EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE AND REFORMANTION 1300

Report
EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
AND REFORMANTION
1300-1600 CE
ITALY
NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
REFORMATION
ITALY
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Renaissance – 1300-1600
CE – a rebirth or revival
of art and learning;
Classical culture of Rome
and Greece.
Medici Family – 1434 CE
– a powerful banking
family who controlled
Florence’s government.
(city-state)
ITALY
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Humanism – an
intellectual movement
that focused on human
potential and
achievements; study of
history, literature, and
philosophy.
Secular – Renaissance
society was worldly rather
than spiritual.
Patrons – Church leaders,
merchants, and wealthy
families who financially
supported the arts.
ITALY
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Renaissance Man – a man
who excelled in many
fields – “universal man.”
(well educated in classics,
dance, sing, play music,
write, rider, wrestler, and
swordsman)
Renaissance Woman –
they should know the
Classics and be charming.
ITALY
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Renaissance Art – they used
perspective – technique
which shows three
dimensions on a flat surface.
Artists:
Michelangelo – used realistic
style for depicting human
bodies.
Donatello – realistic
sculpture.
Leonardo da Vinci –
“Renaissance Man” – painter,
sculptor, inventor, and
scientist. (Mona Lisa)
Raphael – famous for use of
perspective.
ITALY
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Renaissance Writers – some
wrote their books in the
vernacular – the native
language.
Writers:
Francisco Petrarch – wrote
humanistic poems or
sonnets.
Boccaccio – Decameron a
tragic and comic view on life.
Niccolo Machiavelli – The
Prince – a book about
political power.
Vittoria Colonna – wrote
poems that expressed her
emotions.
NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
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1.
2.
By the 1490 CE –
Renaissance ideas
spread to Northern
Europe.
German Painters:
Albrecht Durer – painted
religious subjects.
Hans Holbein – painted
portraits of famous
people.
NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
Flemish Painters:
1. Jan van Eyck – used
oil painting
2. Pieter Bruegel –
used realistic detail
for individual people.
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NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
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1.
Northern Renaissance
Writers:
Desiderius Erasmus –
Christian humanist –
The Praise of Folly
2.
Thomas More –
Christian humanist –
Utopia – an imaginary
place where greed and
corruption had been
weeded out.
REFORMATION
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Causes of the Reformation:
Humanism and Secularism lead
people to question the Church
Printing press helps spread
criticisms of the Church
Powerful monarchs challenge
the Church’s supreme power in
Europe.
Pope is view as a foreign ruler
European monarchs are jealous
of the Church’s wealth
Merchants resented paying
Church taxes
Some Church leaders are
corrupt
Sale of indulgences were
unacceptable for some people.
REFORMATION

1.
2.
3.
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Martin Luther – 1483-1546 CE
– German monk who was
troubled by the selling of
indulgences or pardons; he
wrote the 95 These – a formal
statement attacking the
pardon merchants.
Salvation through faith in
God’s forgiveness.
Church teachings should be
based on the Bible.
All people of faith were equal.
Reformation – a religious
movement that led to the
founding of Christian churches
that did not accept the pope’s
authority.

Lutherans – a separate
Christian group.
REFORMATION
Protestantism – a
branch of Christianity
that developed out of
the Reformation.
 Peace of Augsburg –
1555 CE – in
Germany a
compromise that
allowed princes to
determine the religion
of their state.

REFORMATION
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Henry VIII – 1527 CE –
king of England; desired
to have a male heir. He
tried to have his marriage
annulled or set aside by
the pope, so he could remarry. The pope refused.
Act of Supremacy – the
parliament made Henry
the official head of
England’s Church.
REFORMATION

1.
2.
3.
Henry’s three children ruled
England after his death:
Edward VI – 1547 CE –
protestant advisors
introduced reforms in English
Church.
Mary – 1553 CE – devout
Catholic; brought back the
Roman Catholic Church.
Elizabeth I – 1558 CE – reestablished the Church of
England or Anglican Church
REFORMATION
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Huldrych Zwingli – 1520
CE – Swiss Catholic priest
who called for more
personal faith and control
in the Church.
Calvinism – 1536 CE –
founded in France by
John Calvin (Institutes of
Christian Religion) – a
belief that God has
known since the
beginning of time who
would receive salvation.
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Calvin established a
theocracy in Geneva,
Switzerland in 1540 CE.
Presbyterians – 1559 CE
– founded by John Knox
in Scotland; each
religious community was
led by church elders.
REFORMATION
Anabaptists – they
believed persons who
were old enough to
decide to be Christian
should receive Baptism;
re-baptism in adulthood.
 Catholic Reformation or
Counter Reformation –
1521 CE – Ignatius of
Loyola who created the
Jesuit order of priestswho were well-trained
teachers.
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REFORMATION
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Council of Trent – 15451563 CE – results:
The Church’s
interpretation of the Bible
was final.
Christians needed faith
and goods works for
salvation.
The Bible and Church
tradition were equal
authorities for guiding
Christian life.
Indulgences were valid
expressions of faith.

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