car screamed around the corner. • The sports car was red. • It screeched to a stop in front of the doors. • The doors led into the hospital. • The fire-red sports car screamed around the corner and screeched to a stop in front of the hospital emergency room. • Screaming around the corner, the fire-red sports car screeched to a stop in front of the hospital’s emergency room door. It’s Your Turn! Sentence 1 • Meditation can help you relax. • Meditation is a technique. • The technique can be learned. Sentence 2 • Nina applied for a job. • Nina needed to earn money. • Nina is a hard worker. It’s Your Turn! • Drunkenness leads to 30 to 50 percent of all arrests • • • • • • • made. The arrests are on the average. The average is national. Cirrhosis ranks sixth. The ranking is causes of death. Cirrhosis is a disease. The disease affects the liver. Alcohol causes cirrhosis. How About an Essay? I have a unique experience in teaching. I am a driving school instructor. I present life saving information. I present this information to people who would rather not be taught. This situation provides unique challenges. In teaching, I have a standardized curriculum. In order to present the material effectively, I must tailor it to the class. I speak to each class member. I do this in an attempt to put them at ease. I have found that the more comfortable the student is, the more willing they are to learn. The material I present is invaluable. The information can be lifesaving. I present various laws and customs. Most importantly, I show how the violation of the traffic laws can end the driver’s life. My goal is not to scare my students. My goal is to educate my students. I show them how a simple traffic citation could prevent disaster. Finally, I learn a great deal teaching. I learn how to organize and present a lesson plan. I take notice and use students’ attitudes and movements. I use this to present the information in a way that the student will be interested. If they are interested, they will learn. Writing about Reading Students must be able to . . . Discern the most important ideas, events, or information, and summarize them accurately and concisely. Determine when, where, and why events unfold in the text, and explain how they relate to one another. GED® 2002 Sample Writing Prompt If you could make one positive change in your daily life, what would that change be? In your response, identify the change that you would make and the reasons for making that change. In your response include evidence that supports the reason for your selection. What-Why-How What? This is the author’s opinion/point-of-view. (What does the author think about the topic?) _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why? How? This is the author’s reasons/rationale for thinking a certain way. This is the author’s support, evidence, and/or examples for each reason. What-Why-How What? This is the author’s opinion/point-of-view. (What does the author think about the topic?) _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why? How? This is the author’s reasons/rationale for thinking a certain way. This is the author’s support, evidence, and/or examples for each reason. What Do You Think? What do you think? This is the your opinion based on your personal knowledge, as well as what you have read. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why do you think it? How do you know? Why do you think it? Examples, explanations, evidence Different Settings – Same Practice Cancel that gymnastics class, mom and dad. And think twice about those evening karate lessons. Signing your kids up for everything under the sun may seem like a smart move. But chances are that little Johnny and Janey are over-scheduled. In a recent study, researchers at the University of Minnesota analyzed how kids spend their time and discovered that today’s youngsters are significantly busier—as much as 57% busier in some cases— than their parents were at the same age a generation ago. Of course, there’s nothing wrong with getting kids out of the house to burn off energy. It’s also great for kids to try new activities and learn new skills. However, today’s parents tend to overdo it. Raising an active and engaged child may seem like good parenting. But many parents put too much structure on kids’ activities. And kids miss out on unstructured play as a result. “Play is a key element in how children learn about themselves and the world,” said Dr. Martin Applebaum, noted child psychologist, in his recent book entitled The Health of America’s Children. Play helps children grow intellectually and socially. But kids today are so busy, many have only a few hours a week to partake of this essential activity. More importantly, Applebaum says, “If we don’t restore some balance to our children’s lives, we may see future increases in mental health issues like depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.” There’s no doubt that children benefit from structured activities. But when we fill every hour of their lives with an endless string of commitments, we may be taking something from them they’ll never get back: their childhood. What Do You Think? What do you think? This is the your opinion based on your personal knowledge, as well as what you have read. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why do you think it? How do you know? Why do you think it? Examples, explanations, evidence Let’s Revisit the Task Ahead – Integrating Writing and Reading What Am I Teaching Now My Concerns The Difference Begins with Me! I will . . . 1. 2. 3. Steps I Can Take Upcoming Events: Go to http://www.floridatechnet.org for future professional development opportunities: • Regional Trainings in the areas of • Reasoning through Language Arts • Mathematical Reasoning • Webinars • Videos on Instructional Strategies • Materials and more! Thank you for your participation! Presenters: Bonnie Goonen – [email protected] Susan Pittman-Shetler – [email protected] GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED® and GED Testing Service® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American Council on Education.