Introduction

Report
Microbiology
(微生物学)
Meng Qingheng
Bio-DPT. College of Life Science and Chemistry
Tjnu.
Arrangement
• Textbook : Microbiology –Textbook for
bilingual course, Meng Q.H. Sun J.H.
• Bibliography:
1.《微生物学》,沈 萍, 主编高等教育出版社
2.《微生物学教程》,周德庆,高等教育出版社,
3. 《微生物学》,武大复旦合编,高等教育出版社
4. Microbiology 6th Ed. 1996. Totora. et.
5. Microbiology 5th Ed. 2002. L. M. Prescott et al
www.mhhe.com / prescott 5
• Lecture :54 h
Contents :
I: Morphology and Anatomy
II: Physiological Functions
III : Diversity & Ecological activities
MICROBIOLOGY
( 微生物学 )
Introduction
What is Microbiology ?
Micro-biology is a branch of Biology that deals
with Microbes, and considers the occurrence in
nature of the microscopic forms of life, of
course
their
reproduction,
physiology,
participation in the processes of nature,
ecological relationships with other living things
and their significances in science and industry.
The term Microbes (Microorganism , Germ) is
not a classifying (taxonomic) word, it is just used
to describe on a kind or a group of organisms that
are too small to be seen by our naked eyes without
the use of a microscope, such as viruses, bacteria,
fungi, protozoa and some algae.
In the subject, bacteria are the major objects to
be taught and discussed involving their biological
features. Viruses and fungi are described only in
words of syllabus.
The groups include:
细菌
Bacteria
Actinomycetse 放线 菌
Mycoplasma 支原体
Chlamydia
衣原体
Rickettsia
立克次氏体
Procaryotes (Monera)
(原核生物)(原核界)
Cyanobacteria 蓝细菌
Yeast
酵母菌
(Fungi)
Mold( mould) 霉 菌
Protozoa
Algae
Viruses
原生动物
藻类
病毒
(真菌界)
Eucaryotes
(Protistae)
(真核生物) (原生界)
-----------
Non-cellular
(Vira)
(非细胞生物) (病毒界)
From the microbes above, you will find that they are belonging
to four kingdoms. This is according to the 6 kingdoms system
set up by a Chinese scholar 王大耜 in 1979. The 6 kingdoms
are :
Monera; protistae; fungi; plantae; animalia; vira
This system was set up based on the 5 kingdoms system raised
by H.R.Whittaker (professor of Cornell Univ.) adopting the
concepts of cellular organization and nutritional patterns in
1969. (1969, Science )
The 5 kingdoms are:
Monera; Protistae ; Fungi; Plantae; Animalia
Why they are grouped into microbial category?
— — The characteristics of microorganism
1. Microscopic
2. Independent units
3. Simple in structure
4. Rapid growth rates & variable
5. Omnipresent
Microbial world
Organisms
Infectious agents
(dependent-living)
(living)
Prokaryotes
(unicellular)
Eubacteria
Archaea
eukaryotes
Algae
(unicellular
or
multicellular
viruses
Fungi
(unicellular
or
multicellular
viroids
prions
Other
Protozoa
(unicellular) multicellular
organisms
Microbes – the Double-Edged Sword
We tend to associate these small organisms only with
uncomfortable infections, major diseases such as AIDS, SARS,
or such common inconveniences as spoiled food. For instance,
in 1347, the bubonic plague that swept through Europe led 25
million people (about one third of the European population) to
death. Another example is the Irish Famine historically during
the mid of 18th century, 1 million people died for the shortage
of potato—the food they live on in Ireland, because of the
potato blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans and
about 1.2 million people had to emigrated to the other
countries. AIDS was first identified in 1981. Since then more
than 65 million people have been infected all over the world
and almost 25 million of them died. By the end of 2006, over 40
million people live with HIV. It has become a big challenge to
human beings in the 21st century.
However, the majority of microorganisms make crucial
contributions to the world ’ s inhabitants by helping to
maintain the balance of living organisms and chemicals in our
environment. Marine and freshwater microorganisms form
the basis of the food chain in oceans, lakes, and rivers. Soil
microbes help break down wastes and incorporate nitrogen
gas from the air into organic compounds , thereby recycling
chemical elements in the soil, water, and air. Certain bacteria
and algae play important roles in photosynthesis, a food-and
oxygen-generating process that is critical to life on earth.
Humans and many other animals depend on the bacteria in
their intestines for digestion and the synthesis of some
vitamins that their bodies require, including some B vitamins
for metabolism and vitamin K for blood clotting.
Microbes have been used for thousands of years,
in many processes, to produce food, from brewing
and wine making, cheese production and bread
making (baking), to the manufacture of soy sauce. As
you known, Chinese ancient was one of the original
discovers of microbial utilization.
A Brief History of Microbiology
Experience period
Experiment period
Microbiology in the Twentieth Century
I. Early development of microbiology (Experience period )
⒈我国古代对微生物的认识
制曲、酿酒方面:距今8000~4500龙山文化时期,
龙山文化遗址出土的陶器中有酒具。公元前14世纪
《书经》记有:若作酒醴,尔惟曲蘖。公元前二世纪
《淮南子》中就有“清醠之美,始于耒耜”之说;晋
代江统所写的《酒诰》(公元三世纪)中曾这样叙述:
“酒之所兴,肇自上皇,或云仪狄,一曰杜康。有饭
不尽,委余空桑,郁积成味,久蓄气芳。本出于此,
不由奇方。”。
食用菌种植方面:郭沫若在《中国史稿》一书中
认为,距今6000~7000年前的仰韶文化时期,我们的祖
先已经大量采食蘑菇了。
数千年来,我国历代人民对大型真菌的形态和习性进行了仔细
的观察,创造了丰富的词汇,并做过许多正确的描述:菌,生
木上;蕈,地菌也。除菌、蕈二字外,还有芝、栭、栮等。栮
(栭)生木上,形如耳,故以耳名。芝,神草也,有青、赤、
黄、白、黑、紫六色,芝生于土,土气和,故芝草生。我国古
代在栽培方面也有较为详细的记载。
早在唐代,韩鄂所著的《四时篡要》中的“种菌子”一段就曾
记载:“取烂构木及叶,于地埋之。常以泔浇令湿,雨三日即
生。”又法:“畦中下烂粪,取构木可长六七尺,截断磓碎。
如种菜法,于畦中匀布,土盖。水浇常令润。如初有小菌子,
仰杷推之,明旦又出,亦推之。三度后,出者甚大,即收食之。
本自构木,食之不损人。构又名楮”。从栽培方法上看,应该
是指金针菇,因为在现代栽培方法中有“搔菌”程序,与“仰
杷推之”有异曲同工之处。
在医学方面:《左转》中记载有鲁宣公12年(公元前597
年)叔展所说:“有麦曲呼?曰:无……。河鱼腹疾奈何?”
的一段话。可见公元前六世纪就已知到用微生物治疗腹病。
公元三世纪,已有“取(疯狗)脑傅之”的记载,预防狂犬
病。根据《医宗金鉴》记载:“种痘之法起于江右,达于京
畿。究其起源,为宋真宗时峨眉山有神人出,为丞相王达之
子种痘而愈,其法随传于世。” 可见种痘的方法在宋真宗
时代(998~1022年)已得到应用。到18世纪,英国乡村医生
秦纳(Jenner) 才发明种牛痘的方法。1904年,牛痘法传入我
国,牛痘法简单易行,安全可靠,彻底取代了人痘法。
在农业方面:据考证,远在商代,已知施用经过一定时间
储存的粪便来肥田。春秋时,沤制粪肥的应用更为普遍。后
魏贾思勰所著《齐民要术》(六世纪)指出:种过豆类植物
的土地特别肥沃,提倡轮作。实际上是应用根瘤菌的作用。
而西方采用轮作制则是18世纪30年代以后的事了。公元二世
纪,《神农本草》已有“白僵”的记载。
II. Milestones of Microbiology (Experiment period)
The discovery of microorganisms
The spontaneous generation conflict
The recognition of microbial role in disease
The discovery of microbial conversing on
organic and inorganic matter
The development of microbiology in this century
The discovery of microorganisms
The first person to
accurately observe and
describe microorganisms
Antony van Leeuwenhock
(1632-1723)
Antony van leeuwenhoek of Delft, Holland—
the first person who observed and described
microorganisms was an amateur microscopist.
Leeuwenkoek made his simple, single-lens
microscope which could amplify the object being
viewed 50 – 300 times. Between 1673 – 1723, he
wrote a series of letters to the Royal Society of
London describing the microbes he observed from
the samples of rainwater, and humam mouth.
lens
Object
being
viewed
adjusting
screws
A drawing of one of
the microscopes
showing the lens a;
mounting pin b; and
focusing screws c
and d.
Leeuwenhoek’s
drawings of bacteria
from the human
mouth.
Conflict over “Spontaneous Generation”
As a matter of facts, until late of the nineteenth century,
people, particularly scientists and philosophers believed
that some of the living organisms could arise from
nonliving matter spontaneously. They even believed that
toads, snakes, as well as mice could develop from moist
soil besides those flies from manure, and the maggots
from decaying meat.
A representative person was the English priest John
Needham (1713-1781). He reported his experiment on
spontaneous generation in 1748. Needham found that the
heated nutrient broth contained in the covered flasks
eventually teemed with microbes and claimed it as vital
force.
Twenty years later, an Italian priest, also a scientist
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) showed that flasks
sealed before boiled had no growth of microorganisms,
and he proposed that air carried germs probably entered
the Needham’s culture medium. He also commented that
external air might be required to support the growth of
microbes already in the medium.
In answer to the criticism, Needham claimed that the
vital force had been destroyed by the heat and kept out by
the seals.
The debate over spontaneous generation continued until
1861, when the French chemist and biologist Louis
Pasteur eventually resolved this issue.
The spontaneous generation conflict
Spontaneous generation – that living
organisms could develop from nonliving or
decomposing matter.
Pasteur’s swan neck flasks used in his experiments
on the spontaneous generation of microorganisms
Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895)
Pasteur’s contributions:
• Final refutation of
spontaneous generation –
birth of microbiology as a
science
• Discovery of the existence
of anaerobic life –
fermentation
• Vaccines
• Pasteurization
Louis Pasteur working in his laboratory
1. Pasteur (1857) demonstrated that lactic acid
fermentation is due to the activity of
microorganisms.
2. Pasteur (1861) conflict over spontaneous
generation – birth of microbiology as a
science
3. Pasteur (1881) developed anthrax vaccine
4. Pasteurization
Robert Koch (1843 – 1910)
The recognition of microbial role in disease
Robert Koch in his laboratory
Koch’s postulates
1. The microorganisms must be present in every
case of the disease but absent from healthy
organisms.
2. The suspected microorganisms must be isolated
and grown in a pure culture.
3. The disease must result when the isolated
microorganisms is inoculated into a healthy host.
4. The same microorganisms must be isolated again
from the diseased host
The Golden age of microbiology
• Koch and pure cultures
• Fermentation and Pasteurization
• Germ theory of desease
• Vaccination
Koch’s other contributions (1)
• Development of pure culture technique
纯培养技术
– Potato slice
– Solid medium with gelatin明胶培养基
– Solid medium with agar琼脂培养基
Koch’s other contributions (2)
• Demonstration of causal agent of tuberculosis 肺结核
– Koch’s methods (developed by himself)
• Microscopy
• Differential staining鉴别染色法 of bacteria and
human tissues
• Pure culture isolation of bacteria
• Animal inoculation
– Received Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in
1905
Other contributors with their important achievements during
this experiment period are outlined as to milestones below.
John Tyndall (1820-1893), the English physicist, demonstrated
(1877) that dust did carry microbes and that if dust was absent
the broth remained sterile even if it was directly exposed to air.
Tyndall also provided evidence for the existence of heatresistant forms of bacteria.
Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898), the German botanist, found that
the existence of heat-resistant form of bacterium is the
bacterial endospore.
Agostino Bassi (1773-1856) showed first that a silkworm
disease was caused by a fungus in 1835, and also pointed out
that many diseases were microbial etiology diseases.
M. J. Berkeley, in 1845, had demonstrated that the great
Potato Blight of Ireland was caused by a fungus. This event has
been mentioned earlier in this chapter.
Joseph Lister (1827-1912), an English surgeon, developed a
system of surgery designed to prevent microorganisms from
entering wounds based on the germ theory of disease. His
patients had fewer postoperative infections, which indirectly
proved that microorganisms were the causal agents of human
disease. He published his findings in1867, thereby transformed
the practice of surgery.
Sergei Winogradsky (1856-1953), a Russian microbiologist,
contributed many discoveries in soil bacteria. He demonstrated
that bacteria could oxidize iron, sulfur, and ammonia to obtain
energy. He also isolated anaerobic nitrogen-fixation bacteria
from soil and studied cellulose decomposition.
Martinus Beijerinck (1851-1931), the Dutch microbiologist,
successfully isolated aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium-a root
nodule bacterium Rhizobium and sulfate reducing bacteria. He
also made many achievements in microbial ecology and other
fields such as the developments of enrichment cultures and
selective media with his associate Winogradsky.
The discovery of microbial effects
on organic and inorganic matter
The Russian microbiologist
Winogradsky discovered that soil
bacteria could oxidize iron, sulfur
and ammonia to obtain energy,
and also isolated nitrogen – fixing
bacteria.
Beijerinck made fundamental
contributions to microbial ecology.
He isolated Azotobacter and
Rhizobium.
Beijerinck and Winogradsky are respected as pioneers of
soil microbiology.
Microbiology in the Twentieth Century
Achievements accumulated during the Experiment
period laid the solid foundations for the rapid
development of microbiology as the coming of Twentieth
Century. The first half of the century could be regarded
as a developmental period and the second half should be
matured or update period. New branches of microbiology
were set up and developed including microbial genetics,
immunology, virology and molecular microbiology,
particularly the technology of recombinant DNA, which
renewed the research and practical applications in all
fields of biological science. Some monumental
achievements are illustrated below giving an overview
on the developments of microbiology in this century.
Date
Contributors
1909
Howard
Ricketts
1910
Paul Ehrlich
1928
Frederick Griffith
Discovered bacterial transformation
1929
Alexander
Fleming
Discovered penicillin
1933
Ernst Ruska
Designed the first transmission electron microscope
1935
Wendell
Stanley
1941
George W. Beadle
& Edward L.
Tatum
Salvadore Luria &
Max Delbruck
1943
Achievements
T. First observed rickettsia bodies in a case of Rocky Mountain
Spotted Fever and demonstrated that the disease was transmitted
by the wood tick.
First synthesized chemotherapeutic agent for syphilis
M. Purified and crystallized tobacco mosaic virus
Studied the relationship between genes and enzymes using the
bread mold, Neurospora. Raised the hypothesis of one-geneone-enzyme.
Showed that the mutations were spontaneous and not directed by
the environment employing the fluctuation analysis.
1944
Oswald T. Avery, Provided evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the
Colin
M. genetic material and carried genetic information during
MacLeod,
& transformation.
Maclyn McCarty
1946
Joshua
Lederberg &
Edward
Tatum
Discovered the bacterial conjugation.
L.
1949
John
Enders, Successfully cultured poliovirus in human tissue cultures.
Thomas H. Weller,
& Frederick C.
Robbins
1952
A. D. Hershey &
M. Chase.
J. Lederberg
Norton Zinder &
J. Lederberg
1953
Showed that bacteriophages inject DNA into host cells.
Developed replica plating analysis.
Discovered generalized tranduction.
James D. Watson Identified the physical double helix structure of DNA
& Frances H C.
Crick
Discovered the immune tolerance.
P B. Medawar
1955
Francois Jacob Discovered the F factor is a plasmid.
& Wollman
1956
Umbarger
1961
F. Jacob, J Propose the operon model of gene regulation.
Monod
&
Andre Lwoff
19611966
Robert Holley, Elucidate the genetic code for amino acids.
H G. Khorana
&
M
W.
Nirenberg
1969
Gerald
Edelman,
Rodney
Porter
Discovered the feedback repression.
M, Described the nature and structure of antibodies.
&
R.
19701972
1973
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton Smith
& Werner Arber
Renato
Dulbecco,
Haoward Temin
&
David
Baltimore
Bruce Ames
Cohen & others
Discovered and purified the restriction endonucleases.
Discovered the reverse transcriptase in retroviruses.
Developed the bacterial assay for the detection of
mutagens.
Use the plasmid vectors to clone genes in bacteria.
1975
Georges
J.E. Developed the technique for producing monoclonal
Köhler & César antibodies.
Milstein
1977
Carl R. Woese
Described of archaes as a distinct microbial group differ
Frederick Sanger to eubacteria.
& Walter Gilbert Developed the technique for DNA sequencing and
sequenced the DNA of phage ØX174.
19821983
19831984
Cech & Altman
Barbara
McClintock
Stanley
B.
Prusiner
Gallo
&
Montagnier
Kary B. Mullis
Discovery of catalytic RNA (ribozyme).
Discovery of transposons was acknowledged.
Discovered prion (proteinaceous infectious particle).
Isolated and identified HIV.
Developed the polymerase chain reaction to multiply
DNA.
1988
Johann
Discovered and assayed bacterial photosynthesis pigments.
Deisenhofer,
Robert Huber &
Hartmut Michel
1989
J.
Michael Discovered cancer-causing genes called oncogenes.
Bishop & Harold
E. Varmus
1990
First human gene therapy testing begun.
19952000
Haemophillus influenzae genome sequenced (1995).
Methanococcus jannaschii genome sequenced (1996)
First eukaryottic cell yeast genome sequenced (1997).
Escherichia coli genome sequenced (1997).
Identified that Vibrio cholerae has two separate
chromosomes (2000).
Sir Alexander Fleming discovered
the antibiotic penicillin. He had
the insight to recognize the
significance of the inhibition of
bacterial growth in the vicinity of a
fungal contaminant when most
other scientists probably would
have
simply
discarded
the
contaminated plates.
Alexander Fleming
(1881-1955)
III. The importance and applications of microbiology
Microorganisms also have many commercial applications.
They are used in the synthesis of such chemical products as
acetone, organic acids, enzymes, alcohols, and many drugs. The
process for producing acetone and butanol by bacteria was
discovered in 1914 by Chaim Weizmann, a Polish-born chemist
working in England for Winston Churchill. When World War I
broke out in August of that year, the production of acetone was
very important for making cordite (gunpowder) for use in the
manufacture of munitions. Weismann ’ s discovery played a
significant role in determining the outcome of the war. After the
war, Weismann refused all honors proposed by the British
government. However, he did use his influence to encourage the
British to help establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In 1949,
Weismann was elected the first president of Israel.
The food industry also uses microbes in
producing vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles,
alcoholic beverages, green olives, soy sauce,
buttermilk, cheese, yogurt, and bread. In
addition, bacteria and other microbes can
now be manipulated to produce substances
that they normally do not synthesize.
Through this technology, called genetic
engineering, bacteria and other microbes
can
produce
important
therapeutic
substances such as insulin, human growth
hormone, and interferon.
Microbiology
Basic
microbiology
According to
biological
problem of study
microbial
taxonomy
microbial
cytology
microbial
biochemistry
microbial genetics
microbial
physiology
microbial ecology
immunology
Applied
microbiology
According to
object of
study
virology
bacteriology
fungus
phycology
protozoology
According to
applied field
According to
applied technique
food microbiology
industrial microbiology
environmental
microbiology
microbial medicine
pathogenic
microorganism
agricultural
microbiology
medical microbiology
brewage technique
fermentation engineering
biological products
Microbiologic test
environment
bioengineering
genetic engineering
enzyme engineering
antibiotics
IV. How to Study Microbiology
1.Understanding the Theme of the Course
Carefully read the preface of the book and briefly
scan the contents before you begin to study the
subject. This will effectively help you to manage
your schedule of learning microbiology. Based on
the demands of the course, find out weaknesses in
your former courses and considerably counteract
them to ensure your success in microbiology study.
2. Using Concept-Map and Mind-Map to Study
The term concept-map refers to as a learning method
that sum up the concepts you have learnt in form of a
map. It has been proved an effective method in either
self-teaching or classroom teaching.
Mind-map is also a skill of study in form of a map.
Different from the concept-map, it is a reflection of
your minds during the thinking processes when you are
learning. It seams somewhat at will, but actually many
visual aids have been employed in the process and these
are effective in learning with a viewpoint of psychology.
3. Take Notes Carefully
Notice that notes are not the simple copies of
what showed or appeared on the screen or
blackboard. They are the critical or important
ideas or elucidates about the contents including
some illustrations. It is important to avoid
burring your head in the notebook busy on
making notes.
4. Preview and Review in Time
Prepare your lessons by reading the sections carefully and
questioned what are the most interested and not clear.
Listen carefully to the teacher for finding out the
answers or extensive information closely to your
interests. Further reading and visiting Internets are also
effective aids in study.
Review in time before you forget what you have learnt is a
most effective way to remember them. The efficiency in
this way may be twice or more of that reviewing when
forgotten. Either concept-map or mind-map can be
used as effective methods in reviewing.
Find out interested topics
During the studying process, try to find out the topics
you interest in and make an effort to get more massages
or information about them. They will bring you into the
entire microbial world without a consciousness.

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