ISLAM 600-1200 CE

Report
ISLAM
600-1200 CE
I. Islam
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Islam= “submission to Allah”
Monotheistic
Five Pillars of Islam
Prophets- Muhammad was LAST prophet
Last Judgment
“The unbelievers of the People of the Book and the pagans
shall burn forever in the fire of Hell”
6. God’s will is supreme:
1: 1. In the name of ALLAH, the Gracious, the Merciful.
1: 2. All praise is due to ALLAH alone, Lord of all the worlds.
1: 3. The Gracious, the Merciful.
1: 4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
1: 5. THEE alone do we worship and THEE alone do we implore for help.
1: 6. Guide us in the straight path,
1: 7. The path of those on whom THOU hast bestowed THY favours,
those who have not incurred THY displeasure and those who have not
gone astray.
II. Roots
• Allah created earth and man/woman in Genesis
• Adam-> Noah-> Shem (Semite)-> Abraham->
Sarah-> ISAAC (Jewish faith)
– Isaac stayed in Palestine
• Abraham-> Hagar-> ISHMAEL (Islam faith)
• Ishmael goes to where Mecca would be built
• Believed that Moses and Jesus were prophets;
Muhammad is the last prophet
II. Roots continued…
Bedoiun
nomadic tribes
Bedoiun
nomadic tribes
Bedoiun
nomadic tribes
Mecca
caravan routes
converge here
because of KAABA
Bedoiun
nomadic tribes
Meccan leaders drive out
Muhammad and followers.
Muhammad
preaches “there is
only ONE God”!
Muhammad+followers
flee to Medina: HIJRA
IV. Division after Muhammad’s Death
Sunnis
Shi’ites/Shia
•
• About 15% of
Muslims
•
•
About 85% of
Muslims
Leaders chosen
through consensus
of umma: Muslim
community
Sharia (Islamic
Law) was codified
• Islam’s leader should
be descendent of
Muhammad
•Religious leaders have
authority to interpret
sharia
V. Spread of Islam
1. Under CALIPHATE (successors to
Muhammad) conquered area stretching from
Spain in west to India in east
Animated map
2. How was Islam able to spread so far so
quickly?
–
–
–
–
–
Zeal of new converts
Weakened Byzantine and Sassanid territories
Overtaxed peasants and oppressed minorities
wanted change
Islam offered attractive prospect of unity in all
aspects of life
Everyone EQUAL before Allah
VI. Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
1. Umayyad conquests stretch from Spain to Indus Valley
(India)
2. Umayyad falls in 750 because:
a) Secular in nature
b) Rebellions from non-Arab Muslims
c) Shi’ites attacked legitimacy of their rule
3. Abbasid rise:
a) More concerned with religion
b) Moved capital to Baghdad; established House of Wisdom
4. Abbasid declines in 945 because:
a) Empire too big
b) Provinces break away: cuts tax flow to Baghdad
VII. Seljuk Turks Animated map
1. Ruled by a Sultan
2. Defeated Byzantines in Turkey
3. Islamic world regressed economically/culturally:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Cities shrank
Irrigation works in disrepair
When Shi’ites/Sunnis fought, government did NOT intervene
Baghdad loses prestige and canals are destroyed
4. Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem 1099; Saladin retakes
Jerusalem in 3rd Crusade 1187

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