Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact (500 – 1500 CE) Section One: The Byzantine Empire Section Two: The Russian Empire Section Three: Turkish Empires, Rise of Anatolia Standard Four SSWH4: The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol Empires between 450 and 1500 CE. SSWH4a: Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinian’s Code, and the efforts to recapture the west. Standard Four SSWH4b: Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center of law, religion, and the arts. Standard Four SSWH4c: Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE. SSWH4d: Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Genghis Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo. Standard Four SSWH4e: Explain the Ottoman Empire’s role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE. Let’s Preview the Chapter Use pages 298 to 317. Essential questions and objectives: Describe Byzantine politics and the rise of Emperor Justinian. Identify causes of the Byzantine Empire’s collapse. Explain why the Eastern and Western churches created two traditions. Let’s preview the chapter.. Summarize the Slavic, Greek, and Viking roots of Russia and Russian culture. Describe the Kievan state. Explain how the Mongols conquered and ruled Russia. Describe Russia’s rise to independence. Describe the rise of Seljuk Turks. Pages 298-299 What land did the Seljuk Turks occupy? The Seljuk Turks occupied Persia. Two world religions, Islam and Christianity, met head-to-head as Arabs and Turks battled Byzantines and then Crusaders. At the same time, disputes over doctrine split Christianity into competing branches. Why might the Dnieper River have been important to Kievan Russia? The Dnieiper River connected Kiev with the civilizations to the south and north. Byzantine influence inspired the growth of a unique Russian culture. The Turks meanwhile adopted Islam and sponsored a rebirth of Persian ways to create a dynamic cultural blend. How does the map indicate that there was probably conflict between the Byzantine and Seljuk empires? The map shows striped areasto indicate the land belonged to both the Seljuk and Byzantine empires. The Byzantines, Slavs, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols waged bloody wars to expand their territories. However, each empire also brought together people of diverse traditions. Timeline Review In what year did Justinian become ruler of the Byzantine Empire? A.D. 527 Why does the time line show events in China and Mexico? To show that important events were happening in many parts of the world as well asto show history of Central Europe relative to eventselsewhere. How might the spreading of the Byzantine culture into Russia in the 850’s affect Asia and Central Europe ? It would link Russia more closely with Central Asia than with Eastern Asia or Western Europe. Timeline Review What event directly involved Christianity? Pope Urban II launched thje first Crusade. Which event occurred in North America? Montezuma II became leader of the Aztec Empire. Who is Justinian? A.D. 482 to 565. A high ranking Byzantine nobleman who in 527 succeeded his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire. He ruled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled. He created a single, uniform law code which consisted of four works. Who is Justinian? He launched an ambitious public building program in the Roman world. He was passionate about church building. He viewed churches as the most visible sign of the close connection between church and state in his empire. He enlarged his palace and also built baths, aqueducts, law courts, schools, and hospitals. Who is Justianian the Great? Who is Belisarius? One of Justinian’s best generals who was used to recover North Africa from the Germans and quickly succeeded. Two years later, he attacked Rome and seized it from the Ostrogoths. After numerous attacks, Justinian’s army won nearly all of Italy and parts of Spain. Who is Belisaurus? How are Byzantine and Roman emperors alike? Like the Caesar’s, the Byzantine emperors ruled with absolute power. They headed not just the state but the church as well. They appointed and dismissed bishops at will. The politics were brutal and often deadly. Emperors lived under constant risk of assassination. What is the Justinian Code? Justinian put together a panel which combed through 400 years worth of Roman laws that were contradictory and created a single, uniform code of laws. The Code decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life such as marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice. Although Justinian died in 565, his code lasted for 900 years. What is the Justinian Code? The code consisted of four works: The Code –contained nearly 5,000 Roman laws that were still considered useful for the Byzantine Empire. The Digest – quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers. It consisted of 50 volumes. The Institutes – a textbook that told law students how to use laws. The Novellae – (New Laws) presented legislation passed after 534. What is the significance of Hagia Sophia? Considered as the crowning glory of Justinian’s reign. Hagia Sophia means “Holy Wisdom” in Greek. A church bearing this same name had been destroyed in 532, and Justinian had it rebuilt and it was hailed as the most splendid. What was the Nika Rebellion? City–wide rebellion in 532 BC which resulted from rowdy fan groups of Hippodrome (horse races) entertainment activities. The fan groups were angry with the government because they felt that city officials had been too severe in putting down a previous riot of Hippodrome fans. What was the Nika Rebellion? The fans packed the Hippodrome and demanded the overthrow of Justinian but Belisarius broke in with his troops and slaughtered about 30,000 rebels. Who is Empress Theodora and why was she important? She was the most powerful woman in the Byzantine Empire’s history who rose from deep poverty. She was an actress. She met Justinian and in 525 they were married. As his wife she met with foreign powers, wrote to foreign leaders, passed laws, and built churches. After her death, Justinian was so depressed that he passed no major laws for the rest of his reign. Who is Empress Theodora? Why did the Byzantine Empire fall? Justinian died. As a result of his death, the empire suffered countless setbacks including street riots, religious quarrels, palace intrigues and foreign dangers. Each time the empire moved to the edge of collapse, it found some way to continue surviving. What caused the empire to be plagued? This crisis actually began before Justinian died. It was a disease that resembled what we know as the bubonic plague. The illness hit Constantinople in the later years of Justinian’s rule. On the average there were 10,000 people dying a day. Why did Byzantine face challenges from foreign enemies? From the very start of its rise to power, Byzantium faced constant challenges from foreign enemies. The Byzantines used bribery, diplomacy, political marriages, and military power to keep their enemies at bay. Slowly, the Byzantine Empire shrank under the impact of foreign attacks. Finally the city of Byzantine and the Empire fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Why did the Christian Church divide? Under the Byzantine Empire, Christianity underwent a dramatic development and began to develop differently in the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. This was mostly due to the distance between them and the lack of contact between the two regions. The Eastern Empire became Byzantium and flourished which caused differences that ultimately split apart the Church. The Great Schism The claiming of the two parts (Eastern and Western) of the Ancient Roman Empire that their pope was the true pope of the Christian religion. This is what began the split in the Church that became known as the Great Schism. What two branches of Christianity developed as a result? Roman Catholicism – was adopted by the Western church. Eastern Orthodox – was adopted by the Eastern church. Both churches believe in the gospel of Jesus and in the Bible as interpreted by their church. They also believe that God uses sacraments to convey his love to humans. Sorting Activity Assignment Who were the two most successful Eastern missionaries during this time period? Why? Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril They were instrumental in spreading their form of Christianity to the Slavs. These two missionaries also invented the Cyrillic Alphabet for the Slavic languages that would enable them to read the Bible in their own languages. Vocabulary Patriarch – a leading bishop of the Eastern Christian church. Eventhough this person was a leading bishop of the church he did bow to the emperor. Icon – religious images used by the Eastern Christian church to aid their devotions. The emperor viewed the use of icons as idol worship which caused the people to riot and the clergy to rebel. Vocabulary Excommunication – the outcasting of a person from the church. How did the Russian culture begin? (Slide 1) Russia’s first unified territory originated west of the Ural Mountains in the region that runs from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. There were hilly grasslands in the south. The north is densely forested, swampy and flat. It has three great rivers: The Dnieper, Don, and Volga. They run from the heart of the forests to the Black Sea or the Caspian Sea. How did the Russian culture begin? (Slide 2) In early Byzantium Empire days the forests were inhabited by tribes of Slavic farmers and traders. They spoke similar languages but had no political unity. In the 1800’s, small bands of adventurers came down among them from the north. These people were called Varangians or Rus and were probably Vikings. Who is Rurik? A Viking chieftan who the Slavs invited to be their king. He founded Novgorod, Russia’s first important city. Who is Vladimir? Background Information A member of Kievan nobility who was the grandson of a Kievan princess named Olga. Olga traveled to Constantinople and publicly converted to Christianity. She governed Kiev until her son was old enough to rule, but he resisted Christianity. Who is Vladimir? He is Olga’s grandson who took the Kievan throne in 980 and considered converting to Christianity. He sent out a team to examine the major religions of the time and was convinced most by the findings of the Byzantine Christian religion of which he and all his subjects converted to. Who is Yaroslav the Wise? The rise of Kiev marked the appearance of Russia’s first important unified territory. Vladimir led the way in establishing Kiev’s power by expanding the state into Poland. Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir’s son came to the throne and led Kiev to even greater glory than that of his father. Who is Yaroslav the Wise? He skillfully married off his daughters and sisters to the kings and princes of Western Europe, which helped him forge important trading alliances. He created a legal code. He built the first library in Kiev. Under his rule, Christianity prospered. Kiev was home to some 400 churches. What caused the decline of Kiev? (additional) It started with the death of Yaroslav in 1054. During his reign he made a crucial error by dividing his realm among his sons, instead of passing the throne to the eldest son as custom called for. After their father’s death, they tore the kingdom apart. Who are the Mongols and Genghis Khan? Mongols – a ferocious group of horsemen from central Asia who slashed their way into Russia. They were nomads. Genghis Khan – one of the most feared warriors of all time who led the Mongols into the world scene at the beginnings of the 1200’s. (Mongol Assignment) Who is Alexander Nevsky? A Russian noble who was a prince and military hero. He advised his fellow princes to cooperate with the Mongols when they moved in and conquered the Russians. Alexander Nevsky Who were some of Moscow’s most powerful princes and why were they so powerful? A line of Russian princes emerged who would control nearly all of European Russia and challenge the Mongols. Prince Ivan I – earned the gratitude of the Mongols by helping to crush a Russian revolt against Mongol rule. He was appointed tax collector of the Slavic lands. He also obtained the title “Grand Prince”. He became the most powerful of all Russian Princes. He was the wealthiest and became known as “Ivan the Moneybag.” Who is Ivan III and why did he take the title of czar? He made the Russian state into a genuine empire during his 43 year reign. When he became prince, he openly challenged Mongol rule. He took the name czar (Russian version of Caesar) and publicly claimed his intent to make Russia the “Third Rome”. Who is Ivan III? In 1480, he made a final break with the Mongols. In a bloodless battle, because neither the Russian nor Mongol army would advance to fight, the Russians marked this as their liberation from Mongol rule. After this liberation, the czars could openly pursue an empire. Ivan I and Ivan III The Mongols (Additional Notes) Pastoralists – Nomadic peoples who herded domesticated animals. These people were constantly on the move searching for good pasture to feed their herds. These people did not wander, but rather followed seasonal patterns and returned on a regular basis to the same campsites. The Mongols (Additional Notes) These people depended on their animals for food, clothing, and housing. Their food consisted of meat and mare’s milk. They wore clothing made of skins and wool and they lived in portable felt tents called yurts. More on Genghis Khan….. A Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unite the Mongols under his rule. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one. In 1206 he took the title, Genghis Khan which meant “universal one”. Over his 21 years of rulership, he led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia. Genghis Khan? Why a conqueror? Genghis Khan - Conqueror # 1 He was a brilliant organizer who assembled his Mongol warriors into a mighty fighting force. # 2 He was a gifted strategist who used various tricks to confuse his enemy. # 3 He used cruelty as a weapon. He believed in terrifying his enemies into surrender. Why were the Mongols such mighty fighters? The soldiers were superb horsemen, having spent all their lives in the saddle. Animal game roundups gave young men the chance to practice skills they would use in battle and gave their leaders the opportunity to spot promising warriors. Each soldier was accompanied by three extra horses allowing them to stay in a saddle for up to 10 days, and allowing them to cover up to 120 miles a day. How did the empire thrive after the death of Genghis? His sons and grandsons continued the campaign of conquest. The Khanate armies drove south, east, and west from Asia. By 1260 the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions or khanates. What type rulers were the Mongols? Because of the ferocious nature of the Mongols in their conquests, many areas that they invaded never recovered. The Mongols destroyed irrigation systems in the Tigris and Euphrates valley regions. While they were ferocious in war, they were tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs or way of life on those they conquered. Over time, some Mongol rulers even adopted aspects of the cultures they ruled. What is the Mongol peace? From the mid-1200’s to the mid-1300’s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia. This period is called Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace. During this time period, Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to another. Who is Kublai Khan? The grandson on Genghis Khan, who assumed the title Great Khan in 1260. His goal was to fulfill his grandfather’s wishes by conquering all of China. After becoming the new emperor, he founded a new dynasty called the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan era was important for several reasons: Who is Kublai Khan? First, Kublai united China for the first time in more than 300 years. For this he is considered one of China’s great emperors. Second, the control imposed by the Mongols across all of Asia opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade. Finally, Kublai and his successors tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system of government. Who is Kublai Khan and Marco Polo? Who are the Turks? A group of people referred to as Tu-Kiu by the Chinese were nomads who rode horses over the vast plains. These people herded goats and sheep, lived in tents, and used two-humped camels to carry their goods. The Islamic world first met them as raiders and traders along their northeastern frontiers. Who are the Abbasids? A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from AD 750 to 1258. The Abbasids took note of the Turks for their military skills. They began buying Turkish children to raise as slaves, train as soldiers, and employ as bodyguards. The Abbasids came to prize the slaves for their skills and loyalty. How did the Turks become known as the Seljuks? In the 10th Century, a growing number of Turks began converting to Islam and slowly migrating into the Abbasid Empire. One of the first migrating Turkish groups was known as the Seljuks, after the family that led them. What is a vizier? Who is Malik Shah? A person who served as a prime minister or sultan in the Seljuk government structure. Malik Shah is thought to be the greatest of the Seljuk sultans. He took pride in supporting Persian artists and architects. He beautified the city of Isfahan by building many splendid mosques. Who is Malik Shah? He was capable of great cruelty. He is said to have blinded his brother and poisoning his wife. He ruled as the last of the strong Seljuk leaders. After his unexpected death, no other capable shah appeared who could replace him. In what ways did the Turks show respect for their Persian subjects? They showed great admiration of Persian learning. They adopted Persian as the language of the culture. They looked to Persians for cultural and religious guidance. How did the death of Malik Shah affect the Seljuk Empire? The Seljuk Empire slowly disintegrated into a loose collection of minor kingdoms. At this point the West launched a counterattack against the Turks and other Muslims for control of the Holy Land of the Middle East which became known as the Crusades. What role did Urban II play in the history of the Turks? He launched the First Crusade in 1095 in which he called on Christians to drive the Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. What happened when the Seljuks met the Mongols? The Mongols headed into Seljuk territory in 1258. He burned down the palace and had tens of thousands of people killed.