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Types of Energy Foldable
Definition of Energy
 Energy is the ability to do WORK. It is
measured in the UNIT Joules (J).
 BUT….what is work?
o Work is when force is used to move an object
a distance.
• SO---Energy is ability to produce a change
in motion/position due to a force.
Mechanical Energy
 Can be either kinetic energy (energy of
motion) or potential energy (stored
energy of position).
 Occurs within AN OBJECT due to its
motion or due to its position
Mechanical Energy
Examples
•
•
•
•
•
Wind
Water
A moving car
A book on a shelf
Sound
Mechanical Energy
Honors
The formula for calculating the kinetic energy of an object is
• KE = ½ mv²
where:
– m is the mass of the object
– v is its speed of velocity and v² is the velocity squared or v times v
– ½ mv² is one-half times m times v²
The formula for calculating the Potential energy of an object is
• PE = mgh
where:
–
–
–
–
–
PE is the potential energy
m is its mass
g is the acceleration of gravity (32 ft/s² or 9.8 m/s²)
mg is the weight of the object (m times g)
h is the height of the object from the floor or ground
Chemical Energy
 Potential Energy (until the chemical
reaction puts the atoms/molecules in
motion (kinetic).
 Energy that is stored in the forces that
hold, or bond, atoms together and is
released when the atomic
structures/bonds are changed. Each bond
holds a specific amount of energy.
Chemical Energy
Examples
Food:
Natural gas
Petroleum
Propane
Biomass
(Biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel)
Thermal Energy
 Kinetic Energy
 Known as heat
 Occurs as a result of the movement and
vibrations of the molecules and atoms of the
substance (the faster they move, the hotter
the substance). The increase/decrease of
movement can cause substances to change
phases; for example, heating water in order
to produce steam.
Thermal Energy Examples
•
•
•
•
Geothermal energy
Volcano
Boiling a pot of water
Melting Ice Cream
Transferred
through
Convection,
Conduction,
Radiation
Electrical Energy
 Potential energy when a circuit is
closed, Kinetic energy once the switch
is flipped (opened) and the charges
move!
 Occurs as electrical charges (electrons)
are forced to be in motion.
Electrical Energy
Examples
• Lightning
• The movement of
electrical charges
through a wire (like our
circuits, electrical
outlets) *Anything
plugged in or a switch
that closes to allow flow
of electricity!
Electromagnetic Energy AKA
Radiant AKA SOLAR Energy AKA
Light Energy
 Kinetic energy
 Provides the earth’s heat (in addition to
the core) and light
 Travels in waves that are transverse
through open spaces and through a
vacuum!
 Can be visible or invisible
Electromagnetic Energy AKA
Radiant AKA SOLAR Energy AKA
Light Energy Examples
Light
X-rays
Gamma rays
Radio waves
Ultraviolet rays
Infrared rays
Nuclear Energy
 Potential Energy
 Energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom,
holding it together.
 Energy is released when:
o The nuclei are combined (fusion) i.e., when
hydrogen atoms combine from the power of the
sun.
o The nuclei are split apart (fission) i.e., when
uranium atoms are split in a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear Energy
Examples
• Stars (like our sun)—
– Fusion –Nuclei Combine
Nuclear Energy
Examples
Nuclear reactors—Fission-Nuclei are split*Nuclear Power
Nuclear Energy
Examples
• Uranium atoms are split (fission-Nuclear Energy)
which produces heat to boil water into steam
(Thermal Energy), which turns turbines
(Mechanical Energy) to produce Electrical Energy!
• **The main difference is that with nuclear fission
the heat generated from the fission heats the
water instead of the water being heated by using
oil, gas or coal (which is chemical energy).
Additional Information
• Although the examples of the six forms of energy may seem
simple and clear cut, in reality energy and its various forms is
complex. For instance:
• Some types of energy are classified as both potential and kinetic.
• Other energy forms have characteristics that overlap, falling into
more than one energy type.
• There are many additional names of energy types such as sound
energy, motion energy, wave energy and gravitational energy.
There is visible and invisible energy and energy that is renewable
and non-renewable.
The bottom line is…..
• That there are several types of energy and
those types of energy can be converted into
each other. BECAUSE:
• Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only
changed or converted!!
• This is the Law of Conservation of Energy!

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