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Physiology
Exam 2
Comprehensive Study
1
Where is the subdural space
located?
2
Within the Cranium,
between the Dura
mater and the
Arachnoid membrane
3
What is located inside
of the subdural space?
4
Cerebrospinal
fluid
5
What is an area of folded
muscle membrane with
Ach receptors clustered
at the top of each fold
(active site)?
6
Motor end
plate
7
What enzyme rapidly
deactivates ACh by
degrading it into acetyl
and choline?
8
acetylcholinesterase
(AChE)
9
What is the affect on the
activity of a neuron in
the event of blocking the
ability for retrograde
flow in an axon?
10
The soma can’t
respond to changes
in the DISTAL END
of the neuron.
11
True or False? One
function of the nervous
system is to direct activities
that continue for extended
periods such as growth and
pregnancy.
12
False
13
True or False? During a
sleep cycle a person
alternates between REM
sleep and deep wave
sleep.
14
True
15
True or False? Sleep
is an easily reversible
state of inactivity.
16
True
17
True or False? Sleep
is now considered an
active state, requiring
neuronal activity.
18
True
19
True or False? Sleep
is characterized by lack
of interaction with the
external environment.
20
True
21
Which lobe would one
expect to find the
primary sensory
cortex?
22
Parietal lobe
23
On which lobe would
you expect to fine the
Auditory cortex?
24
Temporal lobe
25
The Gustatory cortex
is associated with
which sense?
26
Taste
27
Which lobe would one
expect to find the
primary MOTOR
cortex?
28
Frontal lobe
29
True or False?
Ganglia exist in the
CNS in the Spinal
Cord.
30
False. Ganglia exist
outside of the CNS
(spinal cord) in the
PNS.
31
What is the
equivalent ganglia
structure inside the
CNS?
32
Nucleus
33
In the spinal cord,
where is gray matter
and white matter
located (inside or out)?
34
The spinal cord has gray
matter on the inside
and white matter on
the outside.
35
Does the spinal cord
use a dorsal or
ventral motor root?
36
Ventral
37
___ matter consist of
unmyelinated never
cell bodies, dendrites,
and axon terminals.
38
Gray matter consist of
unmyelinated never
cell bodies, dendrites,
and axon terminals.
39
At the resting
membrane potential; is
the membrane more
permeable to Na or K?
40
K+
41
What type of receptors
bind to ACh, open
monovalent cation
channels, and are found
on skeletal muscles at the
neuromuscular junction?
42
Nicotinic
receptors
43
What is the name for
the event when the cell
becomes less negative
due to an influx of
sodium ions?
44
Depolarazation
45
The high speed
movement of and
action potential
through the axon is
called what?
46
Conduction
47
What is the absolute
refractory period?
48
A period of 2 msec when a
second action potential
cannot be triggered no
matter how large the
stimulus.
49
What word would best
describe and excitable
tissue during resting
membrane potential.
50
Polorized
51
What word would
best describe an
excitable tissue above
its threshold?
52
Depolarized
53
What word would best
describe an excitable
tissue below its resting
membrane potential?
54
Undershoot
55
What word would
best describe an
excitable tissue above
0 mV?
56
Overshoot
57
What is the outermost
connective tissue
covering the spinal
nerves?
58
Epineurium
59
What are braches
that sometimes occur
along the length of an
axon called?
60
Collaterals
61
What is the region
where an axon
terminal meets its
target cell called?
62
Synapse
63
An IPSP (Inhibitory
postsynaptic
potential) is
associated with what?
64
Hyperpolarization
65
An EPSP (Excitatory
postsynaptic
potential) is
associated with what?
66
Depolariztion
67
The principal that states
all stimuli great enough to
bring the membrane to
threshold will produce
identical action potentials
is know as what?
68
All or None
69
Where are the major
centers concerned with
automic control of
breathing, blood pressure,
heart rates located?
70
Medulla
Oblongata
71
In which of the following
would the rate of impulse
conduction be the greatest?
-myelinated fiber 20 microns
in diameter
-myelinated finber 2 microns
in diameter
72
myelinated fiber 20
microns in
diameter
73
n which of the following
would the rate of impulse
conduction be the greatest?
-myelinated fiber 20
microns in diameter
-myelinated fiber 2
microns in diameter
74
myelinated fiber 20
microns in
diameter
75
How does
Hypocacemia affect the
function of the nervous
system?
76
Less neurotransmitter
can be released in
response to an action
potential
77
The dorsal root ganglia
contain what?
78
Cell bodies of
sensory neurons
79
Astrocytes have what
major functions?
80
- Induce formation of the blood-brain
barrier
- Are important in the repair of brain
injuries and neural scar formation
- Take up excess K+ from brain ECF
- Physically support neurons
81
What is Dura mater?
82
Outer membrane
of the meninges
83
What is Pia mater?
84
Inner most membrane
of the meninges,
delicate, contains
many blood vessels.
85
What is the Arachnoid?
86
The middle
membrane of the
meninges
87
What is Subarchnoid
space?
88
Fluid filled space
beneath the
Arachnoid
membrane of the
skull
89
What is Ventricles?
90
Hollow spaces in the
brain filled with
circulating
cerebrospinal fluid
91
What is the difference
between electronic and
saltatory conduction?
92
Saltatory conduction
requires the
presence of myelin
93
What cranial nerves
control eye
movements?
94
III, IV, VI
95
What ion has a higher
concentration in
cerebrospinal fluid than
in blood?
96
H+
97
rd
3
th
4
The
and
ventricles are linked by
what?
98
Mesencephalic
aqueduct
99
Excess cerebrospinal
fluid is drained into
where?
100
Superior sagittal
sinus
101
Which nerve fibers will
have the highest
conduction velocity, a
smaller unmyelinated
fiber or a larger
myelinated fiber?
102
Larger
myelinated fiber
103
A second nerve
impulse cannot be
generated until :
104
The membrane
potential has been
reestablished
105
What are graded
potentials?
106
Local changes in the
membrane potential that
occur in varying degrees
of magnitude and serve
as short distance signals
107
What ion is needed to
initiate the release of
acetylcholine into the
synaptic cleft?
108
Calcium
109
Where are Interneurons
found?
110
ONLY in the CNS
111
The brainstem consist
of :
112
Midbrain, Medulla,
Pons
113
What is a target
receptor for
preganglionic neurons?
114
Cholinergic
Nicotinic receptor
115
What would be a result
of the ventral root of
the spinal nerve being
cut?
116
Complete loss of
voluntary
movement
117
What two division of
the efferent side of the
PNS?
118
Somatic motor
neurons and
Autonomic neurons
119
Preganglionic fibers of
oarasympathetic
neurons can be found
in all of the following
cranial neurons
EXCEPT:
120
XII
121
Acetylcholine is released
from the axon terminal, a
skeletal muscle is
triggered to contract, and
the response is always
excitatory. These events
happen as a result of
what?
122
A somatic motor
neuron fires an
action potential.
123
Describe two ways a
cell can become
hyperpolarized.
124
I.
II.
K+ efflux when K+ becomes
more permeable, making the
cell more negative
Influx of Cl- making inside
of cell more negative
125
Explain why multiple
sclerosis negatively
affects motor control.
126
I.
This is a demyelinating disease.
Conduction in Myelinated Axons
are faster. Damage to Myelin
means ion flow out of the
cytoplasm and slower conduction
because the amount of
membrane in contact with ECF
is increased.
127
List the anatomic and
functional categories
of neurons; Anatomic
& Functional.
128
Anotomic
Bipolar
Unipolar
Pseudounipolar
Anoxonic
Multipolar
Funtional
Sensory Afferant Neuron
Interneuron
Motor Efferent Neurons
129

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