### ch03

```Figure 3.1 Semiconductor diode.
Figure 3.2 Volt-ampere characteristic for a typical small-signal silicon diode at a temperature of 300 K.
Notice the changes of scale.
Figure 3.3 Zener diode symbol.
Figure 3.4 Circuit for load-line analysis.
Figure 3.5 Load-line analysis of the circuit
of Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.6 Load-line analysis for Examples 3.1 and 3.2.
Figure 3.7 Diode characteristic for Exercise 3.1.
Figure 3.8 Ideal-diode volt--ampere characteristic.
Figure 3.9 Analysis of a diode circuit using the ideal-diode model. See Example 3.3.
Figure 3.10 Circuits for Exercise 3.4.
Figure 3.11 Half-wave rectifier with resistive load.
Figure 3.12a Half-wave rectifier with smoothing capacitor.
Figure 3.12b & c Half-wave rectifier with smoothing capacitor.
Figure 3.13 Full-wave rectifier.
Figure 3.14 Diode-bridge full-wave rectifier.
Figure 3.15a Clipper circuit.
Figure 3.15b Clipper circuit.
Figure 3.15c Clipper circuit.
Figure 3.16 Circuits with nearly the same performance
as the circuit of Figure 3.15.
Figure 3.17a & b See Exercise 3.7.
Figure 3.17c See Exercise 3.7.
Figure 3.17d See Exercise 3.7.
Figure 3.18a & b See Exercise 3.8.
Figure 3.18c See Exercise 3.8.
Figure 3.18d See Exercise 3.8.
Figure 3.19 Example clamp circuit.
Figure 3.20 See Exercise 3.9.
Figure 3.21 Answer for Exercise 3.10.
Figure 3.22 Answer for Exercise 3.11.
Figure 3.23 Diode logic gates.
Figure 3.24 A voltage regulator supplies constant voltage to a load.
Figure 3.25 A simple regulator circuit that provides a nearly constant output voltage from a variable supply voltage.
Figure 3.26 See Example 3.4
.
Figure 3.27 Analysis of a circuit containing a singular nonlinear element can be accomplished by
load-line analysis of a simplified circuit.
Figure 3.28 See Example 3.5.
Figure 3.29 Zener diode characteristic for Example 3.5.
Figure 3.30 See Exercise 3.13.
Figure 3.31 Diode characteristic, illustrating the Q-point.
Figure 3.32 Illustration of diode currents.
Figure 3.33 Variable attenuator using a diode as a controlled resistance.
Figure 3.34 Dc circuit equivalent to Figure 3.33 for Q-point analysis.
Figure 3.35 Small-signal ac equivalent circuit for Figure 3.33.
Figure 3.36 Intrinsic silicon crystal.
Figure 3.37 Thermal energy can break a bond, creating a vacancy and a free electron,
both of which can move freely through the crystal.
Figure 3.38 As electrons move to the left to fill a hole, the hole moves to the right.
Figure 3.39 n-type silicon is created by adding valence five impurity atoms.
Figure 3.40 p-type silicon is created by adding valence three impurity atoms.
Figure 3.41a Shockley--Haynes experiment.
Figure 3.41b Shockley--Haynes experiment.
Figure 3.41c Shockley--Haynes experiment.
Figure 3.42 If a pn junction could be formed by joining a p-type crystal to an n-type crystal, a sharp gradient of
hole concentration and electron concentration would exist at the junction immediately after joining the crystals.
Figure 3.43a Diffusion of majority carriers into the opposite sides causes a depletion region to appear at the junction.
Figure 3.43b Diffusion of majority carriers into the opposite sides causes a depletion region to appear at the junction.
Figure 3.43c Diffusion of majority carriers into the opposite sides causes a depletion region to appear at the junction.
Figure 3.44 Under reverse bias, the depletion region becomes wider.
Figure 3.45 Carrier concentrations versus distance for a forward-biased pn junction.
Figure 3.46 Parallel-plate capacitor.
Figure 3.47 As the reverse bias voltage becomes greater, the charge stored in the depletion region increases.
Figure 3.48 Depletion capacitance versus bias voltage for the 1N4148 diode.
Figure 3.49 Hole concentration versus distance for two values of forward current.
Figure 3.50 Small-signal linear circuits for the pn-junction diode.
Figure 3.51 Circuit illustrating switching behavior of a pn-junction diode.
Figure 3.52a Waveforms for the circuit of Figure 3.51.
Figure 3.52b Waveforms for the circuit of Figure 3.51.