Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior for Classroom Practices Litigation of IQ Assessment Intellectual Functioning • “General intellectual functioning" – Typically measured by an intelligence test (IQ) – Persons with mental retardation usually score 70 or below on such tests (or at least 2 standard deviations below the mean on the normal curve). IQ Testing • Intelligence Quotient – Score derived from several standardized tests – Designed to assess intelligence. Adaptive Behavior • "Adaptive behavior" – refers to a person's adjustment to everyday life – Also refers to an individual’s ability to meet social requirements of his or her community that are appropriate for his or her chronological age – It is an indication of independence and social competency. Classroom Support • The 4 Levels of Intensities and Supports (from least to most intensive and supportive) – Intermittent – Limited – Extensive – Pervasive Classroom Strategies • Allow for many breaks throughout the school day. • Children with MR may require time to relax and unwind. • Always speak directly to the child so he can see you-Never speak with your back to him. • Assign jobs in the classroom for the child so that he can feel success and accomplishment. • Build a foundation of success by providing a series of short and simple assignments. • Encourage interaction with other children. http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles/13506.aspx. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale • Comprehensive testing of the following – Communication – Daily living skills – Socialization – Motor skills – Maladaptive behavior http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/medicalinterventions/g/adptbehvrdeffin.htm. Larry P. v. Riles • Landmark case tried in US Court of Appeals, 1984 • Issue: CA placed children in special classes – Used standard I.Q testing to place 6 black schoolchildren – Children identified as mentally retarded (EMR) • IQ testing only criterion used • Children placed in special class http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf Larry P. v. Riles • Educable mentally retarded – Labeled as incapable of being educated – Used as evaluation method by CA schools – Based on IQ standard IQ testing http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf Larry P. v. Riles • Involved parties – Larry P., Plaintiff • Young black boy + 5 other classmates with EMR • Claimed IQ tests biased • Violated 14th amendment rights – California school system, Defendant • Case reasoning – Larry P. argued that children had been placed incorrectly in EMR classrooms Grant, P. (1992). Using special education to destroy Black boys. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 17-21. Larry P. v. Riles • Main points of disagreement – CA placed children only on basis of IQ scores • IQ tests not validated for black students – Larry P. claimed that IQ testing discriminatory • Majority of labeled as EMR were black – 1968-1969, 9% of CA state school population → black – Made up 27% of EMR group http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf Larry P. v. Riles • Outcomes – Court ruled • IQ tests culturally inappropriate for black children • Banned CA school system from using IQ tests for blacks • Required a different evaluation system • Demanded CA keep records of students enrolled in EMR classrooms, including racial data • Demanded CA prove reasoning for black students to be labeled EMR http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf Larry P. v. Riles • Implications for today – Tests given to evaluate minority children be validated for given population – Gives legal precedent for outlawing the use of cultural bias as evaluation method Gill, W. (1992). Helping African-American males: The cure. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 31-36. References 1. http://sped100fall07.wikispaces.com/Larry+P.+vs.+Ril es. Downloaded August 9, 2010. 2. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/peterz1.html. Downloaded August 9, 2010 3. http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/medicalinter ventions/g/adptbehvrdeffin.htm.. 4. http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles /13506.aspx.. 5. Gill, W. (1992). Helping African-American males: The cure. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 31-36. 6. Grant, P. (1992). Using special education to destroy Black boys. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 17-21.